Nephrolepis brownii (Asian swordfern)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Soil Tolerances
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Environmental Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Nephrolepis brownii (Desv.) Hovenkamp & Miyam.
Preferred Common Name
- Asian swordfern
Other Scientific Names
- Nephrolepis acutangula C.Presl
- Nephrolepis floccigera (Blume) T. Moore
- Nephrolepis floccigera T.Moore
- Nephrolepis multiflora (Roxb.) C.V. Morton.
- Nephrolepis multiflora (Roxb.) F.M. Jarrett ex C.V. Morton
- Nephrolepis pubescens Copel.
- Nephrolepis tomentosa Alderw.
Local Common Names
- New Zealand: rough sword fern
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Nephrolepis brownii, commonly known as Asian swordfern, is native to Southeast Asia and has been introduced to the tropical Americas, where it has become naturalized and invasive. Although its introduced status is not clear for Oceania, the plant is considered as native in the parts of the continent where it occurs. In Hawaii and Florida, USA, where its invasiveness has been reported as critical, efforts have been undertaken to keep the spreading of N. brownii under control. N. brownii is a popular ornamental which has contributed to its spread, along with the fact it produces wind-dispersed spores and can reproduce vegetatively via rhizomes.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Pteridophyta
- Class: Filicopsida
- Family: Nephrolepidaceae
- Genus: Nephrolepis
- Species: Nephrolepis brownii
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Nephrolepis is a genus of ferns of the Nephrolepidaceae family comprising 19 accepted species (Hovenkamp & Miyamoto 2015). Nephrolepis brownii (Desv.) Hovenkamp & Miyam. has been referred to under the synonymous names Nephrolepis acutangula C. Presl, Nephrolepis floccigera T. Moore, Nephrolepis multiflora (Roxb.) F.M. Jarrett ex C.V. Morton, Nephrolepis pubescens Copel., Nephrolepis tomentosa Alderw. (Hovenkamp & Miyamoto, 2005), and has most likely been misidentified as Nephrolepis hirsutula (G. Forst.) C. Presl (Wiersema and Leon, 2013), Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) Schott (New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, 2005) or Nephrolepis falcata (Cav.) C. Chr. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008). Other misidentifications are to be expected, and without reference to voucher material, definite dismissal of such misidentifications is not possible. N. brownii and N. hirsutula have sometimes been regarded as the same species, but based on the phylogenetic analyses of Hennequin et al. (2010), they do not appear to even be closely related.
DescriptionTop of page
Adapted from Hovenkamp and Miyamoto (2005):
N. brownii generally forms tufts of five or six fronds on upright rhizomes. The plant spreads by stolons, which often form stilts that support the upright rhizome. Stolons (1.5-2.5 mm thick) branch in widely diverging angles. Scales on stolons can be sparse, appressed, or spreading. Fronds become dark green when dry, and bear scattered, linear scales along their veins, 70-130 by 10-12 cm, stipe 14-37 cm long. The lamina is more or less strongly reduced at the base, tapering over 25-35 cm. Basal pinnae 1.5-2 cm long, 2-5 cm distant, middle pinnae are straight or slightly falcate. Sterile pinnae (6 by 1.4 cm) are slightly to strongly unequal at the base, basiscopic base rounded or cordate, acroscopic base truncate, strongly auricled (usually with a narrow auricle), margin in basal part entire or crenate, apex acute. Fertile pinnae (5.5-7 by 0.9 cm) have a more distinctly serrate margin than the sterile pinnae. Pinnae are covered with basal scales (3.5 by 1.3 mm), which are peltate and appressed. The scales on the rachis are dense, spreading, with a translucent appearance or light brown. The scales on the lamina are usually persistent, often also persistent on the upper surface. Hairs on lamina are absent, but constantly present on midrib. Sori (groups of sporangia) are round and marginal, and they form 25 to 27 pairs on fully fertile pinnae. The indusium (the membrane covering the sori) is kidney-shaped.
