Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Schismus arabicus
(Arabian schismus)

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Datasheet

Schismus arabicus (Arabian schismus)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Schismus arabicus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Arabian schismus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. arabicus is an annual grass from the Old World that has become widespread and invasive in arid and semi-arid regions of North America and Australia. In North America it has become prevalent in parts of the S...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Schismus arabicus Nees, 1841

Preferred Common Name

  • Arabian schismus

Other Scientific Names

  • Schismus spectabilis Fig. & De Not.

International Common Names

  • English: Arabian grass; camel grass; Mediterranean grass; schismus; split grass

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. arabicus is an annual grass from the Old World that has become widespread and invasive in arid and semi-arid regions of North America and Australia. In North America it has become prevalent in parts of the Sonoran Desert and most of the Mojave Desert. In Australia it is confined to southern and western parts. The grass competes for limiting nutrients and water with native annual plants by occupying spaces between desert shrubs. Its numerous fibrous roots form a dense mat beneath the soil surface. S. arabicus promotes fires, because its dead stems readily carry flames and thus increase fire frequencies and the size of burned areas. In southern California, the decline of the native annual grass Vulpia octoflora (six-weeks fescue) is linked to the increase in S.arabicus. Spread is aided by harvester ants carrying seeds to their nests, as seedlings grow better in ant nests than outside.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Schismus
  •                                 Species: Schismus arabicus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Schismus arabicus and S. barbatus are often treated as a single species due to their morphological and ecological similarity. Gould (1951) treated S. arabicus as a subspecies of S. barbatus and believed that the two taxa broadly intergrade. In many ecological studies, the two species are not being distinguished and are treated as a single taxon. This datasheet treats them as separate species.

Description

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S. arabicus is a small, tufted annual grass. Culms are erect to ascending, green, smooth, usually widely spreading and 5-20 cm tall. Leaf blades are thread-like, up to 2 mm wide and up to 7 cm long, and usually inrolled. Leaves are mostly basal. At the base of a leaf blade is a ring of rigid hairs of ca 3 mm long. Inflorescence is a dense and narrow panicle, becoming purplish. Spikelets are laterally compressed and contain 5-10 florets. Glumes are persistent, lanceolate, with 3-5 veins and larger than lowest lemmas. Lemmas are membranous, with two lobes at the end and have 9 veins. Paleas are shorter or as long as lemmas and without awns. Caryopses (seeds) are 0.5-0.8 mm long, roundish and loosely bounded by palea and lemma.

Distribution

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S. arabicus is native to the Africa, Asia and parts of Europe. It has become widespread and invasive in arid and semi-arid regions of North America and Australia. In North America, it has become prevalent in parts of the Sonoran Desert and most of the Mojave Desert. In Australia, it is confined to southern and western parts.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
ArmeniaNative Not invasive Valdes and Scholz, 2009
AzerbaijanNative Not invasive Valdes and Scholz, 2009
BahrainPresentGBIF, 2013
BhutanPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AnhuiPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-FujianPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-GuangdongPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-GuizhouPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-HainanPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-HeilongjiangPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-HenanPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-HubeiPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-JiangxiPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-ShandongPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-SichuanPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-TibetPresentNative Not invasive Zhengyi et al., 2006
-XinjiangPresentNative Not invasive Zhengyi et al., 2006
-YunnanPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-ZhejiangPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
IndiaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
IranPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
IraqPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
IsraelPresentNative Not invasive Valdes and Scholz, 2009
JordanPresentNative Not invasive Valdes and Scholz, 2009
KazakhstanPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
KuwaitPresentGBIF, 2013
KyrgyzstanPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
LebanonPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
MongoliaPresentNative Not invasive Zhengyi et al., 2006
NepalPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
OmanPresentGBIF, 2013
PakistanPresentNative Not invasive Zhengyi et al., 2006
Saudi ArabiaPresentNative Not invasive Flora of Saudi Arabia, 2012
SyriaPresentNative Not invasive Valdes and Scholz, 2009
TaiwanPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
TajikistanPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
ThailandPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
TurkeyPresentNative Not invasive Valdes and Scholz, 2009
TurkmenistanPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
United Arab EmiratesPresentGBIF, 2013
UzbekistanPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative Not invasive Valdes and Scholz, 2009
CameroonPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
EgyptPresentNative Not invasive Valdes and Scholz, 2009
EthiopiaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
KenyaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
LibyaPresentNative Not invasive Valdes and Scholz, 2009
MoroccoPresentGBIF, 2013
South AfricaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentNative Not invasive Native status uncertain. Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote
TanzaniaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
TunisiaPresentNative Not invasive Valdes and Scholz, 2009
UgandaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013

North America

MexicoPresentGBIF, 2013
USAPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced Invasive Guertin, 2003
-CaliforniaIntroduced1935 Invasive Bossard et al., 2000up to 1300 m
-FloridaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-GeorgiaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-LouisianaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-MississippiPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-NevadaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
-South CarolinaPresent
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
NicaraguaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al., 2008
BrazilPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
ChilePresentIntroduced1927Fuentes et al., 2012
EcuadorPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
GuyanaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013

Europe

CyprusPresentNative Not invasive Valdes and Scholz, 2009
GreecePresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012
ItalyPresentGBIF, 2013
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Western SiberiaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2012Altai
SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Atlas of Living Australia, 2012
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced Not invasive FloraBase, 2012
Papua New GuineaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013

History of Introduction and Spread

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The exact date of its introduction to North America is obscure because S.arabicus and S. barbatus were often treated as a single species. Felger (1990) treated S. arabicus as a synonym for S. barbatus in his account of Sonoran plant species. He stated that the earliest record in North America is from 1926 in southern Arizona, where the grass has been observed on the floodplain of the Gila River near Sacaton. By 1928 the species had become established and from Arizona it spread westwards (Burgess et al., 1991; Esque and Schwalbe, 2002).

In California, the grass was first observed in Fresno County in 1935 (Felger, 1990). By the 1940s it was abundant throughout the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts (Kemp and Brooks, 1998). Since then, both S. arabicus and S. barbatus have increased their distribution and are now some of the most abundant annual plant species in the deserts of North America (Esque and Schwalbe, 2002).

The oldest specimen collected in South Australia and held in the State Herbarium of South Australia is from 1932 (Atlas of Living Australia, 2012).

Risk of Introduction

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The grass is unlikely to be introduced intentionally to new areas, but it is likely that it will continue to spread within areas where it has become established.

The grass is listed in the Global Invasive Species Database of the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG, 2012), but it is not listed on any state noxious weed list within the USA.

Habitat

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S. arabicus grows in open and disturbed sites in arid and semi-arid regions. Typical habitats include semi-arid shrublands, roadsides, waste areas, fields, dry river beds and the spaces between desert shrubs (Hickman, 1993; Brooks and Berry, 2006). After disturbance and if bare soil is present, the grass can also colonize coastal shrubland (Brooks, 2000). Within its native range, the grass is an important component of steppes and desert vegetation in Israel, especially in the Negev Desert (Feinbrun-Dothan, 1986). In California, S. arabicus is found from 0 to 1300 m elevation (Brooks, 2000). In Arizona, S. arabicus or S. barbatus occupy an elevation of 395-1580 m (Esque and Schwalbe, 2002).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Principal habitat Natural
Deserts Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Deserts Principal habitat Natural
Arid regions Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Arid regions Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number was determined to be 2n=12 for plants from Israel and Libya (Faruqi and Quraish, 1979; Díaz Lifante et al., 1992).

Reproductive Biology

The grass is annual and reproduces by seed. S. arabicus is self-pollinating and self-fertilizing, but it hybridizes with the closely related S. barbatus (Faruqi and Quraish, 1979). Hybrids are fully fertile.

Physiology and Phenology

Flowering time is from January to May in Arizona (Guertin, 2003). The grass will flower until water stress causes senescence (Brooks, 2000). Schismus species are winter annuals and with sufficient rain, germination can occur within two weeks (Pake and Venable, 1995). In North American deserts, S. arabicus is among the first of the winter annuals to flower and the last to die (Pake and Venable, 1995). As a desert annual and winter ephemeral depending on rainfall for germination and growth, it shows great variability in abundance from year to year.

In the southwestern USA, seed germinates in early winter (Brooks, 2000).

In its native range, germination depends on temperature, light conditions and rainfall (Gutterman, 1996a; Gutterman et al., 2010). It can germinate after early winter rains or following later winter rains. The phase of vegetative growth is longer if germination occurs early (Gutterman, 1989). Growth is controlled by day length. The grass has also been observed to germinate following summer rains in southern Egypt and Saudi Arabia (Gutterman, 1996b).

A prolonged after-ripening period is evident in S. arabicus, as the germination rate of stored seeds was higher than that of fresh seeds in plants from its native range (Gutterman, 1996a). Germination in the dark was much higher than in light in a study with seeds from the Negev Desert (Gutterman, 1996a).

Following senescence, plants may remain rooted and standing upright for up to two years. Eventually culms are detaching at the roots and are then blown across the ground (Brooks, 2000).

Population Size and Structure

Abundance of this desert annual varies greatly from year to year because growth and germination depend on rainfall. Once established it may become frequent and cover can reach 45-70% (Howard, 2006). Seed set can be high, e.g. 89 plants covering 1 square metre produced ca 10.000 caryopses (Loria and Noy-Meir, 1979/1980); this gives an average of 112 seeds per plant.

Associations

In the Central Asian Gurbantunggut Desert, the grass is colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Zhang et al., 2012).

Environmental Requirements

S. arabicus is adapted to arid conditions. It emerges during winter and completes its life cycle in spring. In the Negev Desert of Israel, the grass completes its life cycle even in years with less than 100 mm rainfall (Gutterman et al., 2010). In the Central Asian Gurbantunggut Desert, where the grass is a native component of spring ephemerals, mean monthly temperatures range from -20° C to -15° C in January and from 22° C to 26° C in July (Zhang et al., 2012).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Csa - Mediterranean climate Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers, warmest month average temp. > 22°C

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Sporisorium aegyptiacum Pathogen Seeds

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The smut fungus Sporisorium aegyptiacum (A.A. Fisch. Waldh.) Vánky occurs on S. arabicus in Australia (Shivas, 2010), but the fungus does not appear to cause significant damage to the plant. In the Central Asian Gurbantunggut Desert, the grass is colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Zhang et al., 2012).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Detached spikelets or tiny seeds are blown along the ground by wind. Sheet flooding in arid regions also carries seeds away. Seeds often persist within the inflorescence, which detaches after the plant has dried out and is blown across the ground (Brooks, 2000).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Seeds are not adapted for animal dispersal, but in Arizona harvester ants (Veromessor pergandei and Pogonomyrmex rugosus) collect seeds and carry them to their nests (Rissing, 1986). Seeds that are not consumed by ants and germinate in ant nests grow to be significantly larger plants than those growing on sites outside ant nests due to a higher nutrient content. The number of seeds per plant may be 15 times higher in ant nests than outside. In the native range of S. arabicus, ant species of the genus Messor also disperse seeds (Pisarski, 1978).

In Chile, introduced rabbits and hares appear to promote spread of the grass, probably by digging activities, causing soil disturbances, and by damaging native shrubs (Manrique et al., 2007).

Accidental Introduction

As the grass grows in disturbed sites, human activities such as road and railroad construction, off-road vehicle use and urbanization will promote the spread of Schismus seeds. Seeds may also be carried by traffic wind and on clothing. In a study modelling the potential distribution of S. arabicus in Sonora, Mexico, factors associated with human-caused disturbances proved to be the best predictors (Sánchez-Flores, 2007).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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In Arizona, both S. arabicus and S. barbatus are reported as weeds in fields cultivated by Pima Indians (Rea, 1997).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Both S. arabicus and S. barbatus can significantly alter desert ecosystems because these annual grasses accumulate fuel and hence affect fire regimes. In the Sonoran Desert, S. arabicus is considered to be an invasive grass causing serious ecological damage (Van Devender et al., 1997). Fire frequency has increased since 1970 in the Sonoran Desert region (Brooks et al., 2005). In the Mojave Desert, several wildfires in the 1990s were fueled mostly by Schismus litter (Brooks, 1999). Schismus species are not alone responsible for altered fire regimes in the Sonoran Desert but do contribute to fuel accumulation; other alien grasses present in the area such as red brome (Bromus rubens) and buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) have the same effects (Esque and Schwalbe, 2002). It is thought that adventive Bromus species fuel hot, fast-moving and continuous fires, whereas Schismus fuels cooler, slower-moving and more patchy fires (Brooks, 1999).

Impact on Biodiversity

Both S. arabicus and S. barbatus compete with native annuals and grasses for water, nutients and microhabitats in the deserts of North America. Where Schismus grasses are abundant, changes in community composition and species abundances occur, further exacerbated by the grass/fire cycle (see above).

The first stems and leaves often spread out close to the ground, which may prevent other desert ephemerals from sprouting (Van Devender et al., 1997).

Alien annual grasses including Bromus spp. and Schismus spp. affect habitats of the endangered desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in the Mojave Desert as a result of increased fire frequencies (Brooks and Esque, 2002). Fires result in both decreased amounts and altered seasonal availabilities of preferred food plants (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994). These effects cannot be attributed to S.arabicus alone, since several alien annual grasses are present in the area.

The degree to which the grass causes ecological damages is differently rated among regions. In Arizona, S. arabicus has been categorized as an invasive plant of medium risk by the Arizona Wildlands Invasive Plant Working Group (SBSC, 2012), based on a regionally developed assessment protocol. The California Invasive Plant Council rates S. arabicus as a species with limited impacts (Cal-IPC, 2012). In the Sonoran Desert, S. arabicus is among six exotic plant species potentially causing the most ecological damage (Van Devender et al., 1997).

Social Impact

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Increases in fire frequencies (see Environmental Impact) due to S. arabicus represent hazards to the public.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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Economic Value

S. arabicus is a good forage grass and has been used at least in the past for pastures (Felger, 1990; USDA-ARS, 2012).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The closely related S. barbatus is distinguished from S. arabicus by lemmas with shorter terminal points constituting15-25% of the total length of the lemma. In S. arabicus, this value amounts to 30-50%. The presence of hairs on the lemma and the length of the palea in S. arabicus are probably the most distinct differences. Nevertheless, both species are annuals and are so similar that distinguishing them is not easy.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Grazing is not an ideal method to contain S.arabicus, as stated by Brooks (2000). He notes that although grazing can reduce S. arabicus, Schismus biomass increases following moderate to intense grazing, because grazing animals cause soil disturbances and reduce shrub cover. This promotes further spread of the grass.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Hand removal is impractical due to the plant’s small size (Brooks, 2000). Due to the extensive mat of roots under the soil surface, pulling up the grass causes substantial soil disturbances, thereby creating conditions which encourage further establishment of S. arabicus (Brooks, 2000). The same holds for ploughing, disking or scraping. Fire generally promotes the growth of S. arabicus.

Chemical Control

A late application of glyphosate or grass-specific herbicides has proven to be effective in killing plants (Marushia et al., 2010). If fuel accumulation and seed set are to be prevented, herbicides need to be applied at the pre-bolting rosette stage. However, the small surface area of the leaves and culms makes herbicide application difficult (Brooks, 2000).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Studies on the long-term ecological effects of this grass are largely lacking. The role of fires in spreading this invasive grass is not yet fully understood and here studies are badly needed. Many studies do not distinguish between S. arabicus and S. barbatus, hence exact data on local distribution and abundance of S. arabicus are often lacking.

References

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Atlas of Living Australia, 2012. Atlas of Living Australia. Canberra ACT, Australia: GBIF. www.ala.org.au

Bossard CC; Randall JM; Hoshovsky MC, 2000. Invasive plants of California's wildlands. Berkeley, California, USA: University Of California Press, unpaginated.

Brooks ML, 1999. Alien annual grasses and fire in the Mojave Desert. Madrono, 46(1):13-19.

Brooks ML, 2000. Schismus arabicus Nees; Schismus barbatus (L.) Thell. In: Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. In: Schismus arabicus Nees; Schismus barbatus (L.) Thell [ed. by Bossard, C. C. \Randall, J. M. \Hoshovsky, M. C.]. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California Press. [Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands.]

Brooks ML; Belnap J; Keeley J; Sanford R, 2005. Fire and invasive annual grasses in western ecosystems. Las Vegas, NV, U. Fire and invasive annual grasses in western ecosystems. Las Vegas, Nevada, USA: Western Ecological Research Center, US Geological Survey.

Brooks ML; Berry KH, 2006. Dominance and environmental correlates of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert, USA. Journal of Arid Environments, 67(Suppl.1):100-124.

Brooks ML; Esque TC, 2002. Alien annual plants and wildfire in desert tortoise habitat: status, ecological effects, and management. Alien annual plants and wildfire in desert tortoise habitat. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 4:330-340.

Burgess TL; Bowers JE; Turner RM, 1991. Exotic plants at the desert laboratory, Tucson, Arizona. Madrono, 38:96-114.

Cal-IPC, 2012. California Invasive Plant Council. Berkeley, California, USA: Cal-IPC. http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/inventory/weedlist.php

Devender TRVan; Felger RS; Burquez MA, 1997. Exotic plants in the Sonoran Desert region, Arizona and Sonora [ed. by Kelley, \Wagner, E. \Warner, P.]. Concord, California, USA: California Exotic Pest Plant Council. http://www.cal-ipc.org/symposia/archive/1997_proceedings.php

Diaz Lifante Z; Luque T; Barbara CS, 1992. Chromosome numbers of plants collected during Iter Mediterraneum II in Israel. Bocconea, 3:229-250.

Esque TC; Schwalbe CR, 2002. Alien annual grasses and their relationships to fire and biotic change in Sonoran desertscrub. In: Invasive exotic species in the Sonoran region [ed. by Tellman, B.]. Tucson, USA: University of Arizona Press, 194.

Faruqi SA; Quraish HB, 1979. Studies on Libyan grasses. 5. Population variability and distribution of Schismus arabicus and S. barbatus in Libya. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 11(2):167-172.

Feinbrun-Dothan N, 1986. Flora Palaestina. Jerusalem: Israel academy of sciences and humanities.

Felger RS, 1990. Non-native Plants of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona. Technical Report No. 31. Non-native Plants of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona. Tuscon, Arizona, USA: Cooperative National Park Research Studies Unit.

Fish and Wildlife Service US, 1994. Desert Tortoise (Mojave Population) Recovery Plan. Portland, Oregon, USA: United States Fish and Wildlife Service.

Flora of Saudi Arabia, 2012. Plant Diversity in Saudi Arabia - Checklist. Plant Diversity in Saudi Arabia. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Flora of Saudi Arabia (online). http://www.plantdiversityofsaudiarabia.info/Biodiversity-Saudi-Arabia/Flora/Checklist/Cheklist.htm

FloraBase, 2012. The Western Australian Flora. Western Australia, Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation. http://florabase.dec.wa.gov.au/

Fuentes N; Pauchard A; Sanchez P; Esquivel J; Marticorena A, 2012. A new comprehensive database of alien plant species in Chile based on herbarium records. first. DOI 10. A new comprehensive database of alien plant species in Chile based on herbarium records. DOI 10.1007/s10530-012-0334-6

GBIF, 2013. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org/species/

Gould F, 1951. Grasses of southwestern United States. Tucson, Arizona, USA: University of Arizona.

Guertin P, 2003. Factsheet for Schismus arabicus Nees. Factsheet for Schismus arabicus Nees. Tuscon, Arizona, USA: University of Arizona.

Gutterman Y, 1989. Schismus arabicus. Handbook of flowering, Volume VI [ed. by Halevy, A.H.]. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 564-568.

Gutterman Y, 1996. Effect of day length during plant development and caryopsis maturation on flowering and germination, in addition to temperature during dry storage and light during wetting, of Schismus arabicus (Poaceae) in the Negev Desert, Israel. Journal of Arid Environments, 33(4):439-448.

Gutterman Y, 1996. Temperatures during storage, light and wetting affecting caryopses germinability of Schismus arabicus, a common desert annual grass. Journal of Arid Environments, 33(1):73-85.

Gutterman Y; Gendler T; Rachmilevitch S, 2010. Survival of Schismus arabicus seedlings exposed to desiccation depends on annual periodicity. Planta, 231(6):1475-1482.

Hickman JC, 1993. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press, 1400 pp.

Howard JL, 2006. Research Project Summary: Nonnative annual grass fuels and fire in California's Mojave Desert. In: Fire Effects Information System. Nonnative annual grass fuels and fire in California's Mojave Desert [ed. by Fire Effects Information System, \[Online]]., USA: US Department of Agriculture. http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/

ISSG, 2012. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

Izquierdo I; Martin JL; Zurita N; Arechavaleta M, 2004. List of wild species of the Canary Islands (fungi, plants and land animals). (Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres).) List of wild species of the Canary Islands. Canary Islands: Ministry of Environment and Spacial Planning, Canary Islands Government.

Kemp PR; Brooks ML, 1998. Exotic species of California deserts. Fremontia, 26:30-34.

Loria M; Noy-Meir I, 1979/80. Dynamics of some annual populations in a desert loess plain. Israel Journal of Botany, 28:211-225.

Manrique R; Gutiérrez JR; Holmgren M; Squeo FA, 2007. Reduced herbivory during simulated ENSO rainy events increases native herbaceous plants in semiarid Chile. Plant Ecology, 191(1):21-31.

Marushia RG; Cadotte MW; Holt JS, 2010. Phenology as a basis for management of exotic annual plants in desert invasions. Journal of Applied Ecology, 47(6):1290-1299.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Pake CE; Venable DL, 1995. Is coexistence of Sonoran Desert annuals mediated by temporal variability in reproductive success? Ecology, 76(1):246-261.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
California Invasive Plant Councilhttp://www.cal-ipc.org
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Information Management System for Invasive Specieshttp://www.invasivespecies.org
Southwest Biological Science Centerhttp://sbsc.wr.usgs.gov

Organizations

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USA: California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC), 1442-A Walnut Street, #462, Berkeley, California, CA 94709, http://www.cal-ipc.org/

Contributors

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02/01/13 Original text by:

Ewald Weber, Consultant, Germany

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