Invasive Species Compendium

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Turbina corymbosa
(Christmas vine)

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Datasheet

Turbina corymbosa (Christmas vine)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 October 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Turbina corymbosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Christmas vine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Turbina corymbosa is a perennial, neotropical vine that has been introduced as an ornamental in the Canary Islands, Australia and several Old World countries. It is a serious problem in northern Queensland, Aus...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Turbina corymbosa (L.) Raf.

Preferred Common Name

  • Christmas vine

Other Scientific Names

  • Convolvulus corymbosus L.
  • Convolvulus domingensis Desr.
  • Convolvulus laevicaulis Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.
  • Convolvulus multiflorus Kunth
  • Convolvulus proliferus Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.
  • Convolvulus sidaefolius Kunth
  • Ipomoea antillana Millsp.
  • Ipomoea burmanni Choisy
  • Ipomoea corymbosa (L.) Roth
  • Ipomoea domingensis (Desr.) House
  • Ipomoea sidaefolia (Kunth) Sweet
  • Legendrea corymbosa (L.) Ooststr.
  • Legendrea corymbosa var. mollisima (Webb & Berthel.) Ooststr.
  • Legendrea mollissima Webb & Berthel.
  • Quamoclit domingensis (Desr.) M. Gómez
  • Rivea corymbosa (L.) Hallier f.
  • Rivea corymbosa var. mollisima (Webb & Berthel.) Hallier f.
  • Turbina corymbosa f. mollisima (Webb & Berthel.) Stearn

International Common Names

  • Spanish: aguinaldo de pascua

Local Common Names

  • Australia: snakeplant; turbina; turbine vine
  • Bahamas: Christmas gambol; Christmas-flower
  • Belize: laventun
  • Brazil: manto branco
  • Cuba: aguinaldo; aguinaldo blanco; aguinaldo de campanilla; bejuco de giminí; bejuco de gimirú; campanilla blanca; hilacho de carrasco; jiminí; jimirú
  • Dominican Republic: batatilla; bejuco de campanitas; bejuco de pascuas; campanita; campanitas
  • El Salvador: campanilla
  • Haiti: fleur de noel; liane blanche; Marie-Claude
  • Honduras: guirnalda; tripa de gallina
  • Jamaica: Christmas pops
  • Lesser Antilles: Christmas wreath
  • Mexico: a-mukia; a-mu-kia; badoh; badoh blanco; bador; bejuco campanilla; bejuco de noche buena; bitoo; campana blanca; coatlxoxouhqui; coatl-xoxouhqui coaxihuitl; cuexpalli; flor borracho; flor de la virgen; flor de pascua; hierba María; huan-mei; huan-men-ha-sei; kwan-do-a; kwan-la-si; la señorita; loquetico; manto; manto blanco; na-so-le-na; ololiuhqui; ololiuqui; pascua; piule; quiebraplato; sachxoit; sachxoitl; santa catarina; semilla de la señorita; semilla de la virgen; tabentun; tripa de pollo; x-táabentun; xtabentun; yerba de la serpiente; yerba de la virgen; yololique; yucu-yaha
  • Peru: chunchuyo-huasca
  • Puerto Rico: corona de novia

Summary of Invasiveness

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Turbina corymbosa is a perennial, neotropical vine that has been introduced as an ornamental in the Canary Islands, Australia and several Old World countries. It is a serious problem in northern Queensland, Australia, where it is invading rainforest ecosystems and displacing native vines and shrubs, and is sometimes considered an environmental and agricultural weed elsewhere.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Convolvulaceae
  •                             Genus: Turbina
  •                                 Species: Turbina corymbosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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T. corymbosa was described by Linnaeus in 1753 as Convolvulus corymbosus and was transferred to the genus Turbina by C.S. Rafinesque in 1838. 'Turbina' comes from the latin turbo or turbinis, meaning whirlwind or spinning top (Quattrocchi, 2012). This probably refers to its fruits, which have spreading sepals that resemble spinning blades. The specific epithet alludes to its many-flowered, corymbiform inflorescences.

Turbina is a small, heterogeneous genus of 15 species distributed in Africa (nine species), America (five species) and New Caledonia (one species) (Austin and Staples, 1991). Molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that this genus is not monophyletic and perhaps should be merged with Ipomoea (Manos et al., 2001; Stefanovic et al., 2003). The principal morphological difference between the two genera is the presence of indehiscent, one-seeded fruits in Turbina and dehiscent, mostly four-valvate and four-seeded fruits in Ipomoea (Austin and Staples, 1991).

