Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Microstegium vimineum
(Nepalese browntop)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Microstegium vimineum (Nepalese browntop)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Microstegium vimineum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Nepalese browntop
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Microstegium vimineum is a cosmopolitan annual (therophyte) C4 shade-tolerant grass of forest margins and moist grassy areas. It is native to Asia and is commonly referred to as Nepalese browntop or Japanese st...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Japanese stiltgrass, (Microstegium vimineum) infesting woodland, USA.
TitleWoodland infestation
CaptionJapanese stiltgrass, (Microstegium vimineum) infesting woodland, USA.
CopyrightChris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org; This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.
Japanese stiltgrass, (Microstegium vimineum) infesting woodland, USA.
Woodland infestationJapanese stiltgrass, (Microstegium vimineum) infesting woodland, USA.Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org; This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.
Japanese stiltgras, (Microstegium vimineum), immature plant in June, USA.
TitleImmature plant
CaptionJapanese stiltgras, (Microstegium vimineum), immature plant in June, USA.
CopyrightJames H. Miller & Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, Bugwood.org; This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Japanese stiltgras, (Microstegium vimineum), immature plant in June, USA.
Immature plantJapanese stiltgras, (Microstegium vimineum), immature plant in June, USA. James H. Miller & Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, Bugwood.org; This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Dead plants on river margin, USA.
TitleDead plants
CaptionDead plants on river margin, USA.
CopyrightJames H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org; This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Dead plants on river margin, USA.
Dead plantsDead plants on river margin, USA.James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org; This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Close-up of invasive habit
TitleClose-up of invasive habit
CaptionClose-up of invasive habit
CopyrightChris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org; This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.
Close-up of invasive habit
Close-up of invasive habitClose-up of invasive habitChris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org; This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.
Japanese stiltgras, (Microstegium vimineum), close-up of foliage, USA.
TitleFoliage
CaptionJapanese stiltgras, (Microstegium vimineum), close-up of foliage, USA.
CopyrightDavid J. Moorhead, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org; This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.
Japanese stiltgras, (Microstegium vimineum), close-up of foliage, USA.
FoliageJapanese stiltgras, (Microstegium vimineum), close-up of foliage, USA.David J. Moorhead, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org; This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.
Seeds of Japanese stiltgrass, Microstegium vimineum
TitleSeeds
CaptionSeeds of Japanese stiltgrass, Microstegium vimineum
CopyrightSteve Hurst/USDA NRCS PLANTS Database; This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 License.
Seeds of Japanese stiltgrass, Microstegium vimineum
SeedsSeeds of Japanese stiltgrass, Microstegium vimineumSteve Hurst/USDA NRCS PLANTS Database; This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 License.

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Microstegium vimineum (Trinius) A. Camus1921 [1922]

Preferred Common Name

  • Nepalese browntop

Other Scientific Names

  • Andropogon vimineus Trin. 1832
  • Arthraxon lanceolatus Miq. 1866
  • Arthraxon nodosus Kom. 1901
  • Eulalia cantonensis (Rendle) Hitchcock 1929 [1931]
  • Eulalia vimenea (Trin.) Kuntze 1891
  • Eulalia viminea (Trin.) Kuntze 1891
  • Eulalia viminea var. imberbis (Nees ex Steud.) Kuntze 1891
  • Eulalia viminea var. variabilis Kuntze 1891
  • Microstegium aristulatum Robyns & Tournay 1955
  • Microstegium cantonense (Rendle) A. Camus 1921 [1922]
  • Microstegium debile (Balansa) A. Camus 1921 [1922]
  • Microstegium dilatatum Koidzumi 1930
  • Microstegium imberbe (Nees ex Steud.) Tzvelev 1961
  • Microstegium nodosum (Kom.) Tzvelev; 1961
  • Microstegium reticulatum B.S. Sun ex H. Peng & X. Yang 1996
  • Microstegium vimineum fo. polystachyum (Melderis) T. Koyama 1971
  • Microstegium vimineum subsp. nodosum (Kom.) Tzvelev 1976
  • Microstegium vimineum var. monostachyum (Franch. & Sav.) Nakai 1952
  • Microstegium vimineum var. polystachyum (Franch. & Sav.) Ohwi 1942
  • Microstegium vimineum var. vimineum Bor 1960
  • Microstegium vimineum var. willdenowianum (Nees ex Steud.) A. Camus 1922
  • Microstegium vimineum var. willdenowianum (Nees ex Steud.) Sur 1985
  • Microstegium willdenowianum Nees ex Steud. 1836
  • Pollinia cantonensis Rendle 1904
  • Pollinia debilis Balansa 1890
  • Pollinia imberbis Nees ex Steud. 1855 [1854]
  • Pollinia imberbis f. glabriflora
  • Pollinia imberbis var. willdenowiana (Nees ex Steud.) Hack.1889
  • Pollinia japonica var. polystachya Franch. & Sav. 1877
  • Pollinia viminea (Trin.) Merr. 1922
  • Pollinia willdenowiana (Nees ex Steud.) Benth. 1881

