Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Passiflora caerulea
(blue passionflower)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Passiflora caerulea (blue passionflower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Passiflora caerulea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • blue passionflower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. caerulea is a perennial vine native to South America (southern Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay), which has been deliberately introduced as an attractive flowering plant to many parts of the world. It...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Passiflora caerulea (blue passionflower); habit, climbing over New Zealand flax plants (Phormium tenax).
TitleHabit
CaptionPassiflora caerulea (blue passionflower); habit, climbing over New Zealand flax plants (Phormium tenax).
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Passiflora caerulea (blue passionflower); habit, climbing over New Zealand flax plants (Phormium tenax).
HabitPassiflora caerulea (blue passionflower); habit, climbing over New Zealand flax plants (Phormium tenax).©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Passiflora caerulea (blue passionflower); flowering plant.
TitleFlowering plant
CaptionPassiflora caerulea (blue passionflower); flowering plant.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Passiflora caerulea (blue passionflower); flowering plant.
Flowering plantPassiflora caerulea (blue passionflower); flowering plant.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Passiflora caerulea (blue passionflower); flower.
TitleFlower
CaptionPassiflora caerulea (blue passionflower); flower.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Passiflora caerulea (blue passionflower); flower.
FlowerPassiflora caerulea (blue passionflower); flower.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Passiflora caerulea (blue passionflower); flower and fruit.
TitleFlower and fruit
CaptionPassiflora caerulea (blue passionflower); flower and fruit.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Passiflora caerulea (blue passionflower); flower and fruit.
Flower and fruitPassiflora caerulea (blue passionflower); flower and fruit.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Passiflora caerulea L.

Preferred Common Name

  • blue passionflower

Other Scientific Names

  • Passiflora caerulea var. angustifolia G.Don
  • Passiflora caerulea var. glauca Mast.
  • Passiflora caerulea var. glaucophylla Loudon
  • Passiflora caerulea var. imbricata Mast.
  • Passiflora caerulea var. regnellii Mast.
  • Passiflora coerulea DAISIE, 2014

International Common Names

  • English: blue passionfruit; bluecrown passionflower; Brazilian passionflower; palikea
  • Spanish: caña comun; flor de la pasión; flor de la passió; pasiflora; pasionaria; passionera
  • French: fleur de la passion; Passiflore bleu

Local Common Names

  • : blue passionfruit; Brazilian passionflower
  • : caña comun; flor de la pasión; flor de la passió; pasiflora; pasionaria; passionera
  • : fleur de la passion; Passiflore bleu
  • Brazil: maracujá-azul; maracujá-de-cobra
  • Denmark: blaa passionsblomst
  • Germany: blaue Passionsblume
  • Greece: rologaki; roloi
  • Italy: fiore della passione; passiflora; passiflora azzurra
  • Netherlands: blauwe passiebloem
  • Portugal: flor-da-paixão
  • South Africa: siergrenadella (Afrikaans)
  • Sweden: bla passionsblomma

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

P. caerulea is a perennial vine native to South America (southern Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay), which has been deliberately introduced as an attractive flowering plant to many parts of the world. It has become established as an invasive species in New Zealand, Hawaii, offshore Chilean islands and possibly other Pacific islands. The species is considered valuable as an attractive ornamental vine, is reputed to have herbal activity as a sedative and anticonvulsant, and is often used as a relatively disease-resistant rootstock for the edible passionfruit (P. edulis). However, where it has escaped and become invasive, it can smother native species and suppress the establishment of native seedlings.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Violales
  •                         Family: Passifloraceae
  •                             Genus: Passiflora
  •                                 Species: Passiflora caerulea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The genus Passiflora comprises about 450 species, mostly native to tropical and temperate America (Mabberley, 2002). Almost all species are climbing vines with attractive flowers, thought by South American Catholic priests to represent the passion of Christ, hence the common name. Several species also produce edible fruit (passionfruit).