In addition to the commonly used name 'Christmas vine' (or 'aguinaldo de pascua' in Spanish), T. corymbosa is also widely known as 'Ololiuqui', a Nahuatl (Aztec) word that means 'round seeds' (Schultes, 1941).

Description

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The following description is adapted from Austin and Staples (1991) and Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005):

Woody, twining or creeping vine, attaining up to 10 m in length. Stems up to 3 cm in diameter, cylindrical when young, angular to sulcate when mature, lenticellate, glabrous or rarely pubescent. Leaves alternate, simple; petioles 2-6 cm long; blades 3.5-10 x 2.5-8 cm, ovate, chartaceous, the apex acute to acuminate, the base cordiform, the margins entire, glabrate or rarely puberulous on both surfaces. Flowers few to many in axillary corymbiform inflorescences; sepals unequal, the outer two shorter than the inner three, 3-12 mm long, elliptical to oblong, acute at the apex, the margins hyaline, coriaceous, glabrate; corolla campanulate, 2.5-3 long, white with the tube yellow internally and a purple centre, glabrate; stamens five, inserted, white with yellow-orange glandular hairs at the base of filaments, the anthers sagittate; stigma bilobed, white. Fruit indehiscent, ellipsoid to ovoid, 1-1.5 cm long, brown when dry, papery glabrous, surrounded by the persistent sepals. Seed one per fruit (rarely two), ellipsoid, 8-11 mm long, light brown, puberulous.

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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T. corymbosa occurs from Mexico and southern USA, through Central America and the Caribbean, to Paraguay and southern Brazil. Austin and Staples (1991) noted that its broad range in the Americas might be due to its transport and introduction by humans. It is listed as an invasive plant in Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012), although other sources suggest it is a native species. It was introduced as an ornamental and has become naturalized in the Canary Islands (Acebes Ginovés et al., 2010), Mauritius (Bosser and Heine, 2000) and the Philippines (Pelser et al., 2011); it is also occasionally cultivated in Sri Lanka (Austin, 1980). In northern Queensland, Australia, it has become locally naturalized and problematic in coastal districts and is known from various locations in the drier end of the Wet Tropics Bioregion and along the Barron River, near Cairns (Weeds of Australia, 2016).

A few sources (Francis, 2004; Weeds of Australia, 2016) list T. corymbosa as naturalized in Hawaii and other Pacific Islands, but in other sources this species has not been reported in the region (Imada, 2012; PIER, 2016). This species is not reported to occur in Europe, but is probably cultivated indoors at a small scale as a hallucinogenic and ornamental plant.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

PhilippinesPresentIntroducedPelser et al., 2011; USDA-ARS, 2018Luzon
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Austin, 1980

Africa

MauritiusPresentIntroduced1947Bosser and Heine, 2000
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroducedBosser and Heine, 2000
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced Not invasive Acebes Ginovés et al., 2010Tenerife, Gran Canaria

North America

BermudaPresentNativeAustin and Staples, 1991
MexicoWidespreadNativeMcDonald, 1993; USDA-ARS, 2018
USAPresentPresent based on regional records
-FloridaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2016; Wunderlin et al., 2016Recorded as native and introduced in the country
-LouisianaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-TexasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2016

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativePowell, 1989; USDA-ARS, 2018
BahamasPresentNativeCorrell and Correll, 1982
BarbadosPresentNativePowell, 1989; USDA-ARS, 2018
BelizePresentNativeAustin et al., 2012; USDA-ARS, 2018
Costa RicaPresentNativeHammel, 2010; USDA-ARS, 2018
CubaPresentOviedo Prieto et al. 2012; Greuter et al., 2016; USDA-ARS, 2018Recorded as native and introduced, invasive, in the country
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeLiogier, 1994; USDA-ARS, 2018
El SalvadorPresentNativeAustin et al., 2012
GuadeloupePresentNativePowell, 1989; USDA-ARS, 2018
GuatemalaPresentNativeAustin et al., 2012; USDA-ARS, 2018
HaitiPresentNativeLiogier, 1994; USDA-ARS, 2018
HondurasPresentNativeAustin et al., 2012; USDA-ARS, 2018
JamaicaPresentNativeAdams, 1972; USDA-ARS, 2018
MartiniquePresentNativePowell, 1989; USDA-ARS, 2018
MontserratPresentNativePowell, 1989; USDA-ARS, 2018
NicaraguaPresentNativeAustin et al., 2012; USDA-ARS, 2018
PanamaPresentNativeAustin et al., 2012; USDA-ARS, 2018
Puerto RicoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2018
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNativePowell, 1989
Saint LuciaPresentNativePowell, 1989; USDA-ARS, 2018
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeAustin and Staples, 1991

