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Datasheet

Silene gallica (common catchfly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 30 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Silene gallica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common catchfly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. gallica is a small and relatively innocuous winter annual herb native to western Asia, North Africa and much of Europe. It usually grows in fairly dry, open habitats, often along roadsides and waste land, bu...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Silene gallica (English catchfly); typical flower spike, with pink petals.
TitleFlower
CaptionSilene gallica (English catchfly); typical flower spike, with pink petals.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Silene gallica (English catchfly); typical flower spike, with pink petals.
FlowerSilene gallica (English catchfly); typical flower spike, with pink petals.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Silene gallica (English catchfly); mass of flowering plants.
TitleHabit
CaptionSilene gallica (English catchfly); mass of flowering plants.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Silene gallica (English catchfly); mass of flowering plants.
HabitSilene gallica (English catchfly); mass of flowering plants.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Silene gallica (English catchfly); flowers with white petals.
TitleFlowers
CaptionSilene gallica (English catchfly); flowers with white petals.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Silene gallica (English catchfly); flowers with white petals.
Flowers Silene gallica (English catchfly); flowers with white petals.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Silene gallica (English catchfly); flowers with large dark red spots on the petals.
TitleFlowers
CaptionSilene gallica (English catchfly); flowers with large dark red spots on the petals.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Silene gallica (English catchfly); flowers with large dark red spots on the petals.
FlowersSilene gallica (English catchfly); flowers with large dark red spots on the petals.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Silene gallica (English catchfly); vegetative rosettes.
TitleHabit
CaptionSilene gallica (English catchfly); vegetative rosettes.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Silene gallica (English catchfly); vegetative rosettes.
HabitSilene gallica (English catchfly); vegetative rosettes.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Silene gallica

Preferred Common Name

  • common catchfly

Other Scientific Names

  • Silene anglica L.
  • Silene gallica var. gallica L.
  • Silene gallica var. quinquevulnera (L.) Kock
  • Silene quinquevulnera L.

International Common Names

  • English: French catchfly
  • Spanish: calabacillo; pensamiento

Local Common Names

  • : English catchfly; five-wound catchfly; French silene; gunpowder weed; Mediterranean catchfly; mother marm; small catchfly; small-flower catchfly; small-flowered catchfly; spotted catchfly; windmill catchfly; windmill pink
  • : silene de France
  • Austria: Franz?sisches Leimkraut
  • Brazil: alfine te frances; alfinetes-da-terra
  • Denmark: Fransk limurt
  • Germany: Franz?sisches Leimkraut
  • Lithuania: Gallijas plaukskene
  • New Zealand: small-flowered silene
  • Norway: Fransk smelle
  • Poland: Lepnica francuska
  • Sweden: franskglim

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. gallica is a small and relatively innocuous winter annual herb native to western Asia, North Africa and much of Europe. It usually grows in fairly dry, open habitats, often along roadsides and waste land, but is also a weed in arable land and dry pasture. It has been introduced to other parts of Europe, India, East Asia, the Arabian peninsula, sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and parts of Europe, and is reported to be invasive in Australia, and New Zealand and many Pacific islands. S. gallica has little impact on crops. It has been suspected of poisoning livestock on a few occasions in Australia and East Africa, but there is very little information on such claims.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Caryophyllaceae
  •                             Genus: Silene
  •                                 Species: Silene gallica

Description

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Taken from eFloras (2013a,b):

