Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Tradescantia pallida
(purple queen)

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Datasheet

Tradescantia pallida (purple queen)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tradescantia pallida
  • Preferred Common Name
  • purple queen
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • T. pallida is a long-jointed sprawling groundcover plant with succulent stems and pointed leaves, which has escaped into natural areas from gardens and yards where it is commonly planted as an ornamental. This...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tradescantia pallida (purple heart); habit at Iao Tropical Gardens of Maui, Maui. May 22, 2012
TitleHabit
CaptionTradescantia pallida (purple heart); habit at Iao Tropical Gardens of Maui, Maui. May 22, 2012
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Tradescantia pallida (purple heart); habit at Iao Tropical Gardens of Maui, Maui. May 22, 2012
HabitTradescantia pallida (purple heart); habit at Iao Tropical Gardens of Maui, Maui. May 22, 2012©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Tradescantia pallida (purple heart); habit. Kihei, Maui. February 15, 2011
TitleHabit
CaptionTradescantia pallida (purple heart); habit. Kihei, Maui. February 15, 2011
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Tradescantia pallida (purple heart); habit. Kihei, Maui. February 15, 2011
HabitTradescantia pallida (purple heart); habit. Kihei, Maui. February 15, 2011©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Tradescantia pallida (purple heart); habit around residences Sand Island, Midway Atoll. May 31, 2008
TitleHabit
CaptionTradescantia pallida (purple heart); habit around residences Sand Island, Midway Atoll. May 31, 2008
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Tradescantia pallida (purple heart); habit around residences Sand Island, Midway Atoll. May 31, 2008
HabitTradescantia pallida (purple heart); habit around residences Sand Island, Midway Atoll. May 31, 2008©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Tradescantia pallida (purple heart); flower and leaves. Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 07, 2008
TitleFlower and leaves
CaptionTradescantia pallida (purple heart); flower and leaves. Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 07, 2008
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Tradescantia pallida (purple heart); flower and leaves. Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 07, 2008
Flower and leavesTradescantia pallida (purple heart); flower and leaves. Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 07, 2008©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Tradescantia pallida (purple heart); close-up of flower. Sacred Garden of Maliko, Maui. January 24, 2011
TitleFlower
CaptionTradescantia pallida (purple heart); close-up of flower. Sacred Garden of Maliko, Maui. January 24, 2011
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Tradescantia pallida (purple heart); close-up of flower. Sacred Garden of Maliko, Maui. January 24, 2011
FlowerTradescantia pallida (purple heart); close-up of flower. Sacred Garden of Maliko, Maui. January 24, 2011©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D.R. Hunt, 1975

Preferred Common Name

  • purple queen

Other Scientific Names

  • Setcreasea jaumavensis Matuda
  • Setcreasea lanceolata Faruqi, Mehra & Celarier
  • Setcreasea pallida Rose
  • Setcreasea purpurea Boom
  • Tradescantia purpurea Boom

International Common Names

  • English: purple heart; purple heart tradescantia; spider lily; wandering jew
  • Spanish: amor de hombre; morada; niña en barca; purpurina

Local Common Names

  • Costa Rica: cucaracha; saprissa
  • Cuba: cucaracha americana
  • Dominican Republic: cucaracha extranjera; cucaracha morada
  • Puerto Rico: cohítre morado

Summary of Invasiveness

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T. pallida is a long-jointed sprawling groundcover plant with succulent stems and pointed leaves, which has escaped into natural areas from gardens and yards where it is commonly planted as an ornamental. This species spreads vegetatively by cuttings, plant fragments, and/or discarded plants (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005). Once established, T. pallida is able to grow forming dense groundcover or “beds” on the forest floor preventing the germination and establishment of native plants. T. pallida is listed as an invasive species in Cuba, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands (González-Torres et al., 2012; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012). In Cuba, this species is listed as one of the 100 worst invasive plants in natural habitats on this island (González-Torres et al., 2012).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Commelinales
  •                         Family: Commelinaceae
  •                             Genus: Tradescantia
  •                                 Species: Tradescantia pallida

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Commelinaceae includes 40 genera and 652 species widely distributed in tropical and temperate regions (Stevens, 2012). Member of this family are herbs with relatively soft and fleshy leaves. Commelinaceae is a family of plants diverse in both the Old World tropics and the New World tropics, with some genera distributed in both (Faden, 1983; Evans et al., 2003). The species within this family exhibit remarkable morphological variation, particularly in floral and inflorescence characters (Evans et al., 2000; Faden, 2000). Studies suggest that this family has radiated extensively in response to non-nectar seeking pollinators with changes in floral symmetry, stamen number, structure, and position, and the arrangement and size of inflorescences (Faden, 2000; Evans et al., 2003).