South America

BoliviaPresentNativeWood et al., 2014
BrazilPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2016
-BahiaPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2016
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2016
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2016
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2016
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2016
-ParaPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2016
-ParanaPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2016
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2016
-Sao PauloPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2016
ColombiaPresentNativeAustin and Staples, 1991; USDA-ARS, 2018
EcuadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
ParaguayPresentNativeAustin and Staples, 1991
PeruPresentNativeBrako and Zarucchi, 1993; USDA-ARS, 2018
VenezuelaPresentNativeAustin and Staples, 1991; USDA-ARS, 2018

Europe

SpainPresentIntroduced Not invasive Present based on regional records

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Present based on regional records
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Csurhes and Edwards, 1998; Queensland Government, 2016

History of Introduction and Spread

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The spread of T. corymbosa outside its native range has largely been due to its cultivation as an ornamental vine. In Mauritius, this species was first collected in 1947 and has since become naturalized along riversides and coasts (Bosser and Heine, 2000). It was reported to have become naturalized in the Philippines by 1953 (Van Ooststroom and Hoogland, 1953).

A specimen of T. corymbosa was collected in Tenerife (Canary Islands) in 1901 (Austin and Staples, 1991). In Australia, the oldest known specimens were collected in 1973 along the Barron River in Queensland (Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016), where it is now regarded as a highly competitive weed (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998; Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Risk of Introduction

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Seeds and plants of T. corymbosa can be obtained from online retailers, gardening websites and ethnobotanical suppliers. This suggests a high risk of introduction to new areas with suitable environmental conditions for growth.

Habitat

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In the neotropics, T. corymbosa occurs in a diverse range of habitats, including thorn scrub, thickets, savannahs, open woodlands, riverbanks, llanos, disturbed lowland forests, selva baja caducifolia, swamps, dry hillsides, mountain forests and dense river valley forests. It grows from 0 to 1100 m above sea level, though it has been recorded at elevations up to 1450 m above sea level. The species is often cultivated and can be found as an escape in disturbed habitats associated with humans (e.g. along road sides, vacant land, fallow agricultural land and pastures). It grows on granitic, swampy, coral rock, limestone, fertile and 'slip' soils (Austin and Staples, 1991). In northern Australia, this species is naturalized along rainforest margins and waterways (Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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It is reported as a weed of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and orange (Citrus sinensis) crops in Cuba (Sampedro Romero et al., 2002; Castellón-Estévez et al., 2011).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

T. corymbosa, as with many species in the Convolvulaceae family, has a chromosome number of 2n = 30 (Fritsch, 1972).

Reproductive Biology

The flowers of T. corymbosa produce a sweet fragrance and copious amounts of nectar. They are pollinated by bees (Austin, 1980) and are also attractive to butterflies and flies (Vale et al., 2013). In Cuba, the following bee species have been recorded visiting the flowers: Lasioglossum gundlachii, L. mestrei, Magachile poeyi, Exomalopsis spp., Apis mellifera, Melipona beechii and Ceratina cyaniventris (Vale et al., 2013). Flower and fruit production can be prolific during the winter months (Austin, 1980; Powell, 1989; Csurhes and Edwards, 1998). The common name 'manto blanco', or 'manto branco' in Portuguese, translates as 'white mantle' and alludes to the copious blooming of this species. T. corymbosa primarily reproduces by seed. The seeds have a hard, waterproof coat that hinders germination, but this physical dormancy can be overcome with scarification of the coat (Márquez Guzmán and Laguna Hernández, 1982).

