Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Solanum sisymbriifolium
(sticky nightshade)

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Datasheet

Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 March 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Solanum sisymbriifolium
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sticky nightshade
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Solanum sisymbriifolium has been widely introduced as a trap crop for potato cyst nematodes. However, it is an aggressive weed that spreads by seeds and vegetatively by rhizomes. This species can be easily dispersed by animals (e.g. birds...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowering habit. The Botanical Gardens, Warsaw, Poland. September 2006.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowering habit. The Botanical Gardens, Warsaw, Poland. September 2006.
Copyright©Hubert Śmietanka (Hiuppo)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowering habit. The Botanical Gardens, Warsaw, Poland. September 2006.
Flowering habitSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowering habit. The Botanical Gardens, Warsaw, Poland. September 2006.©Hubert Śmietanka (Hiuppo)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowering habit. Botanical Gardens, Utrecht, Netherlands. July 2008.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowering habit. Botanical Gardens, Utrecht, Netherlands. July 2008.
Copyright©Pethan/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowering habit. Botanical Gardens, Utrecht, Netherlands. July 2008.
Flowering habitSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowering habit. Botanical Gardens, Utrecht, Netherlands. July 2008.©Pethan/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Mature and immature fruit in a spiny husk. Brazil. February 2012.
TitleFruit
CaptionSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Mature and immature fruit in a spiny husk. Brazil. February 2012.
Copyright©João Medeiros/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Mature and immature fruit in a spiny husk. Brazil. February 2012.
FruitSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Mature and immature fruit in a spiny husk. Brazil. February 2012.©João Medeiros/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flower. September 2016.
TitleFlower
CaptionSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flower. September 2016.
Copyright©prilfish/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flower. September 2016.
FlowerSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flower. September 2016.©prilfish/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowers. Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Janurary 2008.
TitleFlowers
CaptionSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowers. Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Janurary 2008.
Copyright©Leonardo Ré-Jorge/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowers. Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Janurary 2008.
FlowersSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowers. Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Janurary 2008.©Leonardo Ré-Jorge/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowers. Jardín botánico De Kruidhof, Netherlands. August 2014.
TitleFlowers
CaptionSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowers. Jardín botánico De Kruidhof, Netherlands. August 2014.
Copyright©Dominicus Johannes Bergsma/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowers. Jardín botánico De Kruidhof, Netherlands. August 2014.
FlowersSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowers. Jardín botánico De Kruidhof, Netherlands. August 2014.©Dominicus Johannes Bergsma/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Foliage. Kluse, Germany. July 2017.
TitleFoliage
CaptionSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Foliage. Kluse, Germany. July 2017.
Copyright©Frank Vincentz/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Foliage. Kluse, Germany. July 2017.
FoliageSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Foliage. Kluse, Germany. July 2017.©Frank Vincentz/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Habit. Cambridge University Botanic Garden. June 2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Habit. Cambridge University Botanic Garden. June 2010.
Copyright©Magnus Manske/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Habit. Cambridge University Botanic Garden. June 2010.
HabitSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Habit. Cambridge University Botanic Garden. June 2010.©Magnus Manske/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Leaf. Kluse, Germany. July 2017.
TitleLeaf
CaptionSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Leaf. Kluse, Germany. July 2017.
Copyright©Frank Vincentz/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Leaf. Kluse, Germany. July 2017.
LeafSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Leaf. Kluse, Germany. July 2017.©Frank Vincentz/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Leaf. Cambridge University Botanic Garden. June 2010.
TitleLeaf
CaptionSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Leaf. Cambridge University Botanic Garden. June 2010.
Copyright©Magnus Manske/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Leaf. Cambridge University Botanic Garden. June 2010.
LeafSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Leaf. Cambridge University Botanic Garden. June 2010.©Magnus Manske/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam.

Preferred Common Name

  • sticky nightshade

Other Scientific Names

  • Solanum balbisii Dunal
  • Solanum bipinnatifidum Larrañaga
  • Solanum branciifolium J.Jacq.
  • Solanum decurrens Balb.
  • Solanum edule Vell.
  • Solanum formosum Weinm.
  • Solanum inflatum Hornem.
  • Solanum mauritianum Willd. ex Roth
  • Solanum opuliflorum Port. ex Dunal
  • Solanum pilosum Raf.
  • Solanum rogersii S.Moore
  • Solanum sabeanum Buckley
  • Solanum subviscidum Schrank
  • Solanum thouinii C.C.Gmel.
  • Solanum viscidum Schweigg.
  • Solanum xanthacanthum Willd. ex Walp.