The genus Tradescantia is native to the New World tropics and includes about 70 species distributed from Canada to northern Argentina (USDA-ARS, 2012). Many species within this genus are economically important in the nursery and landscape trade and are widely commercialized as ornamentals and houseplants (Anderson and Hubricht, 1938). The species T. pallida was first collected in 1907 in Tamaulipas, Mexico by E. Palmer and formally described in 1911 by J.N. Rose as Setcreasea pallida. The currently accepted name of T. pallida was published in the Kew Bulletin by Hunt (1975).

Description

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Perennial herb with elongate decumbent-ascending stems and sub-erect flowering branches. Leaves are sheaths clasping, 1-2.5 cm long, ciliate; blades oblong, 10-18 cm long, 2-3.5 cm broad, acute at apex, the upper one somewhat smaller. The stems and upper surfaces of the leaves are a deep royal purple that becomes suffused with a faint dusty turquoise-gunmetal undertone as the foliage grows older. The undersides of the leaves are a vivid violet that shades towards pink where the petioles clasp and encircle the stem. Inflorescences are terminal and in upper leaf-axils; peduncles mostly 3-10 cm long. Flowers in small densely cymose clusters subtended by 2 or 3 bracts, these similar to leaves but smaller; pedicels umbellate, up to 7 mm long, pilose toward apex; sepals oblong, 8-10 mm long; petals pink to rose-purple, 15-20 mm long; stamens 6, with 3 filaments epipetalous and 3 adherent to petal margins, glabrous or variably pubescent. Fruits are glabrous capsules, 3.5 mm. Seeds are very small, 2.5-3 mm (Hunt, 1975). In Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands fruits and seeds are unknown and plants always propagated by cuttings (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Succulent
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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T. pallida is native to Mexico (Govaerts, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012). It is now widely grown as an ornamental and houseplant in many tropical and subtropical regions including North, Central and South America, the West Indies, South Africa, the Canary Islands, Madeira, and Myanmar (Govaerts, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012). It is naturalized in the West Indies, Canary Islands, southeastern USA, Argentina, Nicaragua and Honduras (USDA-ARS, 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

MyanmarPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2012

Africa

South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Foxcroft et al., 2007
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedAcebes et al., 2001

North America

MexicoPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWunderlin and Hansen, 2008
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedThomas and Allen, 1993

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroducedCorrell and Correll, 1982
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005Guana
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedHammel et al., 2003Cultivated as ornamental
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
HondurasPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2012
JamaicaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2012
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Saba, St. Eustatius, and St. Martin
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedGraveson, 2012
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005St. Thomas and St. Croix

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2012Misiones
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedCharles Darwin Foundation, 2008
PeruPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2012

Europe

PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedSilva Vieria RMda, 2002
SpainPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2012Cultivated

Oceania

Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack, 2007Recent introduction, not naturalized
Midway IslandsPresentIntroducedStarr et al., 2006

History of Introduction and Spread

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T. pallida has been introduced as an ornamental and houseplant in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The year of introduction in these regions is very difficult to determine. In Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands, this species is commonly planted in gardens throughout the islands and it is starting to escape from cultivated areas into adjacent natural areas (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005; González-Torres et al., 2012). Similarly, in Central (i.e., Nicaragua and Costa Rica) and South America (i.e., Ecuador and Peru), it is reported as an “ornamental plant” commonly planted in gardens that has escaped into natural habitats (Hammel et al., 2003; Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008).

Risk of Introduction

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T. pallida is widely commercialized in the nursery and landscape trade as an ornamental and houseplant. It can be easily propagated by cuttings and by plant fragments that rapidly colonize areas where it grows (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005; Foxcroft et al., 2007). Consequently, the probability of this species to invade and colonize new habitats is high.

Habitat

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T. pallida is commonly planted as an ornamental used to cover open ground in gardens and yards, from where it has escaped. Currently, this species can be found growing in the understory of disturbed forests, along roadsides, riparian areas and coastal forests. It is also common in old home sites. Once established in these habitats, T. pallida has the potential to grow forming a dense ground cover or “bed” in the understory (Duever, 2006).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number in T. pallida is 2n = 18, 24 (Garcia-Velázquez, 1998). 

Reproductive Biology

There is little information on the reproductive biology of this species. Even when flowers are produced, there is no evidence of floral visitors or fruit-set for most of the areas where it is cultivated. 

Physiology and Phenology

T. pallida produces flowers throughout the year (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005). Duever (2006) reports that it blooms constantly during warm weather, but that the flowers are open only in the morning. 