Description

Top of page

Slightly modified from Webb et al. (1988):

Glabrous vine. Shoots angular. Leaves 5-lobed almost to base, membranous; petioles 1-3 cm long, with 1-3 stalked glands usually near middle of petiole; stipules about 2 cm broad, subreniform, undulate, sometimes dentate; lamina lobes subequal; middle lobe 3.5-6.5-(8.5) × 0.5-3 cm, elliptic-obovate or narrow-elliptic, sometimes almost linear on vegetative shoots, membranous and dull above, entire or crenulate, mucronate. Flowers hermaphrodite, solitary. Pedicels 3.5-6.5 cm long. Bracts 2-2.8 cm long, broad-ovate, entire, cordate, imbricate. Hypanthium inconspicuous. Sepals and petals 3-4.5 cm long, oblong, white inside; sepals greenish outside and with short dorsal horn towards apex; corona threads about 2 cm long, with base purple, middle white, and apex violet. Stamens greenish; anthers about 10 mm long, equal or slightly longer than the filaments. Ovary glabrous. Fruit about 3-5 cm in diameter, subglobose, yellow; pulp scanty and inedible. Seed about 4 mm long, broad-elliptic, strongly alveolate, silvery brownish.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

P. caerulea is native to South America. In its native Argentina, P. caerulea is the most widely distributed species of the genus Passiflora. P. caerulea has been widely distributed as a garden plant in countries in North America, Europe, Asia and Australasia. Especially in warmer countries on most continents plants have escaped, spread by birds and other animals, and have become established as problematic vines in native forests and shrublands, as well as along riverbanks and in hedgerows and waste areas (Weeds of Australia, 2012; Invasive Species South Africa, 2014; PIER, 2014; Weedbusters New Zealand, 2014.)

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014
-GuangxiPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014
-JiangxiPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014
-SichuanPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014
-YunnanPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014
IndiaPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2014Western Ghats
Sri LankaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Dept. and of Agriculture, Sri Lanka, 2014

Africa

KenyaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Invasive BioNET-EAFRINET, 2014Particularly in parts of Central And Nairobi Provinces
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Invasive Species South Africa, 2014A problem in Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Rejmánek, 2009Widely naturalized in southern California
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2012
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2012Kaua’I and O’ahu Islands
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2012
-TexasPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2012
-UtahPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2012

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative Invasive Dendinagi, 2001
BrazilPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
ParaguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
UruguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014

Europe

CyprusPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
FrancePresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
-CorsicaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
ItalyPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
MaltaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AzoresPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
SpainPresentIntroduced Invasive Dana et al., 2004Known as invasive and, although not threatening natural or man-made systems is suspected to do so in the near future

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Invasive Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust , 2014
-QueenslandPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Invasive Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust , 2014
-Western AustraliaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Invasive Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust , 2014
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2012
New ZealandPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Invasive Webb et al., 1988
TongaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2012

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

Geffrye Museum (2014) indicated that P. caerulea was a popular garden plant in Britain and probably Europe and elsewhere by the 19th century. In Australia, the first herbarium record was in 1913 from New South Wales (CHAH, 2014), but whether this was a garden or wild occurrence was not reported. In New Zealand it was not recorded as an escape from cultivation until 1958 (Webb et al., 1988).

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia 1913 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes CHAH (2014); Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2013) New South Wales
New Zealand 1958 Yes Webb et al. (1988)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

P. caerulea has been introduced to many countries as both an attractive cultivated garden plant and as the rootstock for grafted plants of cultivated passionfruit (P. edulis). The species has naturalised in several of these countries to become an invasive vine. The chances are therefore high that further naturalisation will continue to occur in more countries where P. caerulea is grown.

Habitat

Top of page

In Argentina, part of its native range, P. caerulea grows in both xerophytic areas and wet forests, especially at the forest edges. It grows on modified, sandy, clayey or rocky soils. It can be found from sea level up to 1400 m above sea level (Mendiondo and Amela Garcia, 2006). Dedinagi (2001, cited in Mendiondo and Amela Garcia, 2006) wrote that, even in its native locations, P. caerulea spreads over other plants and over fences at the edges of paths and railways, in both urban and rural areas.

