Invasive Species Compendium

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Paspalum paniculatum
(Russell River grass)

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Datasheet

Paspalum paniculatum (Russell River grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Paspalum paniculatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Russell River grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. paniculatum is a fast-growing grass sometimes used as an “auxiliary forage” crop (PROTA, 2016). Within and outs...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Paspalum paniculatum L.

Preferred Common Name

  • Russell River grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Axonopus paniculatus Mez ex Torrend
  • Panicum paniculatum (L.) Kuntze
  • Paspalum compressicaule Raddi
  • Paspalum cordovense E.Fourn.
  • Paspalum hemisphericum Poir.
  • Paspalum multispica Steud.
  • Paspalum paniculatum var. minus C. Moore
  • Paspalum paniculatum var. rigidum Schltdl. ex E.Fourn.
  • Paspalum strictum Pers.

International Common Names

  • English: angel grass; galmarra grass; Russell grass
  • Spanish: arrocillo; zacate cabezon
  • French: herbe duvet; herbe de la mission
  • Chinese: kai sui que bai
  • Portuguese: capim-vassoura

Local Common Names

  • Australia: galmarra grass; Russell grass; Russell Rivergrass
  • Brazil: capim-vassoura
  • Cook Islands: matie manutai; mauku; taravao ‘uru‘uru
  • Costa Rica: zacate cabezon
  • Fiji: covatu
  • French Polynesia: ‘ofe‘ofe
  • Puerto Rico: arrocillo; arrocillo de altura; gramilla; yerba peluda
  • United States Virgin Islands: hairy grass

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. paniculatum is a fast-growing grass sometimes used as an “auxiliary forage” crop (PROTA, 2016). Within and outside its native distribution, P. paniculatum behaves as an environmental and agricultural weed and can be found growing along roadsides, in disturbed places, moist shrublands, low open grounds, brushy slopes, forests, open ground, croplands and pastures (Zuloaga et al., 2003; Más and Garcia-Molinari, 2006; Más and Lugo, 2013; AusGrass2, 2016). Plants produce numerous seeds with germination rates higher than 85% (range: 86.5 to 99%, PROTA, 2016). Currently, this species is listed as invasive on Hawaii, Cuba, Trinidad and Tobago, Samoa, Northern Marianas Islands, Micronesia, Fiji, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Niue, Palau and the Solomon Islands (Wagner et al., 1999; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2016; Trinidad and Tobago Biodiversity, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Paspalum
  •                                 Species: Paspalum paniculatum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Poaceae comprises over 700 genera and 11,000 species distributed worldwide (Stevens, 2012). With about 330 species, Paspalum is one of the richest genera within the family Poaceae (Zuloaga and Morrone, 2005; Stevens, 2012). This genus is primarily distributed across the Americas with species inhabiting ecologically diverse habitats such as savannas, coastal dunes, tropical and temperate forests, and prairies (Giussani et al., 2009). Centres of highest diversity have been recognized in the Brazilian Cerrados and grasslands in Argentina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil (Zuloaga and Morrone, 2005; Rua et al., 2010). A few Paspalum species are found in Africa, Asia, and Oceania, but the genus is thought to have originated in tropical South America (Chase, 1929; Rua et al., 2010). The species epithet paniculatum refers to flowers arranged in panicles.

Description

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P. paniculatum is a perennial grass; culms densely tufted, 0.3 to more than 2 m high, coarse, leafy, erect or ascending, sometimes decumbent at the base and rooting at the lower nodes, finally branching, the nodes glabrous to conspicuously bearded with stiff ascending hairs; sheaths mostly longer than the internodes, keeled, sometimes only on the collar and along the margins, colored orange-brown on the inner surface; ligule 1-3 mm long; blades 9-50 cm long, 6-25 mm wide, usually rounded at the base, densely hispid on both surfaces to nearly glabrous, with a tuft of long hairs on each side at the base, the margins scabrous; inflorescence 5-30 cm long, composed of 7-60 approximate, solitary or somewhat fascicled racemes, the lower ones 4-12 cm long, ascending or arcuate- spreading; spikelets paired, 1.3-1.5 mm long, densely crowded, the glume and sterile lemma equal, barely covering the fruit, softly pubescent, the sterile lemma woolly pubescent only on the margins; fruit about as large as the spikelet, smooth and shining (Flora of Panama, 2016).