International Common Names

  • English: dense-thorn bitter apple; manacader; red buffalo-burr; viscid nightshade; wild tomato
  • Spanish: alco; cardo; comida de vibora; espina colorada; espino colorado; guidilla de campo; mullaca; ocote mullaca; putui; revienta caballo; tomatillo de campo; tomatillo espinudo; tutia
  • Chinese: suan jie qie
  • Portuguese: arrebenta-cavalo; joa das queimadas; joa de roca; joão bravo; mata-cavalo; puca-puca

Local Common Names

  • Bolivia: puka puka; tomatillo; wilawila
  • Germany: Klebriger Nachtschatten
  • Lithuania: pilkalapis baklazanas
  • South Africa: dense-thorned bitter apple; doringtamatie; tamatiedissel; wildetamatie
  • Sweden: blek taggborre

Summary of Invasiveness

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Solanum sisymbriifolium has been widely introduced as a trap crop for potato cyst nematodes. However, it is an aggressive weed that spreads by seeds and vegetatively by rhizomes. This species can be easily dispersed by animals (e.g. birds) and by human activity (e.g. seed-contaminated fodder, farm machinery, mud) and once established, it often grows forming dense spiny thickets that displace native vegetation and can become a serious weed in active pastures and ruderal areas. Currently, S. sisymbriifolium is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds and has been declared a noxious invasive weed in Australia, South Africa, USA, Cuba, Hungary, Italy, Spain, China and Japan.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Solanaceae
  •                             Genus: Solanum
  •                                 Species: Solanum sisymbriifolium

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Solanaceae family comprises 102 genera and 2480 species distributed worldwide, but overwhelmingly across tropical America (Stevens, 2020). Solanum with about 1400 species is the largest genus within the Solanaceae. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses have demonstrated that the formerly separate genera Lycopersicon, Cyphomandra, Normania and Triguera should be all nested within Solanum, thus, all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses also found that all Solanum species form a strongly supported monophyletic group characterized by a chromosome number based on x = 12 (Olmstead and Palmer, 1992; Olmstead and Sweere, 1994; Olmstead et al., 1999; Bohs, 2005; PBI Solanum Project, 2020).

Description

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The following description is adapted from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2020) and PBI Solanum Project (2020):

Herbs to small shrubs, annual or perennial, copiously armed, pubescent with glandular, many-celled, simple and stellate hairs. Stems erect, with yellow or orange-yellow, subulate prickles 2-10 × 1.5 mm. Leaves simple or sometimes pinnate; petiole 1.5-4 cm; leaf blade oblong or ovate, 4.5-10(-14) × 2.5-5(-8) cm, stellate pubescent, sometimes shaggy, often armed along main veins on both surfaces, pinnately lobed or parted; lobes pinnately lobed or dentate, apex acute. Inflorescences axillary or extra-axillary scorpioid racemes; peduncle branched or not. Pedicel 5-10 mm. Calyx cup-shaped, ca. 1 cm; lobes ovate-lanceolate, ca. 5 × 2 mm, pubescent and prickly as on stems. Corolla purplish or white, stellate, 1.6-3.5 cm; lobes ovate, 10 × 4-8 mm, sparsely hairy. Filaments ca. 1 mm, glabrous; anthers lanceolate, ca. 9 mm. Ovary puberulent. Style 1-1.2 cm. Fruiting pedicel 1-1.5 cm, stout. Fruiting calyx enlarged, longer than fruit, densely prickly and enveloping most berry, ultimately flaring wide and exposing it. Berry bright red, subglobose, 1-2 cm in diameter. Seeds reniform, ca. 2.5 × 2 mm.

Plant Type

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Annual
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed / spore propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Solanum sisymbriifolium is native to dry regions of South America, from Ecuador to Argentina. It has been introduced and can be found naturalized across Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, North America and the Caribbean (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020; ISSG, 2020; PBI Solanum Project, 2020; POWO, 2020; USDA-NRCS, 2020).  