The species grows in very similar habitats where it has become invasive. In general P. caerulea becomes problematic in native forests and shrublands, as well as along riverbanks and in hedgerows and waste areas. In New Zealand, it is found in hedges, nurseries, exotic plantations, light wells in and margins of native forests, on waste land, in gardens and along roadsides (Weedbusters New Zealand, 2014). In Australia, Weeds of Australia (2012) reported that it can spread quickly in bushland areas, densely smothering native vegetation. In South Africa, ‘this plant invades forest margins, bush clumps, roadsides and river banks’ (Invasive Species South Africa, 2014).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details
Riverbanks Present, no further details
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

The plants affected by P. caerulea are mostly native tree and shrub species in countries where it has escaped from gardens and become invasive.

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

2n=18 (Storey, 1950; Bugallo et al., 2011). P. caerulea forms hybrids with several other species of the same genus, and many cultivars of the species have been selected and bred as garden plants.

Reproductive Biology

The flowers are pollinated by large bees, at least in parts of their natural environment (Amela Garcia and Hoc, 1997, cited in Burkes Holland and Landa, 2008). The same authors wrote that the species exhibits a low degree of self-compatibility.

Bugallo et al. (2011) investigated hybridisation between several species of Passiflora and found that P. caerulea produced fertile hybrids with P. alata, P. amethystina, and P. x ‘violacea’, although there were pre-zygotic barriers in the crosses with P. alata and P. amethystine. P. caerulea was considered outstanding as male parent.

According to PFAF (2014) the flowers open in sunny weather and do not open on dull cloudy days. Individual flowers only live for about 48 hours, remaining open all night and starting to close in the morning.

Physiology and Phenology

Mendiondo and Amela Garcia (2006; 2009) explored the characters influencing germination and emergence of seeds of P. caerulea. They collected seeds from ripe fruit and treated them in several different ways before sowing them in a mixture of soil and perlite in a greenhouse. Emergence was observed for 16 months. Seedling emergence was generally low, with a pre-treatment of removing arils and soaking in water at room temperature for 24 hours giving highest emergence of 33%. Removal of the aril from seeds tended to increase seedling emergence and vigour. Ferreira et al. (2005) also found that removal of the aril improved germination in the related species P. alata. Adding gibberellin to the substrate also seemed to promote germination.

Mendiondo and Amela Garcia (2009) compared the germination of seeds with or without the aril; with or without physical (sandpaper) or acid (‘pure’ HCl for 10 minutes) scarification; and before or after storage for one month in either an air-tight container, either in a refrigerator or desiccated at room temperature. The highest level of germination (60%) came after removal of the aril, followed by one month’s storage in the air-tight container. One month’s ‘desiccated’ storage after aril removal also produced 50% germination. Mechanical scarification with sandpaper increased germination of fresh seeds and, to some extent, of desiccated stored seeds. In almost all cases chemical scarification led to no germination at all.

MacDougal (1893) explored the behaviour of the tendrils of P. caerulea and found that the tendrils responded to a very light touch, causing them to curve towards the touched object. This work was carried out long before the roles of auxins in stem and tendril curvature was understood. Jaffe and Galston (1968) described three main movements of tendrils: (1) circumnutation, an endogenous movement increasing the probability of contact with supports; (2) contact coiling, in which the stimulated tendril coils around a support, and (3) free coiling, in which the tendril develops helical coils along its axis, not necessarily as a result of stimulation. Isnard and Silk (2009) reviewed research into climbing plants, including tendrils. Most of the research has been on species other than those of species of Passiflora, but presumably the principles are similar. The contact coiling involves perception of a mechanical stimulus resulting in a complex chain of events, including fast ionic processes as well as chemical signaling to coordinate the reactions of the whole organ (Liss and Weiler, 1994; Engelberth et al., 1995, both cited in Isnard and Silk, 2009). The subsequent free coiling of the tendril draws the stem closer to the support (Macdougal, 1896; Putz et al,, 1991, cited in Isnard and Silk, 2009) and ‘provides the plant with an elastic spring-like connection to the support that enables it to resist high winds and loads’ (McMillen and Goriely, 2002, cited in Isnard and Silk, 2009).