International Common Names

  • English: Japanese stiltgrass; Nepalese browntop

Local Common Names

  • China: rou zhi you zhu
  • Japan: ashi-boso [slim foot]
  • USA: annual jew grass; Asian stilt grass; bamboo grass; Chinese packing grass; eulalia; flexible sea grass; Japanese grass; Japanese stilt grass; Mary's grass; Nepal grass; Nepal microstegium; Vietnamese stilt grass

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Microstegium vimineum is a cosmopolitan annual (therophyte) C4 shade-tolerant grass of forest margins and moist grassy areas. It is native to Asia and is commonly referred to as Nepalese browntop or Japanese stilt grass (Raunkiær, 1934; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012). It was used as packing material for porcelain shipments from Asia to North America in the early twentieth century and was first collected in the USA in 1919 (Gage et al., 2010; Fryer, 2011; EPPO Executive Committee, 2012). The grass can form dense monocultures that crowd out native vegetation and proliferate in low light conditions. Once established, populations rapidly increase easily displacing native species within three to five years (Osborne and Edgin, 2007; EPPO Executive Committee, 2012). M. vimineum is currently listed as a Class C noxious weed in Alabama, an invasive, banned species in Connecticut, and a prohibited species in Massachusetts (Geosystems Research Institute, 2012). It is a regulated species in Wisconsin (IPAW, 2012) and was added to the EPPO Alert List in 2008 where it has since been transferred to the List of Invasive Alien Plants in 2012 (EPPO Executive Committee, 2012).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Microstegium
  •                                 Species: Microstegium vimineum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Microstegium is a genus of about 15 species of subtropical Asia and Africa (Sprengel, 1815; Wallich, 1821a, b; Steudel, 1855; Camus, 1922; Hitchcock and Chase, 1951; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012). The complex taxonomic history of M. vimineum produces 32 synonyms in five genera spread over more than 180 years. Adding to the potential for confusion are the four additional genera sometimes used synonymously: Coelarthron, Ischnochloa, Leptatherum and Nemastachys(Wunderlin and Hansen, 2008). First described in 1832 as Andropogon vimineus by the botanist Karl Bernhard von Trinius from a specimen collected by Nathaniel Wallich in Nepal, this epithet is considered a basionym (Trinius, 1832; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012).

In 1836, the species was presented as the type Microstegium willdenowianum by the botanist and natural philosopher, Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck based upon a specimen in the herbarium of C. L. Willdenow, a director of the Berlin Botanical Garden in the early nineteenth century (Nees von Esenbeck, 1836).

The genus name Microstegium is derived from Greek meaning small (in size, quantity, number or dignity) and roof. Nees, however, had failed to provide an authoritative circumscription, which was described in 1855 by Ernst Gottlieb von Steudel, the German authority on grasses (Steudel, 1855).

Adding to the nomenclature challenges was an earlier assignment of the species by Curtius (Kurt) Sprengel to the genus Pollinia, a catch-all or farrago of unrelated species (Sprengel, 1815). When the early vagaries of naming were added the sometimes indistinct morphology of the species, for example, the distinction between awned, Microstegium vimineum var. imberbe, and awnless, Microstegium vimineum var. vimineum phenotypes the result was a long list of additional species, varieties, and forms (Fairbrothers and Gray, 1972). More recentlly, Shukla (1996) refers to the awned variety as var. vimineum, and the awnless as var. willdenowianum. In 1922, the French botanist Aimée Antoinette Camus circumscribed the present accepted binomial Microstegium vimineum(Camus, 1922; Whisenhunt, 2008).