Plant TypeTop of page Herbaceous
DistributionTop of page
Although it is not certain whether Nephrolepis taxa originated in the Boreotropical regions, they probably dispersed to the Palaeotropics during the Oligocene (Hennequin et al., 2010). Several Nephrolepis species are cultivated as ornamentals, and because of escapes and subsequent naturalization, the natural distribution patterns are not always clear (Darnaedi and Praptosuwiryo, 2003). Based on the distribution of early collections, N. brownii is likely native in Malesia (Hovenkamp and Miyamoto, 2005). Although its introduced status is not clear for the whole of Oceania, the plant is considered as native in the Kermadec Islands (New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, 2005). In contrast, there are no records of its occurrence in Africa, and it appears to be uncommon in most parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Indonesia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Ryukyu Archipelago||Present||GBIF, 2013|
|Malaysia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Peninsular Malaysia||Present||GBIF, 2013|
|Sri Lanka||Present||GBIF, 2013|
|-Hawaii||Widespread||Introduced||1981||Invasive||Pratt et al., 2011; GBIF, 2013||Colonization occurred in Volcanoes National Park between 1981 and 2008|
Central America and Caribbean
|Cayman Islands||Introduced||GBIF, 2013|
|Costa Rica||Introduced||GBIF, 2013|
|El Salvador||Introduced||GBIF, 2013|
|Puerto Rico||Widespread||Introduced||1940||Invasive||Nauman, 1981|
|Saint Lucia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Krauss et al., 2008; Graveson, 2012||Replacing indigenous Nephrolepis rivularis; risk in disturbed and burnt habitats|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Introduced||GBIF, 2013|
|United States Virgin Islands||Introduced||GBIF, 2013|
|-Rio de Janeiro||Introduced||GBIF, 2013|
|-Sao Paulo||Introduced||GBIF, 2013|
|New Zealand||Native||New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, 2005||At risk – naturally uncommon|
|Papua New Guinea||Introduced||GBIF, 2013|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
N. brownii was introduced to the Americas, where it is spreading as a weed and classified as an invasive species in Florida (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013). In Hawaii, USA, it is considered an alien plant (Pratt et al., 2012). Based on collection records, Nauman (1981) states that N. brownii is likely to have arrived in Florida, USA, in the late 1940s or 1950s; however, these data are inconclusive. The specimens used for Nauman’s revision were originally identified as Nephrolepis multiflora, but have been rectified as N. brownii (University of Florida Herbarium, 2015). N. brownii was introduced in Puerto Rico around 1940 (Robinson et al., 2010). While Brown and Brown (1931) suggest it is also introduced in southeast Polynesia, the earliest collections in that area suggest that the Polynesian settlers must have brought it into the area (Hovenkamp and Miyamoto, 2005).
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|Florida||1940||Horticulture (pathway cause)||Yes||Nauman (1981)|
|Puerto Rico||1940||Horticulture (pathway cause)||Yes||Nauman (1981)|
|USA||Horticulture (pathway cause)||Yes||Hovenkamp and Miyamoto (2005)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Given that N. brownii is intentionally planted as an ornamental, the risk of further introductions is potentially high. Further, the unintentional spreading of Nephrolepis species by people and, particularly, the invasion model of N. brownii (Robinson et al., 2010) exacerbates its invasiveness. N. brownii is listed as Category I invasive (demonstrated ecological damage) on the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council’s 2013 Invasive Plant List.
HabitatTop of page
Most Nephrolepis species grow in thickets (Holttum, 1938), preferring acidic, humus-rich habitats such as peat swamps or leaf bases of palms (Darnaedi and Praptosuwiryo, 2003). They can occur in disturbed sites, often near canals and other water bodies with loose and well-drained soil, frequently with full exposure to the sun (Nauman, 1981).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Rocky areas / lava flows||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Irrigation channels||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Rivers / streams||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Basic chromosome number for Nephrolepis species is 41, and most species appear to contain diploids only, with additional tetraploids reported in what is likely N. brownii (Löve et al., 1977).
Adapted from de Winter and Amoroso (2003):
The dominant stage in the life history of pteridophytes is the generation that produces the spores and therefore is called the sporophyte. The sporophyte forms spores by meiosis (the type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes to half the number that are in the nuclei of the sporophyte cells). Nephrolepis species (like other pteridophytes with creeping rhizomes) can spread by spores, but also by the formation of plantlets growing on long-creeping stolons, for which growth rates of 2 cm per day are reported in a related species (Espagnac 1973). Artificially, they can easily be propagated by divisions of stolons.