Longevity

In Argentina part of its native range, the vines effectively last for at least 4 years before the stems are attacked, presumably lethally, by insects (Mendiondo and Amela Garcia, 2006). The use of insecticides could probably prolong the effective life of vines. In countries to which it has been introduced there are probably fewer natural enemies and so it may be able to survive longer.

Population Size and Structure

The population of native plants of P. caerulea in parts of Argentina and probably other countries in which it is native is apparently threatened, partly by urbanisation but also by the demand for its herbal properties (Mendiondo and Amela Garcia, 2006).

Environmental Requirements

 

According to PFAF (2014)P. caerulea requires well-drained soil with plenty of moisture in the growing season, and dislikes highly alkaline soils. Although frosts can kill the aerial parts of the plant, in the following spring it will regrow from the base (PFAF, 2014). 

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

‘Passionflowers are subject to a wide array of pests and diseases, but most of them have minimal impact on well grown plants. Butterfly larvae are the exception; caterpillars readily devour the foliage of healthy mature plants’ (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Birds and the possum Trichosurus vulpecula carry seeds for moderate distances in New Zealand. 

Accidental Introduction

Accidental spread to new countries is unlikely as seeds are normally carried only short distances from the parent plants by birds or sometimes by mammals.

Intentional Introduction

This method of spread is the most likely, both from one country to another and within a country, because the flowers are very attractive and the plants very desirable. The species is often used as a rootstock for P. edulis (Weedbusters New Zealand, 2014). In countries where sale, propagation and distribution of P. caerulea is banned, such as New Zealand, illegal distribution may continue.

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes
Landscape improvement Yes Yes
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

P. caerulea is unlikely to invade productive crops so it unlikely to have much economic impact. Invasive Species South Africa (2014) reported that it is suspected of being poisonous, but whether this is to people or livestock is not clear.

Environmental Impact

Top of page

P. caerulea can spread into natural areas and smother native plants, as well as preventing the emergence and survival of new native seedlings (Weedbusters New Zealand, 2014). Very similar observations of its effects have also been noted in South Africa (Invasive Species South Africa, 2014) and in Australia (Weeds of Australia, 2014). If global warming continues as expected, the same species could easily become a problem in more countries in, for example, Europe.

Impact on Habitats

The invasion of P. caerulea into natural habitats is highly likely to disturb the survival and regeneration of native bush.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Reduced amenity values
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

Economic Value

According to Mabberley (2014), the flowers of P. x belotii (a hybrid between P. alatocaerulea, P. alata and P. caerulea) are used in scent making. P. caerulea is a valuable horticultural plant, ‘very popular and widespread in UK and the rest of Europe’. It is very valuable to garden shops and garden enthusiasts. The species does produce fruit, inedible when green, but edible when ripened and orange, although ‘they do not generally taste that great’ (Passiflora Online, 2014). P. caerulea is also commonly grown as a rootstock for other cultivated species of passionfruit because of its tolerance to cold and pathogens (Weeds of Australia, 2012). The species can be found for sale on websites in the United States, Canada, Europe and Australasia.

In South America, the most important use of P. caerulea is medicinal (Alonso, 2004, cited in Mendiondo and Amela Garcia, 2009). Mendiondo and Amela Garcia (2009) reported that several trademarks of herbal tea and dietary supplements employ this this species as a raw material (presumably in Argentina). According to Mendiondo and Amela Garcia (2006) the fresh fruit is used as an ingredient in marmalades, syrups, beverages, juices, stews or ice-creams. The same authors reported the use of its fruit by the Argentinian ethnic groups the Toba and the Maka.