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresent
BotswanaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
Congo, Republic of thePresentIntroduced
EswatiniPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresentIntroduced
MoroccoPresentIntroduced
NamibiaPresent
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasiveNoxious weed

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroduced
ChinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced
-YunnanPresentIntroduced
GeorgiaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
IndiaPresentIntroduced
-AssamPresentIntroduced
-GujaratPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced
-JavaPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasive
NepalPresentIntroduced
South KoreaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
TaiwanPresentIntroduced
TurkeyPresentIntroduced
UzbekistanPresentIntroduced

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroduced
BelgiumPresentIntroduced
CzechiaPresentIntroduced
DenmarkPresentIntroduced
EstoniaPresent
FinlandPresentIntroduced
FrancePresentIntroduced
GermanyPresentIntroduced
HungaryPresentIntroducedInvasiveListed as a noxious weed
IrelandPresentIntroduced
ItalyPresentIntroducedInvasiveAlso in Sardinia
LatviaPresentIntroduced
LithuaniaPresentIntroduced
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced
NorwayPresent
PortugalPresent
SpainPresentIntroducedInvasive
SwedenPresentIntroduced
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresentIntroduced

North America

CanadaPresentIntroduced
-OntarioPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
MartiniquePresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-DelawarePresent
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-IowaPresent
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-OregonPresentIntroduced
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeed
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasive
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced
New ZealandPresentIntroducedNaturalized

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BoliviaPresentNative
BrazilPresentNative
-AcrePresentNative
-BahiaPresentNative
-Distrito FederalPresentNative
-Espirito SantoPresentNative
-GoiasPresentNative
-Mato GrossoPresentNative
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNative
-Minas GeraisPresentNative
-ParanaPresentNative
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNative
-RondoniaPresentNative
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative
-Sao PauloPresentNative
ChilePresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentNative
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
UruguayPresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

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In Belgium, S. sisymbriifolium was first recorded in 1880 and currently, it is listed as a rare and ephemeral alien usually found on disturbed sites and road verges (Verloove, 2006).

In South Africa, S. sisymbriifolium was first recorded in 1908. It is thought that this species was introduced unintentionally with imported horse fodder. It has become a noxious weed with the potential to smother native vegetation. Currently, it is declared a Category 1 alien invader plant and it may not be planted, propagated, imported, or sold in the country (Hill, 1994; Byrne et al., 2002; Henderson, 2011).

Habitat

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Solanum sisymbriifolium is usually found along roadsides, waste places, landfills, dump sites, pastures and verges near agricultural lands. In Australia, it can be found in shrubby eucalypt woodlands. It is sometimes planted as ornamental and medicinal plant in gardens and farms (Bean, 2012; ISSG, 2020; USDA-NRCS, 2020; Verloove, 2006).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The haploid chromosome number reported for S. sisymbriifolium is n=12 (Moscone, 1992).

Reproductive Biology

All Solanum species have poricidally dehiscent anthers that make this genus an example of buzz pollination syndrome. Solanum flowers are mainly hermaphroditic, nectar is absent and pollen is the exclusive floral reward. Pollination in Solanum is performed by bees (de Luca and Vallejo-Marin, 2013).

Physiology and Phenology

In areas within and outside its native distribution range, S. sisymbriifolium produces flowers and fruits throughout the year (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020; PBI Solanum Project, 2020).

Longevity

Solanum sisymbriifolium grows as an annual in temperate and subtropical regions and as a perennial in tropical climates (Bean, 2012; ISSG, 2020).

Environmental Requirements

Solanum sisymbriifolium is able to grow in a wide range of climates, soil types and pHs, but it prefers moist, sandy soils. It grows best in areas with full sunlight but can tolerate shaded conditions (ISSG, 2020).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
55 35

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Globodera pallida Pathogen Other|All Stages
Globodera rostochiensis Pathogen Other|All Stages

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Solanum sisymbriifolium can be attacked by the nematode species Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida (Timmermans et al., 2007a, b).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Solanum sisymbriifolium spreads by seeds and vegetatively by rhizomes. Fruits are consumed and dispersed by animals (e.g. birds and mammals).

