Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Oeceoclades maculata
(monk orchid)

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Datasheet

Oeceoclades maculata (monk orchid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Oeceoclades maculata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • monk orchid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • O. maculata is a terrestrial orchid native to Africa (Garay and Taylor, 1976) and Madagascar (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mature plant of Oeceoclades maculata with flowers and fruits.
TitleMature plant
CaptionMature plant of Oeceoclades maculata with flowers and fruits.
Copyright©Wilfredo Falcón
Mature plant of Oeceoclades maculata with flowers and fruits.
Mature plantMature plant of Oeceoclades maculata with flowers and fruits.©Wilfredo Falcón
Oeceoclades maculata plant growing on the forest floor in Puerto Rico (Luquillo Forest).
TitleHabit
CaptionOeceoclades maculata plant growing on the forest floor in Puerto Rico (Luquillo Forest).
Copyright©Wilfredo Falcón
Oeceoclades maculata plant growing on the forest floor in Puerto Rico (Luquillo Forest).
HabitOeceoclades maculata plant growing on the forest floor in Puerto Rico (Luquillo Forest).©Wilfredo Falcón
Leaves and rhizomes of Oeceoclades maculata
TitleLeaves and rhizomes
CaptionLeaves and rhizomes of Oeceoclades maculata
Copyright©Wilfredo Falcón
Leaves and rhizomes of Oeceoclades maculata
Leaves and rhizomesLeaves and rhizomes of Oeceoclades maculata©Wilfredo Falcón
Flower of Oeceoclades maculata
TitleFlower
CaptionFlower of Oeceoclades maculata
Copyright©Wilfredo Falcón
Flower of Oeceoclades maculata
FlowerFlower of Oeceoclades maculata©Wilfredo Falcón
Flower of Oeceoclades maculata
TitleFlower
CaptionFlower of Oeceoclades maculata
Copyright©Wilfredo Falcón
Flower of Oeceoclades maculata
FlowerFlower of Oeceoclades maculata©Wilfredo Falcón

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Oeceoclades maculata (Lindl.) Lindl. 1833

Preferred Common Name

  • monk orchid

Other Scientific Names

  • Aerobion maculatum (Lindl.) Spreng.
  • Angraecum maculatum Lindley.
  • Angraecum monophyllum A. Rich
  • Epidendrum connivens Vell.
  • Eulophia ledienii. N. E. Br.
  • Eulophia mackenii. Rolfe ex Hemsl.
  • Eulophia maculata (Lindl.) Rchb.
  • Eulophia monophylla S. Moore
  • Eulophidium ledienii (N.E. Br.) De Wild.
  • Eulophidium mackenii (Rolfe ex Hemsl.) Schltr.
  • Eulophidium maculatum (Lindl.) Pfitzer.
  • Eulophidium maculatum var. pterocarpum Hauman
  • Eulophidium monophyllum Schltr.
  • Eulophidium nyassanum Schltr.
  • Eulophidium warneckeanum Kraenzl
  • Geodorum pictumo Link
  • Graphorchis maculata (Lindl.) Kuntze.
  • Limodorum maculatum (Lindl.) Lodd.
  • Oeceoclades mackenii (Rolfe ex Hemsl.) Garay & P. Taylor.
  • Oeceoclades maculata var. pterocarpa (Hauman) Garay & P. Taylor
  • Oeceoclades monophylla Garay & P. Taylor.

International Common Names

  • English: African spotted orchid; ground orchid; lawn orchid
  • Spanish: orquídea monje; orquídea morada

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: lengua de vaca; oceoclades
  • Dominican Republic: orquídea de tierra
  • Puerto Rico: orquídea de misiones

Summary of Invasiveness

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O. maculata is a terrestrial orchid native to Africa (Garay and Taylor, 1976) and Madagascar (Madagascar Catalogue, 2012) with invasive behaviour. Currently, this species is found throughout the Neotropics, making it one of the most successful invasive plants (Stern, 1988) and it is included in the World Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). Among the traits that likely have contributed to the successful spread and invasion of this species within its new environment are a wide environmental tolerance, efficient reproductive system, and fast growth. O. maculata is autogamous and apomitic and each fruit can produce thousands to millions of small seeds. O. maculata is a fast-growing species able to grow from seedling to reproductive stage in approximately one year (González-Díaz and Ackerman, 1988; Cohen and Ackerman, 2009).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Orchidales
  •                         Family: Orchidaceae
  •                             Genus: Oeceoclades
  •                                 Species: Oeceoclades maculata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Orchidaceae is one of the largest and most diverse monocot families. This family includes about 880 genera and 22,075 species broadly distributed over the world, except in Antarctica (Ackerman, 1995). New species are continually being described and numerous natural and artificial hybrids exist. The genus Oeceoclades is mostly terrestrial in habitat with a few species extending into very arid environments, which is unusual for an orchid. According to Ackerman (1995), J. Lindley named this plant for its distinctively mottled leaves and used the Latin word for “spotted”. O. maculata is native to Africa; however, it was first described in 1821 as Angraecum maculatum by Lindley from a collection made by Loddiges in 1816 from Brazil (Garay and Taylor, 1976). O. maculata is the only species in the genus that is currently distributed outside Africa (Cohen and Ackerman, 2009).