Physiology and Phenology
According to Darnaedi and Praptosuwiryo (2003), under extreme dry conditions, some Nephrolepis species rapidly shed their pinnae, leaving only dry rachises; however, when conditions improve, a new flush of leaves will develop quickly. The rachis of the leaves shows a kind of perennial growth, which accounts for the crozier-like apex of many leaves. These may continue to produce a new pinnae long after the older pinnae have shed their spores or fallen off.
The findings of Outman (2012) suggest that exotic fern species such as N. brownii can be as successful in forming relationships with mycorrhizal fungi as closely related native species growing in the same habitats.
Some cultivars of Nephrolepis tolerate temperatures down to 0 °C (Darnaedi and Praptosuwiryo, 2003). The specimens of N. brownii reviewed by Xing et al. (2013) and Hovenkamp and Miyamoto (2005) were collected both in forests and open vegetation (roadsides, riverbanks, open thickets) at altitudes between 0 and 1700 m.a.s.l, in tropical climate zones.
ClimateTop of page
|Af - Tropical rainforest climate||Preferred||> 60mm precipitation per month|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Tolerated||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Although Nephrolepis species are generally pest resistant, cultivars are particularly susceptible to botrytis, fern scale, whitefly, slugs, and snails (Darnaedi and Praptosuwiryo, 2003). In spite of the insufficient evidence, Gregor (1938) has noted the possible susceptibility of Nephrolepis spp. to “mosaic” and virus diseases. Moreover, the gall mite Eriophyes pauropus, common in the Old World (Docters van Leeuwen, 1967), infects the leaves of Nephrolepis species, inducing the fern to form galls on the leaf blade and sori (Docters van Leeuwen-Reijnvaan, 1921).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
N. brownii shows the same model of colonization observed in the highly invasive Pteridium and other scrambling ferns (Robinson et al., 2010). This type of ferns rapidly colonizes disturbed land by means of rhizomes that form extensive stands and are able to dominate a landscape for decades (Marrs and Watt, 2006). Pteridium ferns (and N. brownii, as noted by Robinson et al., 2010) consolidate their competitive advantage by shading, occupying the available soil space with rhizomes, and forming a litter layer that inhibits the establishment of other species by burial of their seeds and harboring seed predators.
Pathway CausesTop of page
ImpactTop of page
In spite of its invasive status in the USA, the extent of the social, environmental, and economic impact of its invasiveness remains unknown.
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Biodiversity
Generally, Nephrolepis species are considered a threat to native species.
N. brownii shows the same model of colonization observed in the highly invasive Pteridium and other scrambling ferns (Robinson et al., 2010). This type of ferns rapidly colonizes disturbed land by means of rhizomes that form extensive stands and are able to displace native vegetation and dominate a landscape for decades (Marrs and Watt, 2006). Pteridium ferns (and N. brownii, as noted by Robinson et al., 2010) consolidate their competitive advantage by shading, occupying the available soil space with rhizomes, and forming a litter layer that inhibits the establishment of other species by burial of their seeds and harboring seed predators.
In Florida, USA, the invasiveness of N. brownii is exacerbated by the year-round spore production (MacDonald et al., 2008).
In Saint Lucia in the Caribbean, N. brownii is invasive and has become very common in many areas. It has been reported that is is probably replacing Nephrolepis rivularus, a native and rare epiphytic herb (Graveson, 2012; Krauss et al., 2008).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Tolerant of shade
- Reproduces asexually
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - shading
- Competition - smothering
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
UsesTop of page
In Southeast Asia, wild and cultivated species of Nephrolepis are offered for sale as ornamentals on local markets; however, statistics of their economic value are not available (Darnaedi and Praptosuwiryo, 2003). Although Wiersema and León (1999) include five species of Nephrolepis amongst the world’s economically important plants, among which is probably N. brownii (as N. hirsutula). Most of the trade is in cultivars of Nephrolepis “bostoniensis” (referred to by Wiersema and Leon (2013) as Nephrolepis exaltata). The economic impact resulting from the cultivation of N. brownii is not known.