Distribution

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P. paniculatum is native to tropical America and occurs from Mexico to Argentina and in the West Indies (Zuloaga et al., 2003; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Clayton et al., 2016). It was introduced in Africa, Asia, Europe, and on many islands in the Pacific Ocean (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; DAISIE, 2016; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016).

In Cuba and Trinidad and Tobago, the origin of P. paniculatum is uncertain. While some authors have listed this species as native (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Clayton et al., 2016), others consider it to be alien to these islands (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Trinidad and Tobago Biodiversity, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

JapanPresentIntroducedMito and Uesugi, 2004
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2016
TaiwanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016

Africa

CameroonPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2016
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2016
CongoPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2016
GabonPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2016
GuineaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2016
LiberiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2016
MadagascarPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2016
MauritiusPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2016
RéunionPresentIntroduced Invasive Clayton et al., 2016; PIER, 2016
SeychellesPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2016
UgandaPresentIntroducedClayton et al., 2016

North America

BermudaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
MexicoPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
USARestricted distributionIntroducedBarkworth et al., 2007Naturalized
-FloridaPresentIntroducedBarkworth et al., 2007Naturalized
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1999
-MississippiPresentIntroducedBarkworth et al., 2007Naturalized

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
BahamasPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BelizePresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
Cayman IslandsPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
Costa RicaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016Considered an agricultural and environmental weed (Ramírez-Muñoz, 2016)
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
DominicaPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
GrenadaPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
GuadeloupePresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
GuatemalaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
HaitiPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
JamaicaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniquePresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
NicaraguaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
PanamaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
Puerto RicoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Listed as an agricultural and environmental weed (Más & Lugo, 2013)
SabaPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Saint LuciaPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Sint MaartenPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced Invasive Clayton et al., 2016; Trinidad and Tobago Biodiversity, 2016
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012St Croix

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008Chaco, Corrientes, Misiones, Salta
BoliviaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
BrazilPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-AcrePresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-AlagoasPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-AmapaPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-AmazonasPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-BahiaPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-Distrito FederalPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-GoiasPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-ParaPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-ParanaPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-PernambucoPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-RondoniaPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-Sao PauloPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
-TocantinsPresentNativeOliveira and Valls, 2015
ColombiaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
EcuadorPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
-Galapagos IslandsPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
French GuianaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
GuyanaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
ParaguayPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008Parana, Amambay, Canindeyu, Concepcion, Paraguari
PeruPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
SurinamePresentNativeClayton et al., 2016
UruguayPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008Artigas, Rivera
VenezuelaPresentNativeClayton et al., 2016

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2000
AustraliaPresentIntroducedAusGrass2, 2016
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedAusGrass2, 2016
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedAusGrass2, 2016
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack, 2013
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florence et al., 2013
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive Herrera et al., 2010Pohnpei
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive MacKee, 1994
NiuePresentIntroduced Invasive Space et al., 2004
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Fosberg et al., 1987
PalauPresentIntroduced Invasive Space et al., 2009
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2002
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Hancock and Henderson, 1988
TongaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
VanuatuPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016

History of Introduction and Spread

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P. paniculatum is sporadically used as an “auxiliary forage” (Más and Garcia-Molinari, 2006; PROTA, 2016), and thus it is highly probable that this species has been introduced to some locations accidentally as a contaminant in crops and pasture seed (USDA-ARS, 2016). Whistler (1995) reports that it was first recorded in the Pacific Islands in Fiji in 1920, having been introduced as a pasture grass. In New Caledonia, it was introduced as a forage plant but is now mostly present as a spontaneous plant in the wild (MacKee, 1994).

Risk of Introduction

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The probability of further introductions of P. paniculatum is moderate as this species is not actively commercialized or promoted for agricultural or horticultural purposes. A risk assessment prepared for Australia gave the grass a risk score of 9 (reject) (PIER, 2016).