Description

Top of page

The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2012):

M. vimineum is a straggling or decumbent annual (therophyte) plant, usually 0.6-1.0 m in height. Culms decumbent are up to 1 m long. Leaf sheaths are shorter than internodes, the upper usually enclosing cleistogamous spikelets; leaf blades are narrowly elliptic, 4–9 long and 0.2–1.5 cm wide, pubescent, often sparsely, midvein white, apex acuminate; ligule ca. 0.5 mm. Racemes 1–6, ascending, 4–6 cm; rachis internodes linear-clavate, ciliate, shorter than spikelet. Sessile spikelet 4–5.5 mm; lower glume narrowly lanceolate-oblong, back deeply grooved, puberulous-scaberulous or occasionally hispidulous, 0–4 veined between keels, veins connected by veinlets below apex, apex subtruncate; upper glume scabrid on keel, acuminate; lower floret reduced to an inconspicuous linear-lanceolate scale or absent; upper lemma lanceolate or oblong, 1–1.5 mm, acute or bidenticulate, awnless or shortly awned; awn weakly geniculate, often included within spikelet, 6–9 mm; upper palea ovate, ca. 1 mm. Anthers 3, 0.5–1.5 mm.

The plant is often identified by its thin, pale green, tapered leaf blades or by its multiple racemes that may be either terminal or arising from the leaf axils. The alternate leaves have a silvery stripe of reflective hairs down the middle of the upper leaf surface (Swearingen, 2000). The fruit or caryopsis (grain) is yellowish or olive to reddish, and ellipsoid (2.8-3.0 mm) in shape (Tu, 2000; Krings, 2010). The fertile lemma is accompanied by an ovate upper palea, clasping the opposite side of the caryopsis. Additionally an inconspicuous, linear-filiform remnant of the lower floret is often present.

In late fall, M. vimineum is readily identified as it fades to pale greenish-yellow or turns pale-purple in colour (Mehrhoff, 2000).

Being a shade tolerant plant, it is adapted for low-light conditions and uses the C4 pathway for photosynthesis (Barden, 1987; Horton and Neufeld, 1998). M. vimineum lacks the high density of minor veins found in most C4 grasses, and forms, instead, files of distinctive cells (Raghavendra, 2010). 

A perennial form was reported in New Jersey, USA by Ehrenfeld (1999), but was disputed by Mehrhoff (2000) as a case of mistaken identification (Gibson et al., 2002).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page

M. vimineum is a cosmopolitan grass species native to India, Indo-China, Nepal, China, Korea, Far-east Russia, Philippines, and Japan. There are herbaria records, reports in floras and other documentation enumerating the presence of the species on every continent except Antarctica (ISSG, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012a).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentIntroducedValdes et al., 2009
AzerbaijanPresentIntroducedValdes et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014
BhutanPresentNativeWood, 1987; Noltie et al., 1998; EPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentNative Not invasive Hsiu-Lan et al., 1992; ISSG, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-AnhuiPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-GuangxiPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-GuizhouPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-HenanPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-JiangxiPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-JilinPresentNative Not invasive Chen and Phillips, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-ShanxiPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
Georgia (Republic of)PresentIntroducedValdes et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014
IndiaPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; ISSG, 2012; EPPO, 2014NE India
-Himachal PradeshPresentNativeShukla, 1996; EPPO, 2014
-MeghalayaPresentNativeShukla, 1996; EPPO, 2014
-NagalandPresentNativeShukla, 1996; EPPO, 2014
-SikkimPresentNativeKuntze, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-UttarakhandPresentNativeKandwal and Gupta, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-West BengalPresentNativeShukla, 1996; EPPO, 2014
IranPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoPresentNative Not invasive EPPO Executive Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentNative Not invasive EPPO Executive Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentNative Not invasive EPPO Executive Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentNative Not invasive EPPO Executive Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-ShikokuPresentNative Not invasive EPPO Executive Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2012; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentNative Not invasive Taehyeon, 1958; Taehyeon, 1964; Yi, 1993; Namsuk and Seonghui, 1999; Hong et al., 2008; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaPresentNative Not invasive EPPO Executive Committee, 2012
MyanmarPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentNative Not invasive Wallich, 1821a; Wallich, 1821b; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentNativeNational Herbarium of New South Wales GBIF Data Portal , 1921; Nickrent et al., 2011; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentNativeKu, 2003; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentNative Not invasive EPPO Executive Committee, 2012; ISSG, 2012; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentScholz and Byfield, 2000; Brundu et al., 2011; EPPO Executive Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
VietnamPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014