Description

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Terrestrial or epilithic herb up to 40 cm tall; rhizomatous; appearing stemless, but with pseudo-bulbs (shortened and swollen stems). Pseudo-bulbs ovoid and clustered, up to 4 cm long, each producing a single leaf. Leaf glossy, dark green, with silvery gray mottling, up to 30 cm long and 5 cm wide, fleshy, lanceolate to elliptic; margins entire, base appearing petiolate, tips acute; blade slightly folded lengthwise down the middle. Inflorescence solitary, up to 40 cm long, with 5-20 flowers that mature sequentially. Flowers up to 1.5 cm across, petals and sepals similar, slightly cupped, elliptic, up to 10 cm long, light brown, cream or greenish pink, with one large lower petal (“lip”) deeply 3-lobed and white with purple lines; a tubular, bulbous-tipped spur (sac-like appendage) protruding from beneath the lip. Stamens, style, and stigma combined into one white structure (“the column”) up to 0.5 cm long. Fruit is a pendant capsule 2-3 cm long with abundant minute seeds (Dressler, 1993; Ackerman, 1995).

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Succulent

Distribution

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O. maculata is native to Africa (Garay and Taylor, 1976), Madagascar (Madagascar Catalogue, 2012) and several small adjacent islands (Stern, 1988). It was introduced to Brazil at the beginning of the eighteenth century and spread rapidly from Brazil up through Venezuela, across to Bolivia, south to Argentina (Stern,1988), and into Central America. This species is also widely distributed in Florida (Wunderlin and Hansen, 2012), and the West Indies including Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the Bahamas (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012). Because orchids are commonly used in horticulture and floristry, it is likely that this species has a wider geographical distribution than the official records suggest, particularly in tropical countries where conditions for cultivation are more favourable.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976
BurundiPresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976
GabonPresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976
GhanaPresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976
Guinea-BissauPresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976
LiberiaPresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976
MadagascarPresentNativeMadagascar Catalogue, 2012
NigeriaPresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976
SenegalPresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976
Sierra LeonePresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976
SudanPresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976
TanzaniaPresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976
-ZanzibarPresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976
TogoPresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976
UgandaPresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976
ZambiaPresentNativeGaray and Taylor, 1976

North America

MexicoPresentIntroduced1990Dodson, 1992Campeche, Quintana Roo, Yucatán, Tabasco. First populations were detected in Yucatan in 1990
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced1974 Invasive Wunderlin and Hansen, 2012Commercialization prohibited, however, plant still available through the internet

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroducedCorrell and Correll, 1982
BelizePresentIntroduced Invasive Balick et al., 2000; Randall, 2012
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedProctor, 1996
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Dressler, 2003
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive González-Torres et al., 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
HondurasPresentIntroducedDodson, 1992
JamaicaPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedMori et al., 2008Saba
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedDodson, 1992
PanamaPresentIntroducedCorrea et al., 2004
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1966 Invasive González-Díaz and Ackerman, 1988Mona, Desecheo, Vieques, Guánica, Luquillo
Saint LuciaLocalisedIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Graveson, 2012Present on Gros Piton, rare in Saint Lucia
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012Reported in a 1977 collection (Kew, 2012)
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez, 1996St. John

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedGaray and Taylor, 1976
BoliviaPresentIntroducedDodson and Bennett, 1989Santa Cruz, Tarija
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-AlagoasPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-BahiaPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-CearaPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-GoiasPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-ParaPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-PiauiPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-RondoniaPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-RoraimaPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-SergipePresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
-TocantinsPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Spontaneous
ColombiaPresentIntroducedGaray and Taylor, 1976
EcuadorPresentIntroducedDodson and Bennett, 1980Guayas
French GuianaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
GuyanaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
ParaguayPresentIntroducedGaray and Taylor, 1976
PeruPresentIntroducedDodson, 1992
SurinamePresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007Amazonas, Bolivar, Falcon, Zulia, Distrito Federal

History of Introduction and Spread

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O. maculata was introduced to Brazil probably at the beginning of the eighteenth century and it was first described in 1821 from a Brazilian collection (Garay and Taylor, 1976). Since then, it spread at an accelerated rate through tropical and subtropical America, rapidly colonizing environments with strong anthropogenic intervention (Stern, 1988). In Puerto Rico, it was first noted in 1966 and has rapidly spread throughout the entire island occupying a wide range of habitats including mogotes (karst hills), moist, wet secondary forests, and dry forests (i.e., Guánica; González-Díaz and Ackerman, 1988). In 1987, O. maculata was first collected in the rainforest of the Luquillo Mountains (Cohen and Ackerman, 2009).