Plants annual; taproot slender. Stems erect, branched, rarely simple, upt to 60 cm tall though usually 15-45 cm, with long, often crinkled hairs mixed with short pubescence, viscid-glandular distally. Leaves 2 per node, blade with coarse, ascending, scabrous pubescence on both surfaces; basal few, withering, blade oblanceolate to spatulate-petiolate, 0.5-5 cm × 3-15 mm; cauline blades oblanceolate to lanceolate, 1-7 cm × 1-15 mm, apex obtuse or shortly acuminate to acute. Inflorescences open, with racemose branches, internodes and bracts usually ca. equaling fruiting calyx, 1-5 mm, longer proximally. Flowers 5-8 mm diameter; calyx prominently 10-veined, narrowly tubular-ovoid in flower, ovoid in fruit, constricted at mouth, 7-10 × 3-5 mm, membranous between veins, margins dentate, hispid, hairs ca. 2 mm, veins parallel, lobes lanceolate, 2-2.5 mm, apex greenish purple, acute; petals white or pink, often with dark spot or dark pink throughout, clawed, claw equaling calyx, limb elliptic to obovate, lobed or unlobed, to 6 mm, appendages 2, oblong to narrowly lanceolate, 1-1.5 mm; stamens equaling or shorter than calyx; stigmas 3, included in calyx. Capsules equaling calyx, opening with 6 recurved, narrowly triangular teeth; carpophore shorter than 1 mm, pubescent. Seeds dark reddish brown, reniform, angular with concave, radially ridged faces, broad outer edge transversely ridged and verrucose, about 0.5 mm broad.

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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S. gallica is native to western Asia, North Africa and much of Europe. It has been introduced to other parts of Europe, India, East Asia, the Arabian peninsula, sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas, Australia and New Zealand.

S. gallica has declined markedly in inland sites throughout the UK (part of its native range) and many of the remaining sites are coastal (National Museum of Wales, 2013). The authors attribute this decline to intensification of agricultural production (more herbicides and fertilizer, lost field margins, earlier harvesting, use of more competitive crops) and, at coastal sites, tourism development. These authors also say that S. gallica has reportedly become extinct in northern Europe but is still widespread in central and southern Europe (Museum of Wales, 2013). Seedlings are killed by winter temperatures of -10oC, and that this probably explains the restriction of the species to southern England (Salisbury, 1964).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
East TimorPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
IndiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
IsraelPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
JapanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroducedAnon, 2013
LebanonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
SyriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
TaiwanPresentIntroducedLiang and Wang, 2012Naturalised
TurkeyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
YemenPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
Cape VerdePresentDiniz, 1995
EgyptPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
KenyaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
LesothoPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
LibyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
MauritiusPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
MoroccoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
RéunionPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
South AfricaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
TunisiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
UgandaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
ZimbabweUSDA-ARS, 2013

North America

CanadaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-New BrunswickPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-OntarioPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-Prince Edward IslandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
MexicoPresentIntroducedVibrans, 2011
USAPresentDatamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-MissouriPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-OregonPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
HaitiPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
JamaicaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
BoliviaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
BrazilPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
ChilePresentIntroducedPIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013Invasive on the Juan Fernández Islands
EcuadorPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
PeruPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
UruguayPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013

Europe

AlbaniaPresentDatamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases; USDA-ARS, 2013
AustriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
BelarusPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
BelgiumPresentDatamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases
BulgariaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
CyprusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
DenmarkPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2013
FinlandPresentIntroducedKurtto and Lahti, 1987
FrancePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
GermanyPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
GreecePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
HungaryPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
ItalyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
LatviaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2013
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedGudzinskas, 1999
PolandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
PortugalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
-AzoresPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
RomaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
Russian FederationPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
-Central RussiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
SlovakiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
SloveniaPresentNativeDAISIE, 2013
SpainPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
SwedenPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2013
UKPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
UkrainePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
Yugoslavia (former)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2013
-Lord Howe Is.PresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive Queensland Government, 2012
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Queensland Government, 2012; Queensland Government, 2012
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Queensland Government, 2012
-TasmaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Queensland Government, 2012
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced Invasive Queensland Government, 2012Environmental weed
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Queensland Government, 2012Environmental weed in southern and western parts
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013Rapa Island
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013Ile Grand Terre
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive Webb et al., 1988
-Kermadec IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013

History of Introduction and Spread

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S. gallica has few medicinal or herbal uses (although the variety quinquevulnera has been grown in gardens for its decorative flowers), so its introduction to America, Australasia and other places was most probably by the inadvertent transport of its small seeds in or on agricultural machinery, agricultural produce, packing materials and soil. Once established in new countries it spread quickly, through its seed and possibly by fragments of viscid stem (and seed capsules) becoming attached to wool or hair.