Quantitative data on the social benefits of N. brownii are absent. However, authors and collectors have listed important uses of the fern species that are now considered synonyms N. brownii. In Java and New Guinea, the very young curled leaves of N. hirsutula are eaten cooked or steamed as a vegetable, or applied as a poultice on swelling wounds and boils (Ochse, 1931). In the Philippines, fibers extracted from the stems of N. hirsutula are used in the manufacture of wickerwork (Zamora and Co, 1986). In Papua New Guinea, the leaves of Nephrolepis species are placed amongst bones in death ceremonies (Darnaedi and Praptosuwiryo, 2003).
Uses ListTop of page
- Ritual uses
Human food and beverage
- Potted plant
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Species within the genus Nephrolepis can appear similar. Hovenkamp and Miyamoto (2005) note that difficulty to distinguish N. brownii and N. hirsutula may be due to occasional hybridization. Further, they highlight a few “spot” characters for the identification of sterile specimens. These are: in N. brownii and N. hirsutula the base of the pinnae is very conspicuously auricled; in N. brownii and N. hirsutula the lamina’s indument is scaly and persistent; in N. brownii and N. cordifolia, the rachis’ indument is dense, scaly, and pale. In N. brownii, N. exaltata, and N. biserrata, tubers are always absent. In contrast, in N. cordifolia, tubers can be present (Langeland, 2001, Hovenkamp & Miyamoto 2005), but are easily overlooked, as when a plant is uprooted by pulling the tubers may remain in the substrate.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Cultural control and sanitary measures
It is recommended to plant native or non-invasive alternatives. Although avoidance of transport of spores from one area to the next via people, vehicles and other equipment (MacDonald et al., 2008) is recommended, for Nephrolepis species particular attention must also be paid to the transport of stolons or stolon-fragments in soil.
Langeland (2001) suggested hand pulling as a method to remove invasive fern plants. However, he states, plants easily break off, leaving plant parts in the ground from which regrowth will occur. Because some plants are difficult to up-root and the rachis can cut the skin, it is recommended to wear heavy gloves. Moreover, it is important not to dispose of removed specimens where they cause new infestations.
There are no known biological agents for the control of N. brownii (MacDonald et al., 2008).
Nephrolepis spp. can be killed with herbicide products containing glyphosate as the active ingredient. Follow-up applications are necessary (Langeland, 2001).
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
Without underestimating the work of others, yet to date, information on the impact and extent of invasiveness of Nephrolepis species could be misleading. This is caused by the failure of authors to apply the latest taxonomic insights, resulting in the frequent use of scientific names that refer to ferns that were considered species of their own in the past but are now synonyms of other species, or that refer to species that are frequently confused with other species. As noted by Robinson et al. (2010), a salient requirement in the management of invasive ferns is to “know your enemy”. Therefore, reliable identification of N. brownii, and other Nephrolepis species, is of utmost importance to understand whether these ferns are a threat in the first place, as well as to assess the ecological and social relevance of their impact.
ReferencesTop of page
Brown EDW; Brown FBH, 1931. Flora of Southeastern Polynesia. II. Pteridophytes. Bernice P Bishop Museum Bulletin, 89.
Darnaedi D; Praptosuwiryo TN, 2003. Nephrolepis Schott. Cryptogams: Ferns and fern allies. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia, 12(2) [ed. by Winter, W. P. de \Amoroso, V. B.]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers.
Docters van Leeuwen-Reijnvaan WJ, 1921. About the leaf galls formed by Eriophyes pauropus Nal on different types of Nephrolepis. (Über die von Eriophyes pauropus Nal an verschiedenen Arten von Nephrolepis gebildeten Blattgallen.) Annales du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, 21:83.
Docters van Leeuwen-Rijnvaan WJ, 1938. Manual of Pteridology [ed. by Verdoorn, F. \Alston, A. H. G.]., Amsterdam: A Asher.
Espagnac H, 1973. Polymorphic axes Nephrolepis biserrata. Experimental analysis of the determinism of their structures. (Les axes polymorphes de Nephrolepis biserrata. Analyse experimentale du determinisme de leurs structures.) Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. ser, 12(14):223-286.
Fish and Wildlife Service US(USFWS), 2008. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: initiation of 5-year status reviews of 70 species in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and the Pacific Islands., USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service.