Africa

Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedScaetta, 1929a; Scaetta, 1929bProv. Kivu, Territ. Rutohuru, Nyamucagira

North America

USAPresentEPPO, 2014
-AlabamaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Hitchcock and Chase, 1951; Reed, 1979; USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-ArkansasLocalisedIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-DelawareWidespreadIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-District of ColumbiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014Jackson and Liberty Counties, NW Florida
-GeorgiaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisLocalisedIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014Massac and Pope Counties, S. Illinois
-IndianaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014Ohio % Switzerland Counties, SE, Indiana
-KentuckyWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Hitchcock and Chase, 1951; USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-LouisianaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandWidespreadIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-MississippiLocalisedIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-MissouriLocalisedIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyWidespreadIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2014
-New YorkLocalisedIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014Bronx, Duchess, and Orange Counties, S, New York
-North CarolinaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Hitchcock and Chase, 1951; USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014Shaded banks and roadsides
-OhioLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Hitchcock and Chase, 1951; USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014Shaded banks and roadsides
-OklahomaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Hitchcock and Chase, 1951; USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014Shaded banks and roadsides, Berks County, Pennsylvania
-Rhode IslandLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Reed, 1977; USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-TennesseeWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Jennison, 1936; Hitchcock and Chase, 1951; USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-TexasLocalisedIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014Bowie County, NE Texas,
-VirginiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Hitchcock and Chase, 1951; USDA-NRCS, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-West VirginiaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2012; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Invasive Bien et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014Parque Nacional Arenal Several patches were found along one of the hiking trails leading from the road to the volcano. Latitude: 10.45, Longitude: -84.73
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Duncan, 2006; EPPO, 2014

Europe

Russian FederationPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-Northern RussiaAbsent, invalid recordEPPO Executive Committee, 2012Primorsk
-Russian Far EastPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012Primorye [s.]
-Southern RussiaPresentEPPO, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

M. vimineum was introduced to North America from Asia in 1919. First collected in Tennessee, the species had spread to Atlantic coastal states from Florida to New Jersey (Tu, 2000). With the discovery of M. vimineum in Turkey and southern Caucasus, the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) added the species to the EPPO Alert List in 2008 and transferred it to the List of Invasive Alien Plants in 2012 labelling it as an emerging invasive species (EPPO Executive Committee, 2012).The commercial use of the plant as a packing material is reported as a possible pathway of introduction in the United States (Gage et al., 2010). The Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States (Weakley, 2011) gives an indication of the establishment and spread of M. vimineum in the United States: "local" (Fernald 1950), "rarely introduced and possibly not established" (Gleason and Cronquist 1952), "sporadically naturalized" (Godfrey and Wooten 1979), "a rapidly spreading pernicious invader on moist ground, too common" (Wofford, 1989).

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Tennessee Asia 1919 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes Fairbrothers and Gray (1972)
Turkey 1999 Yes Valdes et al. (2009); Valdés et al. (2009)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

M. vimineum is a very serious invasive species and considered one of the most destructive introduced plants in the United States. It forms extensive and dense patches, outcompeting and eliminating nearly all other herbaceous plants, with control and eradication being difficult at best (Fryer, 2011; Weakley, 2011; ISSG, 2012). The plant establishes itself most successfully with shallow leaf litter, and reproduces best at high temperatures and high light levels. It uses water as a dispersal vector and so an increased rate of spread is associated with mesic conditions as opposed to dry conditions. Areas associated with flooding and areas with low slope or timber harvest are also beneficial for rapid spread of M. vimineum (Gage et al., 2010).