Accidental Introduction

Seeds may be dispersed as a contaminant in fodder, mud and agricultural products (Byrne et al., 2002; ISSG, 2020; PBI Solanum Project, 2020). It is thought that S. sisymbriifolium was introduced unintentionally to South Africa with imported horse fodder (Byrne et al., 2002).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionCultivated as a trap crop Yes Yes ISSG (2020)
DisturbanceCommon weed in wastelands and ruderal areas Yes ISSG (2020)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from cultivation Yes ISSG (2020)
Garden waste disposalCultivated as an ornamental Yes PBI Solanum Project (2020)
HitchhikerContaminant in fodder Yes Yes Hill (1994)
HorticultureCultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes PBI Solanum Project (2020)
Industrial purposesFruits used for synthesis of corticosteroids and sex hormones Yes Yes Hill and Hulley (1995)
Internet salesSeeds for sale online Yes Yes
Medicinal useLeaves are used in traditional medicine Yes ISSG (2020)
Ornamental purposesCultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes PBI Solanum Project (2020)
People foragingThe berry is considered edible and consumed by humans Yes PBI Solanum Project (2020)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds as a contaminant Yes Yes ISSG (2020)
Machinery and equipmentSeeds Yes Yes ISSG (2020)
MailSeeds for sale online Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes ISSG (2020)
Land vehiclesSeeds Yes Yes ISSG (2020)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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Solanum sisymbriifolium behaves as a weed within and outside its native distribution range. It can be a serious weed of pastures and ruderal areas where it grows forming dense spiny thickets that smother native vegetation. It reduces biodiversity in natural forests because it dominates large areas in the understory affecting the germination and establishment of native species. Currently, it is listed as a noxious invasive weed in Australia, South Africa, USA, Cuba, Hungary, Italy, Spain, China and Japan (Mito and Uesugi, 2004; DiTomaso and Healy, 2007; Weber et al., 2008; Campos and Herrera, 2009; Celesti-Grapow et al., 2009; Henderson, 2011; Oviedo Prieto and González-Oliva, 2015; Randall, 2017; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020; ISSG, 2020; USDA-NRCS, 2020).

Social Impact

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The seeds are poisonous to humans (PBI Solanum Project, 2020).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

Solanum sisymbriifolium is used as a trap crop for potato cyst nematodes (PCN) such as Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida that cause massive damage to potato crops in Europe and other countries (Timmermans et al., 2007a, b). The plants induce eggs of PCN to hatch but the standing crop is destroyed before the nematode is able to complete its life cycle. Using S. sisymbriifolium in potato fields helps prevent the potato crop from being infested with PCN and has been shown to reduce populations of PCN by 50-80% (Timmermans et al., 2007a, b; Dandurand and Knudsen, 2016; ISSG, 2020).

The fruits of S. sisymbriifolium are also used as a source of solasodine, a glycoalkaloid used in the synthesis of corticosteroids and sex hormones and a large component of oral contraceptives (Hill and Hulley, 1995).

Social Benefit

Solanum sisymbriifolium is cultivated as an ornamental and the leaves are used in traditional medicine. The berry is edible and consumed by humans in South America, however, the seeds are poisonous (ISSG, 2020; PBI Solanum Project, 2020).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Biological control

Human food and beverage

  • Fruits

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

Solanum sisymbriifolium is an aggressive weed that has become invasive in many countries. Therefore, its introduction as a trap crop or cultivated plant into a new region should be considered thoroughly before implementation (ISSG, 2020).

Physical/mechanical control

Small infestations of S. sisymbriifolium can be removed using specialized machinery. However, mechanical control is difficult due to the ability of this species to coppice after cutting and to reproduce prolifically by seed and rhizomes (Byrne et al., 2002; ISSG, 2020).

Biological control

Biological agents for the control of S. sisymbriifolium include the leaf-feeding tortoise beetle Gratiana spadicea and the flower-feeding weevil Anthonomus sisymbrii. The beetle G. spadicea was released in South Africa in 1994 and this insect failed to establish at some sites and, where establishment was confirmed, its impact has been variable (Byrne et al., 2002). The species A. sisymbrii has been considered for introduction in South Africa as well (Olckers et al., 2002; ISSG, 2020)

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bean AR, 2012. Solanum species of eastern and northern Australia. Version 6. Delta intkey.https://www.delta-intkey.com/solanum/www/sisymbri.htm

Bohs L, 2005. Major clades in Solanum based in ndhF sequences. In: A festschrift for William G. D’Arcy: the legacy of a taxonomist. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, Vol. 104, [ed. by Keating RC, Hollowell VC, Croat TB]. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 27-49.