Physiology and Phenology

In the Northern Hemisphere, T. corymbosa flowers from September to March, with a peak in November through to January (Austin, 1980; Austin and Staples, 1991; Austin et al., 2012). In Australia, the flowering and fruiting season occurs from May through August (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016), although it can extend into November (Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016). Francis (2004) noted that seedlings develop a strong tap and lateral root system and well-established plants can grow two metres, or sometimes more, per year.

Associations

T. corymbosa forms a mutualistic symbiosis with the ascomycete clavicipitaceous fungus Periglandula turbinae. This fungus, which grows on the leaf surface, synthesizes the ergoline alkaloids that are responsible for the hallucinogenic properties of the plant (Ahimsa-Müller et al., 2007; Steiner and Leistner, 2011).

Environmental Requirements

Although T. corymbosa can tolerate a subtropical environment, it grows best in a humid tropical climate and is sensitive to winter cold spells. It requires full, or nearly full, sunlight and will not grow under a closed forest canopy (Francis, 2004). It grows on most well-drained soils. In Puerto Rico, this species has been observed in areas that receive between 1000 and 2000 mm of annual precipitation (Francis, 2004).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
29 25 1450

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -3.9
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 16 30
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 22 32
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 14 25

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Lygropia tripunctata Herbivore Leaves not specific
Meliola clavulata Pathogen Leaves not specific
Microthyris anormalis Herbivore Leaves not specific
Passalora turbinae Pathogen Leaves not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The leaves of T. corymbosa are susceptible to infection by the ascomycete pathogenic fungi Passalora turbinae and Meliola clavulata, which appear to be specific to species of the family Convolvulaceae (Maldonado González et al., 2009-2010; Farr and Rossman, 2016). The leaves are also damaged by the larvae of the Crambidae moths Lygropia tripunctata (sweet potato leafroller) and Microthyris anormalis (Bendicho-Lopez, 1998).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

The indehiscent dry fruits of T. corymbosa float in water and can be dispersed by the currents. They may also be dispersed by birds or by wind due to its enlarged sepals, which can act as wings or blades (Weeds of Australia, 2016). In addition to seeds, it can propagate vegetatively. Well-established plants take root whenever the vines touch the soil (Francis, 2004).

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailSeed and plants are sold online Yes Yes
WaterIndehiscent fruits float in water Yes
Wind Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

T. corymbosa is considered an aggressive environmental weed in northern Queensland, Australia. It invades the margins of rainforests and waterways, where it smothers vegetation (Weeds of Australia, 2016). The species was reported to be spreading rapidly along the Barron River in Queensland, smothering trees in a similar manner to that of Thunbergia grandiflora (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998).

Research has shown that resins isolated from roots inhibited the radicle growth of amaranth, wheat and oat, suggesting that this species may have allelopathic action as a competition mechanism (Perez-Amador et al., 1998).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally

Uses

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Economic Value

T. corymbosa is often cultivated as an ornamental climber for its attractive white scented flowers that are especially abundant during the winter season (Austin, 1980; Francis, 2004). The seeds and rooted plants may be purchased from online retailers and gardening websites. The seeds are used for human consumption as a recreational hallucinogenic drug. They contain psychoactive ergoline alkaloids (which are actually fungal metabolites, see Associations section), including ergine (lysergic acid amyde or LSA), a precursor to LSD (Martínez Alfaro et al., 2001; Eich, 2008).

Possession, growth and trade of T. corymbosa are legal in most countries, provided the plant is used for aesthetic or decorative purposes. In Italy, Romania, Poland and Louisiana (USA), this species has been listed as either a controlled or prohibited narcotic plant due to its mind-altering properties (Ancuceanu et al., 2010; Simonienko et al., 2013).

Social Benefit

T. corymbosa was one of the most important magical plants of the Aztecs (Schultes, 1941) and is still used in rituals by the chinantec, mazatec, mixtec, zapotec and other peoples of the Oaxacan region of Mexico to communicate with the spirit world for divination and healing (Rätsch, 2005; Pratt, 2007). It has been reported that the honey produced from the nectar of T. corymbosa can have hallucinogenic effects. This toxic honey may have been produced by the pre-Columbian Yucatecan Mayans to manufacture their ritual mead known as 'balché' (Ott, 1998). In addition to its shamanic and spiritual uses, the species is also employed in this region for medicinal purposes. The seeds are used to counteract flatulence, rheumatism, eye problems, venereal diseases and to remove tumours (Schultes, 1941; Pratt, 2007). The plant is also used as an analgesic to mitigate pain (Schultes, 1941). In Puebla, Mexico, a drink made of leaves is used to ease labour (Martínez Alfaro et al., 2001). The infusion of roots, branches and leaves is also used in Cuba to induce labour contractions (Roig, 1988).