In Florida, O. maculata was established before 1974 either as an escapee from cultivation or through a range expansion from nearby Caribbean islands (Stern, 1988). O. maculata spread throughout Florida in less than 10 years, rapidly colonizing new habitats. By 2001, it was reported from over 70 conservation areas throughout south Florida from disturbed uplands, pine rocklands, prairie, rockland hammocks, pine flatwoods, maritime forests, and hardwood hammocks. In 2001 it was classified as a category II invasive species by the Florida Exotic Pest Plants Council (FLEPPC) and targeted for removal from commercial production by Florida Growers Associations. O. maculata was removed from FLEPPC category II in 2003.

In Mexico, the first population of O. maculata was recorded on the Yucatan Peninsula in the early 1990s. Since then, this species has been reported as widely dispersed in south-eastern Mexico, thriving in moderately disturbed as well as in well-conserved wet forest and seasonally dry tropical forest (Salazar and Ballesteros, 2011).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of O. maculata is high. It is a successful invader and has specific traits related to reproduction and growth that likely facilitate its spread into new habitats. In addition, this species is still sold in the nursery and landscape trade in many tropical countries and it is also available to the public through internet sites (i.e., garden and landscape companies online). Thus, the probability of colonizing new areas remains high.

Habitat

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O. maculata has a broad natural distribution and is found in wide variety of habitats including shaded areas and disturbed habitats. It is found in dry to wet forests, coastal areas, pine forests, prairie and rockland hammocks, pine flatwoods, maritime forests, and hardwood hammocks. It can inhabit areas from sea level to 750 m altitude (González-Díaz and Ackerman, 1988; Stern, 1988; Cohen and Ackerman, 2009).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Chromosome number for this species varies from 52-58 (2n) depending on the geographic location (Felix and Guerra, 2000). 

Reproductive Biology

Pollination in O. maculata is primarily wind or rain-assisted. The species is primarily autogamous (González-Díaz and Ackerman, 1988), however outcrossing can eventually occur (Aguiar et al., 2012). Two butterfly species, Heliconius ethilla var. narcaea and Heliconius erato var. phyllis have been observed visiting and pollinating flowers of O. maculata in Brazil (Aguiar et al., 2012). 

Physiology and Phenology

Flowering season has been reported from September through December (peaking in October) in Florida, from August to November in Puerto Rico, and from December to February in São Paulo, Brazil. In most locations, flowering occurs during the rainy season, resulting in the formation of fruits in the absence of pollinator activity (Aguiar et al., 2012). 

Longevity

Under favourable conditions plants can live up to 15 years. 

Nutrition and Associations

All orchids have an obligate relationship with mycorrhizal symbionts during seed germination, with most of the symbionts being Rhizoctonia-like fungi (Arditti, 1992). This group of fungi includes anamorphs of Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium, and Thanatephorus. Most orchid species hosted more than one lineage, demonstrating considerable variation in mycorrhizal associations even among related orchid species. It has been suggested that the specificity of the mycorrhizal association may be connected with diversification within the family (Otero and Flanagan, 2006). 

Environmental Requirements

O. maculata is an orchid with an unusual breadth of habitat tolerance. It is able to inhabit dry and wet forests, as well as coastal forests and disturbed areas. However, a study from Puerto Rico demonstrates that survival rates are higher in shaded areas and flat terrain where the probability of getting swept away by heavy rains or landslides decreases (Cohen and Ackerman, 2009).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Lopholeucaspis cockerelli Herbivore All Stages not specific No No

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Enemies of O. maculata have not been documented. Orchids in general are not affected by herbivorous insects, with the exception of Riodininae larvae (Lepidoptera) which may be found feeding on orchids (Hall, 2003).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Most orchids including O. maculata produce thousands to millions of minute dust-like seeds that are mainly wind-dispersed (Arditti, 1992).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoos Yes Yes Stern, 1988
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes Stern, 1988
Nursery tradeSeeds and plants sold online Yes Yes
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Stern, 1988