Habitat

Top of page

M. vimineum grows along mesic roadsides, railroad right-of-way ditches, utility right-of-way, logging roads, roadsides floodplain forest, forest wetland, herbaceous and shrub wetland, early and late successional forest, planted forest, forest edges and margins, woodland borders, floodplains, grassy areas, vacant lot, managed landscapes, and stream sides; in mesic upland sites, usually in moderate to dense shade. The findings of Cheplick (2010) state that "The large size and subsequent greater reproduction of plants in populations of open, sunny habitats such as along roadsides and disturbed drainage ditches or streams, provides a major source of propagules able to colonize new areas following dispersal."     

M. vimineum will not grow in areas with periodic standing water, nor in full, direct sunlight (Fairbrothers and Gray, 1972; Hunt and Zaremba, 1992; Redman, 1995; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012).

In mountainous regions, M. vimineum is found below elevations of 4000 feet (Evans et al., 2006). Sunlight and moist soil, therefore, increase the chances of Japanese stiltgrass establishment and favour its growth. Establishment and spread are limited in shaded environments (Huebner, 2003; Fryer, 2011).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Natural
Riverbanks Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Principal habitat Natural
Wetlands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

M. vimineum impedes regeneration of native woody species and lowers overall species diversity and stem densities (Oswalt et al., 2007). One study found that it inhibited the success of small-seeded trees and reduced tree survival after one growing season by more than 20%, negatively impacting on Acer negundo (box elder), Platanus occidentalis (sycamore) and Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar) (Flory and Clay, 2010).

An infestation of M. vimineum documented in 2002 in Chapman State Park , Maryland, USA showed adverse impact on Myosotis macrosperma Engelm (largeseed forget-me-not), Solidago bicolor (white goldenrod), Arisaema dracontium (green dragon) and Nemophila aphylla (smallflower baby blue eyes) (Imlay, 2012).

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

Chromosome base number of M. vimineum is x = 10, 2n = 20 and 40; chromosomes are small (Watson and Dallwitz, 1992).

There is evidence of genetic differences among M. vimineum populations, conferring higher shade tolerance in some populations that have larger leaves. One experiment showed that two test populations significantly increased biomass production under favourable conditions, unlike a third population. In this experiment the most productive populations also responded to shade stress via greater specific leaf area (SLA) while the third population did not (Droste et al., 2009).

Reproductive Biology

M. vimineum produces abundant seed and relies entirely on its seed bank for its annual recruitment. The seeds may need a period of stratification (cool temperatures and high moisture) before they will germinate (Woods, 1989) and seeds stored in the soil may remain viable for as long as five years (Barden, 1991). The seeds may have low germination rates but many seeds are produced by each plant, resulting in an estimated 0.1– 4 million seeds per m² (Barden, 1987; Woods, 1989; Gibson et al., 2002; Judge et al., 2008; Warren et al., 2010). Each tiller of M. vimineum typically produces one terminal raceme and two to seven axillary racemes; each tiller may produce 100 to 1000 seeds per year (Cheplick, 2010). 

It grows quickly in low light conditions, sometimes forming dense monocultures (monospecific stands), fruits within a single season, and is moved easily into disturbed habitats by natural means (e.g., flood scouring) and artificial means (e.g., mowing, tilling, foot traffic, and other soil disturbing activities) (Swearingen, 2000; EPPO Executive Committee, 2012). M. vimineum seeds reportedly have short-term persistence in soil ranging from one to five years (Barden, 1987; Gibson et al., 2002; Vidra et al., 2007). There are few reports or studies on M. vimineum germination though open sites and little to no litter favour germination (Fryer, 2011).

M. vimineum seed matures until fall frosts followed by plant death (Gibson et al., 2002). Seeds are also able to survive submersion in water for periods of up to 10 weeks. Barden (1991) reports that seeds can germinate while under water, but the plants do not grow. If standing water is removed, more seeds will germinate shortly afterwards.

The plant is both cleistogamous and chasmogamous (self- and cross-pollinated) (Huebner, 2003; Kuoh, 2003).

Physiology and Phenology

M. vimineum shows "extreme plasticity" in morphology, producing both flowers and stolons under a wide range of nutrient and light conditions (Fryer, 2011). Flowering and fruiting occurs in late summer (August–November); senesces in early fall (Evans et al., 2006; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012).

The reproductive success and establishment of the plant in woodlands "may be due to high tolerance to a range of intraspecific densities and to an ability to set seed under shady conditions even when densities are high" (Cheplick, 2010).