Environmental Services

The species is considered an important melliferous plant (Alvarez-Suarez et al., 2010), which may be beneficial to the surrounding plant communities. The species appears to play a key role in maintaining the community of small bees that pollinate Broughtonia cubensis, an endangered orchid in Cuba (Vale et al., 2013).

Uses List

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Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Hallucinogen
  • Narcotic
  • Psychoactive
  • Religious

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Ritual uses
  • Sociocultural value

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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T. corymbosa, among other Turbina species, can be confused with morning glory (Ipomoea species). In many cases, fruiting material is necessary to distinguish Turbina species from Ipomoea with confidence (Austin and Staples, 1991). Species from these two genera can be distinguished by the indehiscent, one-seeded fruit of Turbina species and the dehiscent, four-seeded capsule of Ipomoea. T. corymbosa also has flowers that are grouped in dense, branched inflorescences, whereas Ipomoea species have flowers that tend to be solitary or borne in small clusters.

Among the neotropical species of Turbina, T. corymbosa, can be easily recognized “by its inflorescences with scale-like, deciduous bracts, containing smallish flowers with glabrous, campanulate corollas. The unequal sepals, with the outer two smaller than the inner three, and having hyaline margins, are also distinctive" (Austin and Staples, 1991).

Prevention and Control

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Control

Physical/Mechanical Control

The Queensland Government (2016) recommends that small plants and seedlings are pulled by hand, ensuring that all roots and stem fragments are removed. For more mature plants that are growing around trees or other vegetation, vines should be cut close to the ground. The part of the plant above the cut can be left to die on its support plant whilst below the cut can be treated with herbicide.

Chemical Control

The Queensland Government suggests that, with appropriate permits, glyphosate, fluroxypyr and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid + picloram herbicides can be used to spot spray the vines of T. corymbosa. The basal bark or stump when cut to less than 10 cm above the ground can be sprayed with triclopyr + picloram (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 2016).

References

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Acebes Ginovés JR, León Arencibia MC, Rodríguez Navarro ML, del Arco Aguilar M, García Gallo A, Pérez de Paz PL, Rodríguez Delgado O, Martín Osorio VE, Wildpret de la Torre W, 2010. Spermatophyta. In: Arechavaleta Hernández M, Rodríguez Núñez S, Zurita Pérez N, García Ramírez A, eds. List of wild species of the Canaries. Terrestrial fungi, plants and animals. 2009. (Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias. Hongos, plantas y animales terrestres. 2009.) Tenerife, Canary Islands: Gobierno de Canarias, 122-172 pp

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51, 483 pp.

Adams CD, 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica, University of the West Indies.848 pp.

Ahimsa-Müller MA, Markert A, Hellwig S, Knoop V, Steiner U, Drewke C, Leistner E, 2007. Clavicipitaceous fungi associated with ergoline alkaloid-containing Convolvulaceae. Journal of Natural Products, 70(12), 1955-1960. http://pubs.acs.org/journals/jnprdf/index.html doi: 10.1021/np070315t

Alvarez-Suarez JM, Tulipani S, Díaz D, Estevez Y, Romandini S, Giampieri F, Damiani E, Astolfi P, Bompadre S, Battino M, 2010. Antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of several monofloral Cuban honeys and their correlation with color, polyphenol content and other chemical compounds. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(8/9), 2490-2499. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02786915 doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.06.021

Ancuceanu RV, Dinu MI, Anghel AI, Rebegea OC, Olaru OT, Popescu D, Popescu GA, 2010. Recent prohibition of certain psychoactive "ethnobotanicals" in Romania. Farmacia, 58(2):121-127

Austin DF, 1980. Convolvulaceae. In: Dassanayake MD, Fosberg FR, eds. A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon, Vol 1. New Delhi, India: Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., 288-363

Austin DF, McDonald JA, Murguía-Sánchez D, 2012. Convolvulaceae. In: Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Name/8500971?projectid=3&langid=66

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01/11/16 Original text by:

Fabiola Areces-Berazain, Herbarium UPRRP, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico

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