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailSeeds and plants sale online Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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O. maculata has been identified as a weed that can smother native plants where it has been introduced. This may be due to the fact that this species is able to grow rapidly, colonizing new areas and forming dense stands and therefore interfering with seedling germination and establishment of young plants (Stern 1988). In addition, invasive orchid species may be competing for fungal associates and pollinators, therefore adversely affecting the fitness of native orchid species (Cohen and Ackerman, 2009). Further studies are needed to identify and quantify competition mechanisms and fungi-associations among orchids.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Conflict
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Orchids are widely used in horticulture and floristry, but also increasingly in the pharmaceuticals and fragrance industries. Few orchid species are economically important outside the horticultural trade: the fruits of several species of Vanilla are the source of the spice vanilla, and the dry roots of some species of Dactylorhiza, Eulophia, and Orchis are used to produce  salep, a flour consumed in northern Africa, the Middle East (especially Turkey), and Asia. Some species are locally used for medicinal purposes; the mucilage from pseudo-bulbs of several species is sometimes used as glue; and in the Far-East the stems of some species of Dendrobium are split into strips used to weave handicrafts. O. maculata is used as an ornamental and is available through the nursery trade.

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

Prevention and Control

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Currently there is no effective control known for O. maculata. Plants can be dug out and fruits can be bagged and disposed of properly, however the suggested procedure seems impractical due to the extensive areas occupied by this species. International trade of this species should be prohibited. Biological and chemical controls are unknown for this species; studies in these areas are highly desirable.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 1996. Flora of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 78:1-581.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Ackerman JD, 1995. An orchid flora of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 73:1-203.

Aguiar JMRBV; Pansarin LM; Ackerman JD; Pansarin ER, 2012. Biotic versus abiotic pollination in Oeceoclades maculata (Lindl.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae). Plant Species Biology, 27(1):86-95. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1442-1984.2011.00330.x/full

Arditti J, 1992. Fundamentals of orchid biology. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, xii + 691 pp.

Balick MJ; Nee M; Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Cohen IM; Ackerman JD, 2009. Oeceoclades maculata, an alien tropical orchid in a Caribbean rainforest. Annals of Botany, 104(3):557-563. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/

Correa A; Galdames MDC; Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp.

Correll DS; Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Vaduz, Germany: J. Cramer, 1692 pp.

Dodson CH, 1992. Checklist of the Orchids of the Western Hemisphere Collation: Draft., USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Library.

Dodson CH; Bennett DE, 1980. Orchids of Ecuador. Icones Plantarum Tropicarum. Missouri Botanical Garden, 1:101-200.

Dodson CH; Bennett DE, 1989. Orchids of Peru. Icones Plantarum Tropicarum, Series II. Missouri Botanical Garden, 1:1-200.

Dressler RL, 1993. Field guide to the orchids of Costa Rica and Panama. Ithaca, USA: Cornell University Press.

Dressler RL, 2003. Orchidaceae. Monograph in Systematics Botany, Missouri Botanical Garden, 93:1-595. [Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. 3. Monocotiledóneas (Orchidaceae-Zingiberaceae).]

Félix LP; Guerra M, 2000. Cytogenetics and cytotaxonomy of some Brazilian species of Cymbidioid orchids. Genetics and Molecular Biology [Selected papers from the First Latin American Symposium on Plant Cytogenetics and Evolution, Recife, Brazil, 20-23 July 1999.], 23(4):957-978.

Forzza RC; Leitman PM; Costa AF; Carvalho Jr AA, et al. , 2012. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Garay LA; Taylor P, 1976. The genus Oeceoclades Lindl. Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University, 24. 249-274. http://www.botanicus.org/page/953890

González-Díaz N; Ackerman JD, 1988. Pollination, fruit set, and seed production in the orchid, Oeceoclades maculata. Lindleyana, 3(3):150-155.

González-Torres LR; Rankin R; Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Plantas Invasoras en Cuba. Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hall JPW, 2003. Phylogenetic reassessment of the five forewing radial-veined tribes of Riodininae (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Systematic Entomology, 28:23-38.

Madagascar Catalogue, 2012. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. Antananarivo, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden, Madagascar Research and Conservation Program. http://www.efloras.org/madagascar

Mori S; Buck B; Gracie C; Tulig M, 2008. Plants and Lichens of Saba. New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/saba/

Otero JT; Flanagan NS, 2006. Orchid diversity: Beyond deception. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 21:64 - 65.

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Proctor GR, 1996. Additions and corrections to 'Flora of the Cayman Islands'. Kew Bulletin, 51(3):483-507.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012. United Kingdom Overseas Territories Herbarium., UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, UK Overseas Territories Science Team. http://herbaria.plants.ox.ac.uk/bol/UKOT

Stern WL, 1988. The long-distance dispersal of Oeceoclades maculata. American Orchid Society Bulletin, 57(9):960-971.

Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2012. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida. www.plantatlas.usf.edu

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Flora of Madagascarhttp://www.efloras.org/madagascar
Lista de espécies Flora do Brasilhttp://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/
Plants of the Eastern Caribbeanhttp://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Contributors

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10/10/12 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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