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council's 2013 list of invasive plant species. Florida, USA: Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. http://www.fleppc.org/list/2013/FLEPPCPlantList2013-PRINTABLEwithlinkstoCAIPpages.pdf
GBIF, 2013. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org/species/
Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com
Gregor MJF, 1938. Manual of Pteridology [ed. by Verdoorn, F. \Alston, A. H. G.]. Amsterdam, Netherlands: A Asher.
Hennequin S; Hovenkamp P; Christenhusz MJM; Schneider H, 2010. Phylogenetics and biogeography of Nephrolepis - a tale of old settlers and young tramps. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 164(2):113-127. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2010.01076.x/full
Holttum RE, 1938. The Ecology of Tropical Pteridophytes. In: Manual of Pteridology [ed. by Verdoorn, F. \Alston, A. H. G.]., Amsterdam: A Asher.
Krauss U; Seier M; Stewart J, 2008. Mitigating the Threats of Invasive Alien Species in the Insular Caribbean. Report on Project Development Grant (PPG) Stakeholder Meeting, GFL-2328-2740-4995. Piarco, Trinidad and Tobago: GEF, UNEP, CABI Caribbean and Latin America, 43 pp.
Langeland K, 2001. A Case of Mistaken Identity: Native and exotic "Boston ferns" and "Sword ferns" (Nephrolepis spp.). Wildland Weeds, 4. 13-17.
Love A; Love D; Pichi Sermolli REG, 1977. Cytotaxonomical Atlas of the Pteridophyta. Vaduz, Liechtenstein: J Cramer, 398 pp.
MacDonald G; Sellers B; Langeland K; Duperron-Bond T; Ketterer-Guest E, 2008. Invasive Species Management Plans for Florida, Circular 1529. Florida, USA: University of Florida IFAS Extension.
Marrs RH; Watt AS, 2006. Biological Flora of the British Isles: Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Journal of Ecology (Oxford), 94(6):1272-1321. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2006.01177.x
Morton CV, 1958. Observations on cultivated ferns V. The species and forms of Nephrolepis. American Fern Journal, 48(1):18-27.
Nauman CE, 1981. The genus Nephrolepis in Florida. American Fern Journal, 2:35-40.
New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, 2005. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. Wellington, New Zealand: NZPCN. http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/
Ochse JJ, 1931. Indian vegetables: including nature fruits and seasonings (Indische Groenten: met inbegrip van aardvruchten en kruiderijen). Batavia, Netherlands: Buitenzorg, 1001 pp.
Outman RM, 2012. Family Ties and Plant Invasions - Do Closely Related Native and Exotic Fern Species Differ in Mycorrhizal Colonization? Miami, USA: University of Miami. http://scholarlyrepository.miami.edu/oa_theses/366
Pratt LW; Bio KF; Jacobi JD, 2012. Survey or roadside alien plants in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and adjacent residential areas 2001-2005. Technical Report HCSU-032. Hawaii, USA: Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Hilo, 67 pp.
Pratt LW; Mark JRvan de; Euaparadorn M, 2011. Status and limiting factors of three rare plant species in the coastal lowlands and mid-elevation woodlands of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Technical Report HCSU-024. Hawaii, USA: Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Hilo, 89 pp.
Robinson RC; Sheffield E; Sharpe JM, 2010. Problem Ferns - Their Impacts and Management. In: Fern Ecology [ed. by Mehltreter, K. \Valker, L. R. \Sharpe, J. M.]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org
University of Florida Herbarium, 2015. University of Florida Herbarium Collections Catalog. Gainesville, Florida, USA: Florida Museum of Natural History. http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herbarium/cat/
Winter WP de; Amoroso VB, 2003. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 15(2): Cryptogams: Ferns and fern allies [ed. by Winter, W. P. de\Amoroso, V. B.]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 268 pp.
Xing FW; Wang FG; Hovenkamp PH, 2013. Nephrolepidaceae. In: Flora of China (Pteridophytes), 2-3 [ed. by Wu, Z. Y. \Raven, P. H. \Hong, D. Y.]. Beijing Science Press; Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
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ContributorsTop of page
15/02/2016 Updated by:
Peter Hovenkamp, Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Netherlands
30/05/2015 Original text by:
Diana Quiroz, Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Netherlands
Distribution MapsTop of page
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