S. gallica appeared in both Australia and New Zealand in the mid-1800s, when immigration from Europe was encouraged by both countries. Writing in 1953, Guthrie-Smith described its spread over hundreds of acres on his large sheep station in North Island, New Zealand: ‘The extraordinary spread of small-flowered silene (Silene gallica) … was due to two especial factors – one the viscidity of the plant’s stalks and stems, the other the nature of the sheep then on Tutira; they were merino, not a bare-legged breed, but sheep, on the contrary, wooled to their toes. Fragments of silene adhering to their shanks were thus carried wherever sheep trod’ (Guthrie-Smith, 1953).

It is uncertain whether S. gallica was also introduced to North America in the 1800s or by earlier Spanish immigration.

Until relatively recently (e.g., Stace, 1997), S. gallica was considered native in Britain and 'probably introduced' in Ireland (Scannell and Synnott, 1987). However, it is now recognised as an ancient introduction by man to the UK (pre-1,500 AD) (Northern Ireland Priority Species, 2013).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia 1838 Yes Australia’s Virtual Herbarium (2013); Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney (2004); Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney (2013) Tasmania
New Zealand 1855 Yes THOMSON (1922)

Risk of Introduction

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Its seed has been reported as an impurity in clover seed (Salisbury, 1964). It is grown in China as a garden plant and it could well escape from gardens and become established as a weed (eFloras, 2013a). It was reported as recently naturalised in Taiwan (Liang and Wang, 2012), and it is likely to naturalise elsewhere.

Habitat

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S. gallica is a weed of cultivated or disturbed ground. It usually grows in fairly dry, open habitats, often along roadsides and railways and in waste land, but is also a weed in arable land and dry pasture (PIER, 2013; eFloras, 2013a). Its taproot probably helps it survive in very dry environments (eFloras, 2013b). It can sometimes be found in coastal areas or along rivers, streams or temporary water (Northern Ireland Priority Species, 2013). Although S. gallica is moderately competitive, it tends to avoid other plants, frequenting open, somewhat disturbed, sandy or gravelly soils areas in wayside areas (Northern Ireland Priority Species, 2013).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

2n=24 (Clapham et al., 1962). Plants are very variable and tend to form local geographic races throughout Europe (National Museum of Wales, 2013).

Reproductive biology

The flowers are hermaphrodite and pollinated by Lepidoptera and bees (PFAF, 2013).

Once mature the fruit capsules split at the apex into six teeth. Each fruit contains an average of 48 seeds, each with an average weight of 0.0004 g (Salisbury, 1964). Seeds are generally dispersed near the parent plant, but grazing and other forms of disturbance by man can help transport it further afield (Northern Ireland Priority Species, 2013).

Physiology and phenology

In the UK, S. gallica typically germinates in autumn but occasionally in spring and flowers the following July to October (National Museum of Wales, 2013). In Australia, plants flower between late winter and early summer and fruit between September (spring) and December (winter).

Longevity

When buried in the soil S. gallica seed is transient (lasting less than one year), or short-term persistent (surviving 1 to 5 years) (Thompson et al. 1997, cited in Northern Ireland Priority Species, 2013).

Population size and structure

S. gallica populations can become locally abundant if there is little competition (Northern Ireland Priority Species, 2013).

Associations

S. gallica tends to be found in the company of other annual weeds of cultivated land and dry waste places.

Environmental requirements

Seedlings are killed by winter temperatures of -10oC (Salisbury, 1964). PFAF (2013) suggested that S. gallica can grow in dry areas with nutritionally poor soil (Webb et al., 1988; Wagner et al., 1999; eFloras, 2013a).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural dispersal (non-biotic)
 
The seeds of S. gallica are very small and light and are therefore presumably carried for some distance by air currents.
 