Brundu, G., Camarda, I., Satta, V., 2003. A methodological approach for mapping alien plants in Sardinia (Italy). In: Plant invasions: ecological threats and management solutions, [ed. by Child, L., Brock, J. H., Brundu, G., Prach, K., Pysĕk, K., Wade, P. M., Williamson, M.]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers. 41-62.

Byrne, M. J., Currin, S., Hill, M. P., 2002. The influence of climate on the establishment and success of the biocontrol agent Gratiana spadicea, released on Solanum sisymbriifolium in South Africa. Biological Control, 24(2), 128-134. doi: 10.1016/S1049-9644(02)00021-X

Campos, JA, Herrera, M, 2009. (Análisis de la flora alóctona de Bizkaia, País Vasco (España)). LAZAROA, 30, 7-33.

Celesti-Grapow, L., Alessandrini, A., Arrigoni, P. V., Banfi, E., Bernardo, L., Bovio, M., Brundu, G., Cagiotti, M. R., Camarda, I., Carli, E., Conti, F., Fascetti, S., Galasso, G., Gubellini, L., Valva, V. la, Lucchese, F., Marchiori, S., Mazzola, P., Peccenini, S., Poldini, L., Pretto, F., Prosser, F., Siniscalco, C., Villani, M. C., Viegi, L., Wilhalm, T. (et al), 2009. Inventory of the non-native flora of Italy. Plant Biosystems, 143(2), 386-430. doi: 10.1080/11263500902722824

Dandurand, L. M., Knudsen, G. R., 2016. Effect of the trap crop Solanum sisymbriifolium and two biocontrol fungi on reproduction of the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annals of Applied Biology, 169(2), 180-189. doi: 10.1111/aab.12295

DiTomaso, J. M., Healy, E. A., 2007. Weeds of California and other Western States. Vol 1. In: Weeds of California and other Western States. Vol 1 . California, USA: UC Davis.1808 pp.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Henderson L, 2011. Invasive berry-producing Solanaceae. In: SAPIA News No. 20 : Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas.1-5. http://www.midlandsconservancies.org.za/documents/problemplants/sapia/0_SAPIA_NEWS_No._20.pdf

Hill MP, 1994. Evaluation of Gratiana spadicea (Klug, 1829) and Metriona elatior (Klug, 1829) (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) for the biological control of sticky nightshade Solanum sisymbriifolium Lamarck (Solanaceae) in South Africa (Doctoral dissertation). Makhanda, South Africa: Rhodes University.

Hill, M. P., Hulley, P. E., 1995. Host-range extension by native parasitoids to weed biocontrol agents introduced to South Africa. Biological Control, 5(2), 297-302. doi: 10.1006/bcon.1995.1037

ISSG, 2020. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) : Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Kil, J. H., Shim, K. C., Park, S. H., Koh, K. S., Suh, M. H., Ku, Y. B., Suh, S. U., Oh, H. K., Kong, H. Y., 2004. Distributions of naturalized alien plants in South Korea. Weed Technology, 18(Suppl), 1493-1495. doi: 10.1614/0890-037X(2004)018[1493:DONAPI]2.0.CO;2

Luca, P. A. de, Vallejo-Marín, M., 2013. What's the 'buzz' about? The ecology and evolutionary significance of buzz-pollination. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 16(4), 429-435. doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2013.05.002

Macdonald, I. A. W., Reaser, J. K., Bright, C., Neville, L. E., Howard, G. W., Murphy, S. J., Preston, G., 2003. Invasive alien species in Southern Africa: national reports and directory of resources, [ed. by Macdonald, I. A. W., Reaser, J. K., Bright, C., Neville, L. E., Howard, G. W., Murphy, S. J., Preston, G.]. Cape Town, South Africa: Global Invasive Species Programme.125 pp. http://www.gisp.org

Mito, T, Uesugi, T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and new regulations for prevention of their adverse effects. In: Global Environmental Research , 8(2) . 171-191.

Moscone, E. A., 1992. Meiotic chromosome studies in Solanaceae from Argentina. (Estudios de cromosomas meioticos en Solanaceae de Argentina). Darwiniana, 31(1-4), 261-297.