It is a variable species, usually with apparently awnless spikelets, where in fact a weakly developed awn is enclosed within the glumes. Sometimes the awn is exserted and obvious; rarely is it completely absent (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012). This species variability may have led to attempts to circumscribe varieties, subspecies, forms and novel species leading to taxonomic confusion.

Being a shade tolerant plant, it is adapted for low-light conditions and uses the C4 pathway for photosynthesis (Barden, 1987; Horton and Neufeld, 1998). M. vimineum lacks the high density of minor veins found in most C4 grasses, and forms, instead, files of distinctive cells (Raghavendra, 2010). 

M. vimineum community and species responses to a future carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere may be mediated by other environmental factors and will depend on individual species responses (Belote et al., 2008). High carbon dioxide levels may negatively affect M. vimineum compared to plant species better able to assimilate extra carbon dioxide (Fryer, 2011). 

Associations

M. vimineum is associated in North America with several other non-native species in the United States: garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides) (Gibson et al., 2002; Morrison and Mauck, 2007; Dogra et al., 2010; Fryer, 2011).

Environmental Requirements

It grows in temperate to warm continental climates. There is little available specific information about temperature ranges for the species. The coldest reported winter temperatures for a seed bank of M. vimineum are approximately -21 to -23 °C (Redman, 1995). This low temperature would equate with USDA Plant Hardiness Zone of 6b. There are no specific studies of precipitation requirements. 

In the United States it is found in acidic soils (pH 5.8 to 4.8); some populations are established, however, on limestone or marble derived soils. Where it occurs, the soils typically have average levels of potassium and phosphorus but have high levels of nitrogen (Redman, 1995; Tu, 2000). It is commonly found on silty to sandy loams and on clays (red clays in the Piedmont), and prefers damp or wet soils but does not tolerate standing water (Barden, 1987; Hunt and Zaremba, 1992; Gibson et al., 2002; ISSG, 2012). Dry upland soils or “highly disturbed" soils such as gravel and dirt mounds by roadsides may also provide a suitable habitat (Swearingen, 2000; Touchette and Romanello, 2009Fryer, 2011). 

The species thrives and reproduces most successfully in North America with canopy openness, and the species occurs less frequently and grows poorly in shade (Barden, 1987; Gibson et al., 2002; Claridge and Franklin, 2003; Cole and Weltzin, 2004; Glasgow and Matlack, 2007; Marshall and Buckley, 2007; Eschtruth and Battles, 2009; Warren et al., 2010).

When provided with adequate leaf-litter, it is highly competitive, especially in low light conditions (Leicht et al., 2005; Marshall and Buckley, 2007). M. vimineum has been shown to raise soil pH and have an associated increase in N-mineralization and nitrification, as well as decreased litter thickness (Kourtev et al., 1998; Ehrenfeld et al., 2001).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Tolerated Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
41

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -23

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Balansia andropogonis Pathogen Adults to genus Attacks rice
Bipolaris Pathogen Adults to species
Cerebella paspali Pathogen Adults to genus
Lethe confusa Herbivore Adults to genus
Lethe europa Herbivore Adults to genus
Melanitis phedima Herbivore Adults to genus
Meliola setariae Pathogen Adults to genus
Phakopsora incompleta Pathogen Adults to genus
Phyllachora ischaemi Pathogen Adults to genus
Phyllachora leptotheca Pathogen Adults to genus
Puccinia aestivalis Pathogen Adults to genus
Puccinia benguetensis Pathogen Adults to genus
Puccinia polliniae Pathogen Adults to genus
Puccinia polliniae-imberbis Pathogen Adults to genus
Puccinia polliniicola Pathogen Adults to genus
Semiaphis montana Herbivore Adults to genus
Ustilaginoidea polliniae Pathogen Adults to genus
Ypthima baldus Herbivore Adults to genus
Ypthima baldus zodina Herbivore Adults to genus

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Thirteen species of fungi and eight arthropod species are reported for the genus Microstegium(Zheng et al., 2006).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic) 

Its fruits and seeds are dispersed by wind and water (Tu, 2000; Huebner, 2003; Baiser et al., 2008; Romanello, 2009; Warren et al., 2010; Fryer, 2011). The fruits of M. vimineum can float and disperse throughout an entire wetland or alluvial floodplain during high-water events (Mehrhoff, 2000).