Habitat

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In the West Indies, P. paniculatum can be found growing as a weed in moist areas, abandoned and disturbed sites, coastal forests, and in gardens, croplands and pasturelands (Más and Lugo, 2013). In Mexico and Central America, it grows in moist open ground, brushy slopes, forests, agricultural fields, and waste places at elevations ranging from sea level to 1500 m (Flora of Panama, 2016; Gargiullo et al., 2008).

In Asia (Taiwan), P. paniculatum can be found naturalized in moist places along roadsides and in disturbed sites (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016).

On islands in the Pacific region, P. paniculatum grows as a weed of moist open grounds, roadsides, cultivated lands and brushy slopes (Whistler, 1983). In Fiji and New Caledonia, it can be found naturalized in waste places, pastures, along roadsides, on hillsides, and on plantations and other cultivated areas (MacKee, 1994; PIER, 2016).

In Australia, P. paniculatum can be found naturalized in tropical and subtropical rainforests, tropical and subtropical wet sclerophyll forests, and tropical and subtropical sub-humid woodlands (AusGrass2, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for P. paniculatum varies from 2n = 20 (Pozzobon, 2000) to 2n = 40 (Honfi et al., 1990).

Reproductive Biology

Paspalum spp. have both sexual and apomictic modes of reproduction (Cidade et al., 2013).

Physiology and Phenology

P. paniculatum is a fast-growing perennial grass (Hammel et al., 2003). In Central America, P. paniculatum has been recorded producing flowers throughout the year (Hammel et al., 2003; Gargiullo et al., 2008). In Puerto Rico it has been recorded flowering and fruiting all year long (Axelrod, 2011). In Australia, it has been recorded flowerering from February to August (AusGrass2, 2016).

Environmental Requirements

P. paniculatum grows best in moist sites from forest margins to marshy areas at elevations ranging from sea level to about 1500 m (Hammel et al., 2003; Gargiullo et al., 2008).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
40 30

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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P. paniculatum spreads by seeds. Seeds can be dispersed by wind, water or as contaminants in agricultural machinery, soil, and crop seeds (Más and Garcia-Molinari, 2006; PIER, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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P. paniculatum is a common weed impacting cultivated areas in Central America, the West Indies and many islands in the Pacific Ocean (Brenes and Agüero, 2007; PIER, 2016; Ramírez-Muñoz, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Environmental Impact

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P. paniculatum is considered an environmental weed on Hawaii, Cuba, Trinidad and Tobago, Samoa, Northern Marianas Islands, Micronesia, Fiji, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Niue, Palau and the Solomon Islands where it is invading primarily disturbed sites, forest margins and secondary forests (MacKee, 1994; Wagner et al., 1999; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Florence et al., 2013; PIER, 2016; Trinidad and Tobago Biodiversity, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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P. paniculatum is sporadically used as an “auxiliary forage” (Más and Garcia-Molinari, 2006; PROTA, 2016). There are no other known uses reported for this species.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

In agricultural land, P. paniculatum is often controlled with the herbicide glyphosate. However, resistance to increasing doses of glyphosate has been detected in biotypes of P. paniculatum in Costa Rica (Ramírez-Muñoz, 2016).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

AusGrass2, 2016. Grasses of Australia. Online Resources. http://ausgrass2.myspecies.info/

Axelrod F, 2011. A systematic vademecum to the vascular plants of Puerto Rico. Sida Botanical Miscellany, 34:1-428. Fort Worth, TX, Botanical Research Institute of Texas

Barkworth ME, Anderton LK, Capels KM, Long S, Piep MB, 2007. Manual of grasses for North America. USA: Utah State University Press. 627 pp.