Olckers, T., Medal, J. C., Gandolfo, D. E., 2002. Insect herbivores associated with species of Solanum (Solanaceae) in Northeastern Argentina and Southeastern Paraguay, with reference to biological control of weeds in South Africa and the United States of America. Florida Entomologist, 85(1), 254-260. doi: 10.1653/0015-4040(2002)085[0254:IHAWSO]2.0.CO;2

Olmstead RG, Sweere JA, Spangler RE, Bohs L, Palmer JD, 1999. Phylogeny and provisional classification of the Solanaceae based on chloroplast DNA. In: Solanaceae IV: advances in biology and utilization, [ed. by Nee M, Symon DE, Lester RN, Jessop JP]. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 111-137.

Olmstead, R. G., Palmer, J. D., 1992. A chloroplast DNA phylogeny of the Solanaceae: subfamilial relationships and character evolution. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 79(2), 346-360. doi: 10.2307/2399773

Olmstead, R. G., Sweere, J. A., 1994. Combining data in phylogenetic systematics: an empirical approach using three molecular data sets in the Solanaceae. Systematic Biology, 43(4), 467-481. doi: 10.2307/2413546

Oviedo Prieto, R., González-Oliva, L., 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 9(Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PBI Solanum Project, 2020. Solanaceae Source: A global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family. Planetary Biodiversity Inventories (PBI).http://www.solanaceaesource.org/

POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

Randall, R. P., 2017. A global compendium of weeds, (Ed.3) [ed. by Randall, R. P.]. Perth, Australia: R. P. Randall.iii + 3653 pp.

Stevens, P. F., 2020. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Timmermans, B. G. H., Vos, J., Nieuwburg, J. van, Stomph, T. J., Putten, P. E. L. van der, Molendijk, P. G., 2007. Field performance of Solanum sisymbriifolium, a trap crop for potato cyst nematodes. I. Dry matter accumulation in relation to sowing time, location, season and plant density. Annals of Applied Biology, 150(1), 89-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.2006.00112.x

Timmermans, B. G. H., Vos, J., Stomph, T. J., Nieuwburg, J. van, Putten, P. E. L. van der, 2007. Field performance of Solanum sisymbriifolium, a trap crop for potato cyst nematodes. II. Root characteristics. Annals of Applied Biology, 150(1), 99-106. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.2006.00113.x

Tiwari UK, Ravikumar K, 2014. Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. - a new record for the flora of Gujarat state. Indian Forester, 140(2):201-202. http://www.indianforester.co.in

USDA-NRCS, 2020. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Verloove, F., 2006. Catalogue of neophytes in Belgium (1800-2005). Scripta Botanica Belgica, 39, 89 pp.

Weber, E., Sun ShiGuo, Li Bo, 2008. Invasive alien plants in China: diversity and ecological insights. Biological Invasions, 10(8), 1411-1429. doi: 10.1007/s10530-008-9216-3

Wu, S. H., Hsieh ChangFu, Rejmánek, M., 2004. Catalogue of the naturalized flora of Taiwan. Taiwania, 49(1), 16-31.

Distribution References

Abdullahi AE, 2006. Field Guide to Weeds of Botswana., Gaborone, Botswana: Department of Agricultural Research.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Arruabarrena A, Rubio L, González-Arcos M, Maeso D, Sánchez-Campos S, Fonseca M E N, Boiteux L S, 2015. First report of Solanum sisymbriifolium and S. americanum as natural weed hosts of Tomato chlorosis virus (genus Crinivirus) in South America. Plant Disease. 99 (6), 895. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Balogh L, Dancza I, Kiraly G, 2004. Actual list of neophytes in Hungary and their classification according to their success. In: Biological invasions in Hungary - Invasive plants, [ed. by Mihaly B, Botta-Dukat Z]. 61-92.

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Campos JA, Herrera M, 2009. (Análisis de la flora alóctona de Bizkaia, País Vasco (España)). LAZAROA. 7-33.

Celesti-Grapow L, Alessandrini A, Arrigoni P V, Banfi E, Bernardo L, Bovio M, Brundu G, Cagiotti M R, Camarda I, Carli E, Conti F, Fascetti S, Galasso G, Gubellini L, Valva V la, Lucchese F, Marchiori S, Mazzola P, Peccenini S, Poldini L, Pretto F, Prosser F, Siniscalco C, Villani M C, Viegi L, Wilhalm T (et al), 2009. Inventory of the non-native flora of Italy. Plant Biosystems. 143 (2), 386-430. DOI:10.1080/11263500902722824

DiTomaso J M, Healy E A, 2007. Weeds of California and other Western States. Vol 1. In: Weeds of California and other Western States. Vol 1, California, USA: UC Davis. 1808 pp.