Vector Transmission (Biotic) 

Animals aid in the dispersion of the fruits and seeds.

Accidental Introduction

M. vimineum spreads along road ways facilitated by the movement of dormant seeds in road maintenance (Christen and Matlack, 2008; Rauschert et al., 2010). It has been used for basket weaving but it is neither found nor propagated in the ornamental horticulture market. Although it has not been used as forage in the USA, it is occasionally found as a forage species in its native range (Fryer, 2011).

Its propagules (seed, fruit) have previously been transported on vehicles and in hay and soil but there is a low to moderate risk of accidental introduction as a contaminant of bird seeds, soil and hay (Tu, 2000; Fryer, 2011).

Intentional Introduction

The species was used extensively as a packing material for porcelain, which may have contributed to its invasion into the United States. There is no conclusion as to the nature of the introduction of M. vimineum into the southern Caucasus region (Valdés et al., 2009; EPPO Executive Committee, 2012).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes Warren et al., 2010
Disturbance Yes Warren et al., 2010
Flooding and other natural disastersModerate to high uncertainty Yes Mehrhoff, 2000; Warren et al., 2010
ForageModerate uncertainty Yes EPPO Executive Committee, 2012; Warren et al., 2010
HitchhikerModerate uncertainty Yes Baiser et al., 2008; Warren et al., 2010

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Containers and packaging - non-woodPossible vector into US Yes Fairbrothers and Gray, 1972
Floating vegetation and debris Yes

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Positive
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

The implicit alteration of recreational and hunting preserves may be assumed to have an economic impact, though there is no specific information.

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Impact on Habitats

M. vimineum alters the structure of native plant communities and may affect ecosystems through competitive exclusion and reduction of light availability (Flory and Clay, 2009). Furthermore, it can alter the microbial compositions of soils (Kourtev et al., 2002).

Nagy et al. (2011) suggested that it may provide some benefit in areas where populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have depleted native herbaceous cover, serving as habitat for ground amphibians such as frogs and toads (anurans). As this plant is unpalatable to deer and livestock, its establishment and spread is accelerated by white-tailed deer and along with canopy disturbances interacts with herbivory to magnify the impact (Miller and Matlack, 2010; Eschtruth and Battles, 2009).

Impact on Biodiversity

The plant reduces indigenous herbaceous species productivity and diversity and decreases arthropod abundance and richness across multiple trophic levels (Simao et al., 2010). The northern pearly-eye butterfly, (Lethe anthedon) in New Jersey, on the other hand, has adapted to M. vimineum as a host plant (Swearingen, 2000; Stichte, 2011).

In North American it is a threat to eastern deciduous forests creating near monospecific stands that are highly resistant to re-colonization by native species (Oswalt et al., 2007; Flory and Clay, 2010)

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Antagonistic (micro-organisms)
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

Top of page

Economic Value 

M. vimineum has little to no current uses outside of the basket weaving craft (Tu, 2000).

Social Benefit 

It is not intentionally planted (EPPO Executive Committee, 2012).

Environmental Services

Although there is little information available for the effects of the plant on other ecosystem services in its native range, it is highly destructive to ecosystems in non-indigenous ranges.

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage

Materials

  • Baskets

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

The grass is similar in appearance to the North American native whitegrass Leersia virginica with which it often co-exists (Mehrhoff, 2000). It is also similar to the North American invasive Oplismenus hirtellus ssp. undulatifolius (basketgrass), as well as the native Oplismenus hirtellus subsp. setarius. It can be readily confused with another North American native, Dichanthelium clandestinum (deertongue) and may also be mistaken for Arthraxon hispidus (small carpgrass).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Control

Manual, mechanical, environmental/cultural, and chemical methods are all useful to varying degrees in controlling M. vimineum(Tu, 2000). Various private and public entities in the United States as well as the European Union have developed an early detection and rapid response program (integrated vegetative management, IPM) to deal with the introduction, spread, control, education (public awareness), and management of M. vimineum(EPPO Executive Committee, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012b).