Vector transmission (biotic)
 
Seeds are generally dispersed near the parent plant, but grazing and other forms of disturbance by man can help transport it further afield (Northern Ireland Priority Species, 2013). The tiny seeds could perhaps be carried in mud on the feet of birds or mammals. Fragments of S. gallica can stick to sheep’s wool (Guthrie-Smith, 1953).
 
The seeds of S. gallica are strongly preferred by the harvester ant Messor barbarous in southeastern France (Detrain and Pasteels, 2000). 
 
Accidental introduction
 
Seeds of S. gallica are small and easy to transport accidentally as contaminants on agricultural machinery, agricultural produce, packing materials and soil, or in crop seeds of even in dust or mud on shipping containers. It has been introduced to the UK in impure imported clover seed (Natural Museum of Wales, 2013).
 
Intentional introduction
 
S. gallica var. quinquevulnera has been cultivated as an attractive garden plant. It is grown in China as a garden plant and it could well escape from gardens and become established as a weed (eFloras, 2013a).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal productionCarried on the feet of livestock Yes
Crop productionAgricultural machinery Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escapeHas escaped from gardens in China Yes
HorticultureEscape from gardens Yes
Seed tradeSeed found in imported clover seed Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Bulk freight or cargoShipping containers Yes
Host and vector organismsCarried on bird feet, livestock feet and harvester ants Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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Growing as it does on cultivated agricultural land, S. gallica may interfere to some extent with crop growth, but it seems unlikely that it has a major impact. It has been reported as a weed of sugarbeet in Morocco (Bouhache et al., 1994), of grapevine in Portugal (Espirito and Santo, 1989) and a common agricultural weed in Argentina (Bonjour, 1949). S. gallica has been suspected of poisoning livestock on a few occasions in Australia and East Africa, but there is very little information about these claims (Connor, 1977). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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S. gallica seems to have few medicinal or herbal uses. PFAF (2013, quoting Chopra et al., 1956) reported that the plant is said to be an emollient and is used in baths or as a fumigant. The juice of the plant is used in the treatment of ophthalmia. 

Detection and Inspection

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S. gallica is a member of the Caryophyllaceae family, characterised by mostly opposite entire leaves without stipules, flowers with 4-5 green sepals (fused into a calyx tube in the genus Silene), 8-10 stamens and a many-seeded capsule. S. gallica var. quinquevulnera has a wide red spot at the base of each petal, contrasting markedly from S. gallica var. gallica, which has white to pinkish petals (Queensland Government, 2013).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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S. gallica differs from other similar species of Silene in its cover of soft sticky hairs, its small, narrow, lanceolate middle stem leaves, white to pinkish flowers all pointing in more or less the same direction in its loose inflorescences, and its weakly notched petals (National Museum of Wales, 2013). Mouse-ear chickweed (Cerastium glomeratum) is similar as a seedling and young plant but it has smaller cotyledons and smaller, broader leaves with the widest point closer to the base (Herbiguide, 2013).

Prevention and Control

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Physical/mechanical control

S. gallica is relatively small and easy to pull out of the ground.

Chemical control

Most herbicides commonly used in crops, such as glyphosphate, would give adequate control of S. gallica. However, its control in waste places would rarely be warranted.

Control by utilization

S. gallica can be controlled by grazing (Herbiguide, 2013). 

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There seems to be remarkably little published information on S. gallica. More information on seed distribution, germination and longevity would be useful, as would observations on how long the plants live.

References

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Anon, 2013. Alien Plants in Korea. Incheon, Korea: National Institute of Environmental Research, Ministry of Environment.

Bonjour A, 1949. Agronomic aspects of weed control. (Aspectos agronómicos de la lucha contra la vegetación adventicia.) Arch. fitotec. Uruguay, 4:122-5.