Duary B, Mukherjee A, 2013. Distribution pattern of predominant weeds in wet season and their management in West Bengal, India. In: The role of weed science in supporting food security by 2020. Proceedings of the 24th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, Bandung, Indonesia, October 22-25, 2013 [The role of weed science in supporting food security by 2020. Proceedings of the 24th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, Bandung, Indonesia, October 22-25, 2013.], [ed. by Bakar B H, Kurniadie D, Tjitrosoedirdjo S]. Bandung, Indonesia: Weed Science Society of Indonesia. 191-199.

eFloraSA, 2020. eFloraSA — Electronic Flora of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia, Australia: State Herbarium of South Australia. http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China, St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Howell C, Sawyer JWD, 2006. New Zealand naturalised vascular plant checklist., Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network.

ISSG, 2020. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD), Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Kikodze D, Memiadze N, Kharazishvili D, Manvelidze Z, Mueller-Schaerer, 2010. The alien flora of Georgia. In: Swiss National Science Foundation, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation and SCOPES, 40 pp. http://www.unifr.ch/biol/ecology/muellerschaerer/group/mueller/webpage/pdf/research/Invasives_GE.pdf

Kil J H, Shim K C, Park S H, Koh K S, Suh M H, Ku Y B, Suh S U, Oh H K, Kong H Y, 2004. Distributions of naturalized alien plants in South Korea. Weed Technology. 18 (Suppl.), 1493-1495. DOI:10.1614/0890-037X(2004)018[1493:DONAPI]2.0.CO;2

Macdonald I A W, Reaser J K, Bright C, Neville L E, Howard G W, Murphy S J, Preston G, 2003. Invasive alien species in Southern Africa: national reports and directory of resources. [ed. by Macdonald I A W, Reaser J K, Bright C, Neville L E, Howard G W, Murphy S J, Preston G]. Cape Town, South Africa: Global Invasive Species Programme. 125 pp. http://www.gisp.org

Milbau A, Stout JC, 2006. Database of alien plants in Ireland., Dublin, Ireland: School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin.

Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and new regulations for prevention of their adverse effects. In: Global Environmental Research, 8 (2) 171-191.

Oviedo Prieto R, González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 9 (Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

Preston CD, Pearman DA, Dines TD, 2002. New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora., Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Pysek P, Sadlo J, Mandak B, 2002. Catalogue of Alien Plants of the Czech Republic. Preslia, Praha. 97-186.

Richardson F J, Richardson R G, Shepherd R C H, 2016. Weeds of the south-east: an identification guide for Australia. [ed. by Richardson F J, Richardson R G, Shepherd R C H]. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO. 546 pp.

Stehmann JR, Mentz LA, Agra MF, Vignoli-Silva M, Giacomin L, Rodrigues IMC, 2015. Solanum sisymbriifolium. (Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB24915

Tiwari U K, Ravikumar K, 2014. Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. - a new record for the flora of Gujarat state. Indian Forester. 140 (2), 201-202. http://www.indianforester.co.in

Ugarte E, Lira F, Fuentes N, Klotz S, 2011. Vascular alien flora, Chile. Check List. 7 (3), 365-382. DOI:10.15560/7.3.365

USDA-NRCS, 2020. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Verloove F, 2006. Catalogue of neophytes in Belgium (1800-2005). Scripta Botanica Belgica. 89 pp.

Weber E, Sun ShiGuo, Li Bo, 2008. Invasive alien plants in China: diversity and ecological insights. Biological Invasions. 10 (8), 1411-1429. http://www.springerlink.com/content/c25570xj6u44645h/?p=3d093fec46ab4097b45b287d6033e986&pi=21 DOI:10.1007/s10530-008-9216-3

Wu S H, Hsieh ChangFu, Rejmánek M, 2004. Catalogue of the naturalized flora of Taiwan. Taiwania. 49 (1), 16-31.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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25/06/20 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Institute of the Environment, University of Connecticut

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