Brenes S, Agüero R, 2007. Reconocimiento taxonómico de arvenses y descripción de su manejo en cuatro fincas productoras de piña (Ananas comosus L.) en Costa Rica., Agronomía Mesoamericana, 18:239-246

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chase A, 1929. The North American species of Paspalum., Contributions of the US National Herbarium, 28:1-310

Cidade FW, Vigna BB, Souza FH de, Valls JFM, Dall’Agnol M, Zucchi MI, Souza-Chies TT, Souza AP, 2013. Genetic variation in polyploid forage grass: Assessing the molecular genetic variability in the Paspalum genus., BMC Genetics, 14:1-18

Clayton WD, Govaerts R, Harman KT, Williamson H, Vorontsova M, 2016. World Checklist of Poaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

DAISIE, 2016. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Panama, 2016. Flora of Panama (WFO), Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Fosberg FR, Sachet MH, Oliver R, 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae., Micronesica, 20:1-126

Gargiullo M, Magnuson B, Kimball L, 2008. A Field Guide to Plants of Costa Rica. Zona Tropical publication. Oxford University Press.

Giussani LM, Zuloaga FO, Quarín CL, Cota-Sánchez JH, Ubayasena K, Morrone O, 2009. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Paspalum (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae): an assessment of the Quadrifaria and Virgata informal groups., Systematic Botany, 34:32-43

Hammel BE, Grayum MH, Herrera C, Zamora N, 2003. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. III. Monocotiledones. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 93: 841–842

Hancock IR, Henderson CP, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin - Dodo Creek Research Station, No. 7. Honiara, Solomon Islands ii + 203 pp.

Herrera K, Lorence DH, Flynn T, Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 146 pp.

Honfi AI, Quarin CL, Valls JFM, 1990. Estudios cariologicos en Gramineas Sudamericanas., Darwiniana, 30:87-94

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.). Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. 164 pp.

Más EG, Garcia-Molinari O, 2006. Guia ilustrada de yerbas comunes en Puerto Rico (Guia ilustrada de yerbas comunes en Puerto Rico). Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico and USDA-NRCS. 303 pp.

Más EG, Lugo M, 2013. Malezas Comunes en Puerto Rico & Islas Vírgenes. USDA Servicio de Conservación de Recursos Naturales. Ârea del Caribe/Caribbean Area. http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/plantmaterials/newsroom/feature/?cid=stelprdb1078250

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects., Global Environmental Research, 8:171-191

Oliveira RC, Valls JFM, 2015. Paspalum in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB13490

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

Pozzobon MT, 2000. Contagens cromossômicas em espécies brasileiras de Paspalum L. (Gramineae)., Acta Botanica Brasilica, 14:151-162

PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Ramírez-Muñoz F, 2016. Resistencia al glifosato en biotipos de zacate cabezón (Paspalum paniculatum L.) de la Región del Caribe de Costa Rica., Uniciencia, 30(2):75-85

Rua GH, Speranza PR, Vaio M, Arakaki M, 2010. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Paspalum (Poaceae) based on cpDNA and morphology., Plant Systematics and Evolution, 288:227-243

Space JC, Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service. 51 pp.

Space JC, Flynn T, 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service. 83 pp.

Space JC, Lorence DH, LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. Hilo, Hawai‘i: USDA Forest Service. 227 pp.

Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Newfield M, Bull C, 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Trinidad and Tobago Biodiversity, 2016. Lists of Invasive species in Trinidad and Tobago. http://www.biodiversity.gov.tt/home/trinidad-a-tobago-biodiversity/invasive-alien-species.html

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition.. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press. 1919 pp.

Whistler WA, 1983. Weed handbook of Western Polynesia. 157 pp.

Whistler WA, 1995. Wayside plants of the islands. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Isle Botanica.

Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, 2005. Revision de las especies de Paspalum para América del Sur Austral (Argentina, Bolivia, sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 102: 1–297

Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, Garden MB, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) (Catalogue of the vascular plants of the southern cone (Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay)). USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 3348 pp..

Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Davidse G, Filgueiras TS, Peterson PM, Soreng RJ, Judziewicz, EJ, 2003. Catalogue of New World grasses (Poaceae): III. Subfamilies Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Arundinoideae, and Danthonioideae. Smithsonian Institution: Contributions from the US National Herbarium, 46: 1-662

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05/12/16 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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