Environmental Services

In Argentina, part of its native range, the fruits of P. caerulea provide food for several species of native birds (Mendiondo and Amela Garcia, 2006).

Uses List

Top of page

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Propagation material

Prevention and Control

Top of page

SPS Measures

In New Zealand, the species appears on the National Pest Plant Accord and therefore cannot be sold, propagated or distributed (see section on Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures).

Eradication

In South Africa, P. caerulea is named as a Category 1 plant, or declared weed: prohibited plants that will ‘no longer be tolerated, neither in rural nor urban areas, except with the written permission of the executive officer or in an approved biocontrol reserve. These plants may no longer be planted or propagated, and all trade in their seeds, cuttings or other propagative material is prohibited. They may not be transported or be allowed to disperse’ (Alien Plants in South Africa, 2014).

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

In South Africa P. caerulea is listed as an invasive species that must be controlled. In Australia it is considered an environmental weed in Victoria and parts of New South Wales. In Victoria it is seen as a potential threat to one or more vegetation formations and is included in in some local and regional environmental weed lists (Weeds of Australia, 2012). In New Zealand the species is listed on the National Pest Plant Accord, an agreement between Central and Regional Government and the Nursery and Garden Industry Association to prevent the sale, distribution, or propagation, of specified pest plants (National Pest Plant Accord, 2014).

Physical/Mechanical Control

Weedbusters New Zealand (2014) reported that roots (of smaller plants) can be pulled up at any time of the year. Any aerial stems should be cut off above ground level or tied up so they cannot touch the ground and resprout.

Control

Weedbusters New Zealand (2014) suggests cutting the aerial shoots (and stopping them from falling on the ground, where they could resprout) and painting the cut stump with glyphosate, metsulfuron-methyl, triclopyr, triclopyr plus picloram, or 2,4-D plus dicamba. Where the roots cannot be pulled out, vegetation should be sprayed on the ground with the same herbicides.

One approach is to cut the stems and, when the stumps regrow, spray the emerging shoots with glyphosate or another appropriate herbicide.

References

Top of page

Alien Plants in South Africa, 2014. Legal Obligations Regarding Invasive Alien Plants in South Africa. http://www.arc.agric.za/arc-ppri/Pages/Weeds%20Research/Legal-obligations-regarding-invasive-alien-plants-in-South-Africa-.aspx

Alonso J, 2004. Treaty of phyto- and nutrient-based medications [ed. by 1st]. Rosario, Argentina: Corpus.

BioNET-EAFRINET, 2014. East African Network for Taxonomy. Online Key and Fact Sheets for Invasive plants. http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/index.htm

Bugallo V; Cardone S; Pannunzio MJ; Facciuto G, 2011. Breeding advances in Passiflora spp. (Passionflower) native to Argentina. Floriculture and Ornamental Biotechnology, 5(1):23-34.

Burks Holland J; Landa J, 2008. Geographic variation in the pollination biology of Passiflora lutea (Passifloraceae). Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science, 62:32-36.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013. Australia's virtual herbarium. Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.ala.org.au

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Dana ED; Sanz-Elorza M; Sobrino E, 2004. Plant invaders in Spain (check-list), 'the unwanted citizens'. http://www.ual.es/personal/edana/alienplants/checklist.pdf

Dendinagi N, 2001. Las especies argentinas del genero Passiflora (Pssifloraceae). Darwiniana, 39:43-129.

Department of Agriculture; Sri Lanka, 2014. Passion fruit. Crop Recommendations. http://www.agridept.gov.lk/index.php/en/crop-recommendations/1099

Engelberth J; Wanner G; Groth B; Weiler EW, 1995. Functional anatomy of the mechanoreceptor cells in tendrils of Bryonica dioica Jacq. Planta, 196:539-550.

Ferreira G; Oliveira Ade; Rodrigues JD; Dias GB; Detoni AM; Tesser SM; Antunes AM, 2005. Effect of aril in Passiflora alata seed germination in differents substrates and submitted to previous germinative treatments with gibberellin. (Efeito de arilo na germinação de sementes de Passiflora alata curtis em diferentes substratos e submetidas a tratamentos com giberelina.) Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 27(2):277-280.

Garcia MTA; Hoc PS; 1997, publ. 1998. Floral biology and reproductive system of Passiflora caerulea (Passifloraceae). Beiträge zur Biologie der Pflanzen [Blütenbiologie und Reproduktivsystem von Passiflora caerulea (Passifloraceae).], 70(1):1-20.

Geffrye Museum, 2014. 19th Century Period Garden. Geffrye Museum of the Home. http://www.geffrye-museum.org.uk/period-rooms-and-gardens/explore-gardens/19th-century-period-garden/

India Biodiversity Portal, 2014. Passiflora caerulea. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/show/265040

Invasive Species South Africa, 2014. Plants A-Z: Flora that is invasive in South Africa. South Africa: Invasive Species South Africa. http://www.invasives.org.za/invasive-plants.html

Isnard S; Silk WK, 2009. Moving with climbing plants from Charles Darwin's time into the 21st century. American Journal of Botany, 96(7):1205-1221. http://www.amjbot.org/

Jaffe MJ; Galston AW, 1968. Physiological studies on pea tendrils. V. Membrane changes and water movement associated with contact coiling. Plant Physiology, 43:537-42.

Liss H; Weiler EW, 1994. Ion-translocating ATPases in tendrils of Bryonica dioica Jacq. Planta, 194:169-180.

Mabberley, 2002. The Plant Book. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 858pp.

MacDougal DT, 1893. The tendrils of Passiflora caerulea. Botanical Gazetter, 18(4):123-130.

McMillen T; Goriely A, 2002. Tendril perversion in intrinsically curved rods. Journal of Nonlinear Science, 12:241-281.

Mendiondo GM; Amela García MT, 2006. Emergence of Passiflora caerulea seeds simulating possible natural destinies. Fruits (Paris), 61(4):251-258. http://www.edpsciences.org/fruits/

Mendiondo GM; García MTA, 2009. Germination of stored and scarified seeds of Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae). Plant Biosystems, 143(2):369-376.

Ministry for Primary Industries, 2014. National Pest Plant Accord. New Zealand. http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/nppa

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Passiflora Online, 2014. Passiflora Online. http://www.passionflow.co.uk/

PFAF, 2014. Passiflora caerulea - L. Plants for a Future Database. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Passiflora+caerulea

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry . http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Putz FE; Mooney HA; Putz FE; Holbrook NM, 1991. Biomechanical studies of vines. In: The biology of vines [ed. by Putz, F. E. \Mooney, H. A.]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 73-97.

Rejmánek M, 2009. Passiflora (Passifloraceae) in California: a key and comments on naturalized species. Botanical Electronic News (BEN), 406 [ed. by Ceska, A.]. http://www.ou.edu/cas/botany-micro/ben/ben406.html

Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, 2014. PlantNET - The Plant Information Network System of The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust. Sydney, Australia: National Herbarium of New South Wales. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au

Storey WB, 1950. Chromosome numbers of some species of Passiflora occurring in Hawaii. Pacific Science, 4:37-42.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Webb CJ; Sykes WR; Garnock-Jones PJ, 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: Botany Division, DSIR, 1365 pp.

Weedbusters NZ, 2014. Passiflora caerulea. Weedbusters New Zealand. http://www.weedbusters.org.nz/weed_info/detail.asp?WeedID=77

Weeds of Australia, 2012. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/search.html?zoom_query=

Contributors

Top of page

03/04/14: Original text by Ian Popay, consultant, UK, with support from Landcare Research, New Zealand

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map