Environmental Requirements

T. pallida grows in tropical and subtropical areas with warm temperatures. Plants do not grow below 8-10°C. The species is drought and heat tolerant, but it is damaged by frost and winter conditions (Duever, 2006). T. pallida grows in full sun to moderate shade in the floor of the understory, and it is adapted to grow in a wide variety of soils (clay loam, loam, sandy loam, sandy clay, and chalk) with pH ranging from 5 to 7.8 (Duever, 2006).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 30
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 8-10

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall8003500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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T. pallida can be dispersed by cuttings, plant or root fragments. Leaves and stems re-sprout easily. Outside its native range, plants produce flowers, but do not set fruits. Damaged plants and plant fragments can also re-sprout from the roots (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeCuttings, and discarded plants Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Garden waste disposalPlant segments and discarded plants Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Internet salesPlants sold online Yes Yes
Nursery tradeCommonly planted as an ornamental Yes Yes Foxcroft et al., 2007
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Foxcroft et al., 2007

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesLeaves, cuttings and discarded plants from gardens and yards Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
MailSold online Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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T. pallida grows in the understory of disturbed and secondary forests as well as in riparian areas and the margins of coastal forests, where it has the potential to become invasive and out-compete native plants. It can form dense ground covers that prevent the germination and establishment of seedlings of native plants. The juice of leaves and stems may cause irritation and skin allergies (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005; Foxcroft et al., 2007).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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T. pallida is an economically important plant in the nursery and landscape trade. It is extensively commercialized as an ornamental and used as ground cover in tropical and subtropical regions (Duever, 2006). It is commonly planted to cover open areas and borders in gardens and yards. Plants are also used to purify and clean air indoors.

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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  1. Information on reproduction and establishment mechanisms which enable this species to invade new habitats.
  2. Studies evaluating the impacts of this exotic species on native plants and natural vegetation communities are needed in order to develop appropriate management strategies.
  3. Recommendations for management and control are needed for this species.

References

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Acebes JR; Arco Mdel; García-Gallo A; León MC; Pérez PL; Rodríguez O; Wildpret Torre Wde la; Martín VE; Marrero MC; Rodríguez ML, 2001. Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta. (Pteridophyta y Spermatophyta.) In: Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) [ed. by Izquierdo, I. \Martín, J. L. \Zurita, N. \Arechavaleta, M.]., Spain: Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación Territorial, Gobierno de Canarias, 96-143.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, volume 52:415 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams CD, 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies.

Anderson E; Hubricht L, 1938. Hybridization in Tradescantia. III. The Evidence for Introgressive Hybridization. American Journal of Botany, 25(6):396-402.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

Correll DS; Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Vaduz, Germany: J. Cramer, 1692 pp.

DAISIE, 2012. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. DAISIE (online). www.europe-aliens.org

Duever LC, 2006. #734 Tradescantia pallida. Description. #734 Tradescantia pallida. Description. FLORIDATA. http://www.floridata.com/ref/t/trad_pal.cfm

Evans TM; Faden RB; Simpson MG and Sytsma KJ, 2000. Phylogenetic relationships in the Commelinaceae: I. A Cladistic analysis of morphological data. Systematic Botany, 25:668-691.

Evans TM; Sytsma KJ; Faden RB; Givnish TJ, 2003. Phylogenetic relationships in the Commelinaceae: II. A cladistic analysis of rbcL sequences and morphology. Systematic Botany, 28:270-292.

Faden RB, 1983. Phytogeography of African Commelinaceae. Bothalia, 14:553-557.

Faden RB, 2000. Floral biology of Commelinaceae. In: Monocots: systematics and evolution [ed. by Wilson, K. L. \Morrison, D. A.]. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO, 309-318.

Foxcroft LC; Richardson DM; Wilson JRU, 2007. Ornamental plants as invasive aliens: problems and solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Environmental Management, 41(1):32-51.

García-Velázquez A, 1998. Chromosome polymorphism and bivalent-forming triploid and tetraploid Tradescantia pallida (Commelinaceae). Cytologia, 63(2):191-197.

González-Torres LR; Rankin R; Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

Govaerts R, 2012. World Checklist of Commelinaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hammel BE; Grayum MH; Herrera C; Zamora N, 2003. Manual of plants of Costa Rica. Vol. III. (Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. III.) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 93:1-884.

Hunt DR, 1975. The Reunion of Setcreasea and Separotheca with Tradescantia: American Commelinaceae: I. Kew Bulletin, 30(3):443-458.

McCormack G, 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Rarotonga: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Silva Vieria RM da, 2002. [English title not available]. (Flora da Madeira. Plantas vasculares naturalizadas no arquipélago da Madeira.) Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal (História Natural), supplement 8:281 pp.

Starr F; Starr K; Loope L, 2006. Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants on Midway Atoll, Hawaii. An addendum to the 1999 Botanical Survey of Midway Atoll.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Thomas RD; Allen CM, 1993. Atlas of the vascular flora of Louisiana. Louisiana, USA: Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries.

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Florida, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Angiosperm Phylogeny Websitehttp://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/apweb/
Flora of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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19/07/13 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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