Bouhache M; Ezzahiri B, 1994. Characterization of the weed flora associated with sugarbeet in the Doukkalas. (Caracterisation de la flore adventice associée a la betterave a sucre dans les Doukkala.) Sucrerie Maghrebine, No. 57:32-38.

Chopra RN; Nayar SL; Copra IC, 1956. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi, India: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.

Clapham AR; Tutin TG; Warburg EF, 1962. Flora of the British Isles. Second edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Connor HE, 1977. The Poisonous Plants of New Zealand. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 99.

DAISIE, 2013. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. DAISIE (online). www.europe-aliens.org

Detrain C; Pasteels JM, 2000. Seed preferences of the harvester ant Messor barbarus in a Mediterranean mosaic grassland (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology, 35(1):35-48; 23 ref.

Diniz MA, 1995. 19. Caryophyllaceae. In Flora de Cabo Verde. Lisbon, Portugal, Junta Nacional de Investigacao Cientifica e Tecnologica.

eFloras, 2013. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

eFloras.org, 2013. Flora of North America. St Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden and Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Espírito Santo MD, 1989. Some aspects of the ecology of weeds of vineyards in Bombarral. (Quelques aspects d'ecologie des mauvaises herbes des vignobles du Bombarral.) EUR Publication, No. EUR 11548:533-542.

Gudzinskas Z, 1999. Conspectus of alien plant species of Lithuania. 11. Aristolochiaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Fumariaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Papaveraceae, Portulacaceae, and Ranunculaceae. Botanica Lithuanica, 5(3):203-218.

Guthrie-Smith H, 1953. Tutira. The Story of a New Zealand Sheep Station, 3rd edition. William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh:282-285.

Herbiguide, 2013. Herbiguide. http://www.herbiguide.com.au/

ITIS, 2013. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution/NMNH. http://www.itis.gov/

Kurtto A; Lahti T, 1987. Checklist of the vascular plants of Finland. (Suomen putkilokasvien luettelo) Pamphlet of the Botanical Museum, University of Helsinki, 11:1-163.

Liang YiShuo; Wang JennChe, 2012. A newly naturalized plant in Taiwan: Silene gallica L. (Caryophyllaceae). Taiwan Journal of Forest Science, 27(4):397-401. http://www.tfri.gov.tw/enu/pub_science_cat.aspx

National Museum of Wales, 2013. Silene gallica. http://naturalhistory.museumwales.ac.uk/corespecies/CMS/Resources/pdfs/Silene_gallica/Silene_gallica.pdf

Northern Ireland Priority Species, 2013. Silene gallica - small-flowered catchfly. http://www.habitas.org.uk/priority/species.asp?item=2991

PFAF, 2013. Database. Plants for a Future. http://www.pfaf.org/user/plantsearch.aspx

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Queensland Government, 2012. Weeds of Australia. Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Australia: The University of Queensland. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2013. Australia’s Virtual Herbarium. Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens. http://avh.chah.org.au/

Salisbury E, 1964. Weeds and Aliens. 2nd Edition. London, UK: Collins.

Scannell MJP; Synnott DM, 1987. Census catalogue of the Flora of Ireland, 2nd edition. Dublin, Ireland: The Stationery Office.

Stace C, 1997. New Flora of the British Isles. 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Thompson K; Bakker JP; Bekker RM, 1997. The soil seed banks of north west Europe: methodology, density and longevity. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 276 pp.

Thomson GM, 1922. The naturalisation of animals & plants in New Zealand. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 607 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2013. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vibrans H, 2011. [English title not available]. (Malezas de México. Listado alfabético por familia, géneroy especie.) . http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/paginas/listaplantas

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Webb CJ; Sykes WR; Garnock-Jones PJ, 1988. Flora of New Zealand Volume IV. Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: DSIR Botany Division, 1365 pp. http://floraseries.landcareresearch.co.nz/pages/Book.aspx?fileName=Flora%204.xml

Contributors

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16/11/13 Original text by:

Ian Popay, consultant, New Zealand, with the support of Landcare Research.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT