Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Pluchea indica
(Indian camphorweed)

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Datasheet

Pluchea indica (Indian camphorweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pluchea indica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Indian camphorweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. indica is a widely-branching shrub, native to much of Asia, India and northern Australia. It has not proved invasive in its native area but has become invasive in many of the territories to which it has been...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); invasive habit near water. Kanaha Beach canal, Maui, Hawaii.  August 18, 2001.
TitleHabit near water
CaptionPluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); invasive habit near water. Kanaha Beach canal, Maui, Hawaii. August 18, 2001.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); invasive habit near water. Kanaha Beach canal, Maui, Hawaii.  August 18, 2001.
Habit near waterPluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); invasive habit near water. Kanaha Beach canal, Maui, Hawaii. August 18, 2001.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); habit at Mokolii, Oahu, Hawaii.  April 19, 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionPluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); habit at Mokolii, Oahu, Hawaii. April 19, 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); habit at Mokolii, Oahu, Hawaii.  April 19, 2005.
HabitPluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); habit at Mokolii, Oahu, Hawaii. April 19, 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); leaves and flowers. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii.  February 06, 2001.
TitleLeaves and flowers
CaptionPluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); leaves and flowers. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii. February 06, 2001.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); leaves and flowers. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii.  February 06, 2001.
Leaves and flowersPluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); leaves and flowers. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii. February 06, 2001.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); leaf and stem specimen. Maui, Hawaii.  April 05, 2006.
TitleLeaf and stem specimen
CaptionPluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); leaf and stem specimen. Maui, Hawaii. April 05, 2006.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); leaf and stem specimen. Maui, Hawaii.  April 05, 2006.
Leaf and stem specimenPluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); leaf and stem specimen. Maui, Hawaii. April 05, 2006.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); control measures. Removal with EEWF crew. Kanaha Beach, Maui.  January 08, 2002
TitleControl measures
CaptionPluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); control measures. Removal with EEWF crew. Kanaha Beach, Maui. January 08, 2002
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); control measures. Removal with EEWF crew. Kanaha Beach, Maui.  January 08, 2002
Control measuresPluchea indica (Indian camphorweed); control measures. Removal with EEWF crew. Kanaha Beach, Maui. January 08, 2002©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pluchea indica (L.) Less.

Preferred Common Name

  • Indian camphorweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Baccharis indica L.
  • Conyza corymbosa Roxb.
  • Conyza foliolosa Wall. Ex DC.
  • Conyza indica (L.) Blunme ex DC.
  • Erigeron denticulatus Burm. F.

International Common Names

  • English: Indian camphorweed; Indian fleabane

Local Common Names

  • : Indian pluchea
  • China: kuo bao ju
  • Indonesia: beluntas; lamutasi; lenabou
  • Japan: hiiragi-giku
  • Malaysia: beluntas
  • Thailand: khluu
  • Vietnam: lú’c cây

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. indica is a widely-branching shrub, native to much of Asia, India and northern Australia. It has not proved invasive in its native area but has become invasive in many of the territories to which it has been introduced in the Pacific. It is particularly troublesome in Hawaii, where Holm et al. (1979) rated it as ‘serious’ (the highest category). PIER (2012) indicates a range of other Pacific islands on which it is described as invasive, and indicates a Risk Assessment Score for the Pacific region of 11, which is ‘high’. The problems from P. indica arise mainly in natural vegetation where its vigorous shrubby growth tends to dominate and threaten native species. In Hawaii it “displaces forages in coastal pastures and natives in marshes and saline areas [and] destroys habitat of water birds” (Motooka et al., 2003).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Pluchea
  •                                 Species: Pluchea indica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This plant was named by Linnaeus as Baccharis indica in 1753. It was moved into the genus Pluchea by Lessing in 1831 and although it has been included in Conyza by some authors, there are no currently used alternatives to Pluchea indica. Pluchea x fosbergii is a hybrid of P. indica x P. odorata, which naturally occurs in Guam (Flora of Guam, 2012).

Description

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P. indica is an erect, much-branched shrub growing 1-2 m in height. Branches are shortly hairy when young, later glabrous. Leaves are bright pale green, papery and almost glabrous, obovate, up to 8 cm long, 2-4 cm wide, the margins toothed, and the leaves aromatic when crushed. The base is cuneate and almost sessile. The inflorescence comprises an almost corymbose, compact cluster of heads, each having many ray florets, only a few disc florets, subtended by an involucre of 3-7 series of deltoid bracts. Each head about 6-7 mm long, 5 mm broad on a peduncle 0-10 mm long. Individual ray florets with corolla 3-5 mm long; disc florets, 2-7, have a 5-lobed purple corolla. In fruit the reddish-brown achene, 1 mm long, 0.3 mm wide, has 5-7 ribs, and a white pappus of up to 20 bristles, about 5 mm long.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Woody

Distribution

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P. indica is native to Asia, from India eastwards to China and the Philippines, and to northern Australia, but it has been introduced and become naturalised on many Pacific Ocean islands, and become invasive on several.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
CambodiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
ChinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
-GuangdongPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
-GuangxiPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2012)
-HainanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
Hong KongPresentNativeGBIF (2012)
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
-West BengalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
IndonesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
JapanPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012); PIER (2012); CABI (Undated)
LaosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
MalaysiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
MyanmarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
PhilippinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
Saudi ArabiaPresentGBIF (2012)
SingaporePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
TaiwanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
ThailandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
VietnamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
YemenPresentGBIF (2012)Possibly native

North America

United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER (2012)Ta'u Island
AustraliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
-Northern TerritoryPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
-QueenslandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
Christmas IslandPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2012)Tongareva Island
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedPIER (2012)Ulithi atoll
GuamPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)
KiribatiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012); USDA-ARS (2012)Line, Phoenix and Tungara (Gilbert) Islands
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012); USDA-ARS (2012)Ile Grande Terre
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012)Saipan, Tinian Islands
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)
Papua New GuineaPresentGBIF (2012)
TuvaluPresentIntroducedPIER (2012)
U.S. Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)Midway, Palmyra Atolls
-Johnston AtollPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)

History of Introduction and Spread

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P. indica was first collected in Hawaii in 1915 (Motooka et al., 2003). No other records of the date of introduction elsewhere have been found.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hawaii 1915 Motooka et al. (2003) First collected

Risk of Introduction

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Although P. indica is widely used as a natural medicine in its native area, it is not widely traded for this or any other purpose. Nor is there obvious risk of accidental introduction. Hence the risk of introduction should not be high.

Habitat

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P. indica occurs in lowland riparian zones, wetland, coastal brackish marshes and other saline areas, mangroves and tidal flats. It is occasionally found inland in forested areas but the species does not tolerate dense shade.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Inland saline areas Principal habitat
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat
Rail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat
Riverbanks Principal habitat
Wetlands Principal habitat
Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat
Coastal dunes Principal habitat
Mangroves Secondary/tolerated habitat
Mud flats Principal habitat
Salt marshes Principal habitat

Hosts/Species Affected

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Pasture is affected in Hawaii (Motooka et al., 2003). Native vegetation, especially in coastal saline situations, may also be affected.

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Chromosome number varies; Missouri Botanical Garden (2012) refers to counts of 2n = 20, 30 and 60.

Reproductive Biology

P. indica spreads by seed. No information has been seen on germination requirements.

Longevity

PIER (2012) refers to the seeds as ‘probably having short viability’.

Environmental Requirements

P. indica is adapted to wet, saline conditions but can also occur inland on normal soils. It is a plant of open or lightly shaded conditions but does not tolerate deep shade. It tolerates conditions equivalent to USDA zones 9b to 11, i.e. with minimum temperatures down to -4°C (USDA-NRCS, 2012).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
28 25

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Coccus viridis Predator Whole plant Bach, 1991

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The scale insect, Coccus viridis, damages P. indica in Hawaii but this effect is reduced by the protective attention of the ant Pheidole megacephala (Bach, 1991).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Natural dispersal is by wind-blown seed.

Accidental Introduction

No clear record.

Intentional introduction

No record.

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
WindNatural dispersion of seed Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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There is no detail available on economic damage, but Holm et al. (1979) classify it as a ‘serious’ weed of crops in Hawaii, and Motooka et al. (2003) note that it replaces forage species in coastal pastures in Hawaii and presumably reduces livestock productivity.

Environmental Impact

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P. indica is classed as invasive across many Pacific islands, especially Hawaii and this is believed to be mainly for its displacement of native vegetation, especially in marshes and saline areas (Motooka et al., 2003). In addition, it destroys the habitat of water birds (Motooka et al., 2003). In Hawaii, Holm et al. (1979) rated it as ‘serious’ threat and PIER (2012) indicate a Risk Assessment Score for the Pacific region of 11, which is ‘high’.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - shading
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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P. indica is used as a table salad in Malaysia (Mohd Nazri et al., 2011) and as a vegetable in Indonesia (Andarwulan et al., 2010).

USDA-ARS (2012) refers to a wide range of traditional uses for P. indica in dysentery, fever, gangrene, lumbago, obesity, leucorrhea, myosis, smallpox, sores and wounds; and as an astringent, diaphoretic or tonic. It is also used as a tea.

In India, P. indica is known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-pyretic, hypoglycemic, diuretic and anti-microbial activities besides many other pharmacological activities. Compounds with activity against Entamoeba histolytica have been confirmed (Ria Biswas et al., 2007). Also in India, extracts of P. indica roots exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against experimentally induced liver damage by carbon tetrachloride in rats and mice (Sen et al., 2002).

In Malaysia, a study confirmed that there is some basis for the local use of P. indica extracts to alleviate symptoms of tuberculosis (Suriyati Mohamad et al., 2011). Other work in Malaysia concludes that it has potential medicinal properties that can be further developed to produce neutraceutical products, diet supplements or cosmetic products (Normala et al., 2011).

The hot water extract of P. indica leaves contains a source of antioxidants and inhibitors of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production that can be used as dietary supplements with good health promoting effects in Thailand (Srisook et al., 2012). High antioxidant activity apparently associated with high phenolic content has also been measured in Malaysia (Mohd Shukri et al., 2011; Mohd Nazri et al., 2011) and in India (Sanchita Ghosh et al., 2008) and associated with high flavonoids in Indonesia (Andarwulan et al., 2010).

Results of tests against a range of bacteria suggest the possibility of using P. indica as an alternative therapy in the treatment of urinary tract infections (Sittiwet, 2009) and for treatment of dysentery (Pramanik and Chatterjee, 2008).

Studies in India suggest that β-sitosterol and stigmasterol contained in P. indica may play an important role, along with antiserum, in neutralizing snake venom-induced actions (Gomes et al., 2007).

In Indonesia, P. indica leaf meal added into a diet for chickens at the level of 2% significantly increased final body weight, body weight gain, feed and water intake, and decreased feed conversion ratio and was also able to decrease the cholesterol content of broiler meat up to 8% (Sudarman et al., 2011). A level of 10% reduced stress in broiler chickens (Sudarman et al., 2012).

Pot experiments in Malaysia suggested that P. indica could be useful for phyto-remediation in multi-metal contaminated soil (Majid et al., 2012).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Boundary, barrier or support

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The closely related P. carolinensis, also a serious invasive weed in Hawaii, is distinguished by being more densely furry and the leaves thinner, petiolate, almost entire, and with 20-25 central disk florets compared with only 2-7 in P. indica (Flora of China, 2012).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

There is no rhizome system, so it may presumably be readily controlled by suitable cultivation where soil conditions allow, but these would not be feasible in wetland situations.

Biological Control

There is no record of any attempt at biological control. 

Chemical Control

Motooka et al. (2003) indicate that it is susceptible to 2,4-D and related herbicides, and to glyphosate.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There is a serious lack of available information on many aspects of the biology and control of P. indica, in particular its germination requirements, its phenology, and control methods.

References

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Andarwulan N; Batari R; Sandrasari DA; Bolling B; Wijaya H, 2010. Flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of vegetables from Indonesia. Food Chemistry, 121(4):1231-1235.

Bach CE, 1991. Direct and indirect interactions between ants (Pheidole megacephala), scales (Coccus viridis) and plants (Pluchea indica). Oecologia, 87(2):233-239.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

Flora of Guam, 2012. Flora of Guam. Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii. http://www.herbarium.hawaii.edu/efloras/guam/index.php

GBIF, 2012. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org

Gomes A; Saha A; Chatterjee I; Chakravarty AK, 2007. Viper and cobra venom neutralization by ss-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae). Phytomedicine, 14(9):637-643.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Majid NM; Islam MM; Yumarnis Riasmi; Arifin Abdu, 2012. Assessment of heavy metal uptake and translocation by Pluchea indica L. from sawdust sludge contaminated soil. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 10(2 part 2):849-855. http://www.isfae.org/scientificjournal.php

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012. Tropicos database. Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Mohd Nazri NAA; Ahmat N; Adnan A; Syed Mohamad SA; Syaripah Ruzaina SA, 2011. In vitro antibacterial and radical scavenging activities of Malaysian table salad. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(30):5728-5735. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/full%20text/2011/27Jun/Mohd%20Nazri%20et%20al.htm

Mohd Shukri MA; Alan C; Site Noorzuraini AR, 2011. Polyphenols and antioxidant activities of selected traditional vegetables. Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science, 39(1):69-83. http://www.mardi.my/

Motooka P; Castro L; Nelson D; Nagai G; Ching L, 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas; an identification and management guide. Manoa, Hawaii, USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii.

Normala H; Suhaimi MI, 2011. Quantification of total phenolics in different parts of Pluchea indica (Less) ethanolic and water extracts. Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, 19(1):19-24.

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pramanik KC; Chatterjee TK, 2008. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of root extract of tissue cultured Pluchea indica (L.) Less. against bacillary dysentery. Pharmacognosy Magazine, 4(14):78-84. http://www.phcog.net/phcogmag/issue14/4.pdf

Ria Biswas; Dutta PK; Achari B; Durba Bandyopadhyay; Moumita Mishra; Pramanik KC; Chatterjee TK, 2007. Isolation of pure compound R/J/3 from Pluchea indica (L.) Less. and its anti-amoebic activities against Entamoeba histolytica. Phytomedicine, 14(7/8):534-537. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09447113

Sanchita Ghosh; Pramanik KC; Uma Maheswari; Chatterjee TK, 2008. In vitro antioxidant activities of the methanolic root extract of tissue cultured medicinal plant Pluchea indica (L.) Less. Pharmacognosy Magazine, 4(16(suppl.)):S174-S181. http://www.phcog.net/phcogmag/issue16_suppl/2.pdf

Sen T; Dhara AK; Bhattacharjee S; Pal S; Chaudhuri AKN, 2002. Antioxidant activity of the methanol fraction of Pluchea indica root extract. Phytotherapy Research, 16(4):331-335.

Sittiwet C, 2009. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Pluchea indica aqueous extract: the potential for urinary tract infection treatment. Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 4(2):87-90. http://academicjournals.net

Srisook K; Buapool D; Boonbai R; Simmasut P; Charoensuk Y; Srisook E, 2012. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hot water extract from Pluchea indica Less. herbal tea. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6(23):4077-4081. http://www.academicjournals.org/JMPR/abstracts/abstracts/abstracts2012/21June/Srisook%20et%20al.htm

Sudarman A; Sumiati; Kaniadewi R, 2012. Performance of broiler chickens offered drinking water contained water extracted beluntas (Pluchea indica L.) leaf and sugar cane. Media Peternakan, 35(2):117-122. http://journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/mediapeternakan/article/view/5579

Sudarman A; Sumiati; Solikhah H, 2011. Performance and meat cholesterol content of broiler chickens fed Pluchea indica L. leaf meal reared under stress condition. Media Peternakan, 34(1):64-68. http://journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/mediapeternakan/article/view/3170/2114

Suriyati Mohamad; Nabihah Mohd Zin; Wahab HA; Pazilah Ibrahim; Shaida Fariza Sulaiman; Anis Safirah MZ; Siti Suraiya MN, 2011. Antituberculosis potential of some ethnobotanically selected Malaysian plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 133(3):1021-1026. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T8D-51H703N-B&_user=10&_coverDate=02%2F16%2F2011&_rdoc=9&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_origin=browse&_zone=rslt_list_item&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235084%232011%23998669996%232885785%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5084&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=22&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=7f57ed88b559d670262ba220524bc1c2&searchtype=a

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2012. Plants Database., USA: United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Office. http://plants.usda.gov/java/

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

GBIF, 2012. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012. Tropicos database., Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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03/12/2012 Original text by:

Chris Parker, Bristol, UK

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