Control should be directed to propagule source reduction and eradication programs along roadways and other sunlit, disturbed areas cutting off shaded ecosystem sink populations (Pulliam, 1988; Warren et al., 2010).

Physical control methods may include hand pull or mechanical cutting of plants using a mower or "weed whacker" on vegetative shoots of small infestations (Judge et al., 2008). No biological control agent is available at this time.

Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, has been shown to be the best chemical for controlling M. vimineum populations and maintaining native understory flora in mixed hardwood stands of eastern North America (Jacques, 2007; Judge et al., 2008; Flory, 2010; Pomp et al., 2010).  However, using systemic herbicides such as glyphosate (e.g. Roundup), a herbicidal soap like pelargonic acid that kills the plants (e.g. Scythe) or herbicides specific to annual grasses may be a more effective choice. If applying glyphosate to M. vimineum in wetland sites, use the formulation labelled for wetland areas (Swearingen, 2000; Judge et al., 2008; Swearingen et al., 2010).

There is some ongoing research which suggests that invasions of M. vimineum can be controlled or eliminated using post-emergent grass specific herbicide followed by a spring application of pre-emergent herbicide (Flory, 2010).

Ecosystem Restoration 

M. vimineum control and management is difficult because invaded areas are often very large and the seed can persist in the soil for several years. The plant can be removed by hand-weeding, mowing, or selective herbicides, however, the re-establishment of a resilient, self-sustaining ecosystem or community will depend upon the variables of the control method. Purdue University Extension observes that "although multiple methods may be used to kill M. vimineum, there are few practical techniques. Hand-weeding can be effective for small invasions and mowing can help to reduce seed production in flat, easily accessible areas. For large invasions in areas with trees or steep topography, selective herbicides are preferred" (Kleczewski et al., 2011). Further complicating restoration plans, for example, are the biological and physical alterations such as the differences in non-native earthworm densities in M. vimineum infested soils that have been reported (Kourtev et al., 1999). In addition, M. vimineum restoration activities are increasing available nitrogen and favoring invasive species, which in turn detracts from restoration success (DeMeester and Richter, 2009)

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Top of page

M. vimineum dispersal is an area for research as well as a potentially effective weak point for targeted management (Warren et al., 2010).

Precipitation requirements and temperature extrema are also areas of needed investigation. Additional research should target M. vimineum's impact on rare and endangered species.

Furthermore, research on indigenous and non-indigenous pathogens (both general and host specific) is scarce and invites additional study.

References

Top of page

Baiser B; Lockwood JL; Puma Dla; Aronson MFJ, 2008. A perfect storm: two ecosystem engineers interact to degrade deciduous forests of New Jersey. Biological Invasions, 10(6):785-795. http://www.springerlink.com/content/4710418416360254/?p=4dcfe4c65e5541678bbacbe19a9d7809&pi=1

Barden L, 1991. Element Stewardship Abstract: Microstegium vimineum. Arlington, Virginia, USA: The Nature Conservancy, 6.

Barden LS, 1987. Invasion of Microstegium vimineum (Poaceae), an exotic, annual, shade-tolerant, C4 grass, into a North Carolina floodplain. American Midland Naturalist, 118(1):40-45.

Belote RT; Weltzin JF; Norby RJ, 2008. Response of an understory plant community to elevated [ CO 2 ] depends on differential responses of dominant invasive species and is mediated by soil water availability, 161:827-835.

Bien W; Moore G; Gordon T, 2008. The invasive Microstegium vimineum (Poaceae) new to Costa Rica and Mesoamerica. Brenesia, No.69:67-70.

Brundu G; Aksoy N; Brunel S; Eliás P; Fried G, 2011. Rapid surveys for inventorying alien plants in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 41(2):208-216. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338

Camus AA, 1922. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus (Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus), 2(68):201.

Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, 2012. EDDMapS, Japanese stiltgrass, Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus. Tifton, Georgia, USA: The University of Georgia. http://www.eddmaps.org/distribution/point.cfm?id=2418805

Chen S; Phillips SM, 2012. Flora of China, 22:593-598.

Cheplick GP, 2010. Limits to local spatial spread in a highly invasive annual grass (Microstegium vimineum). Biological Invasions, 12(6):1759-1771. http://www.springerlink.com/content/2445810424x73tg8/?p=9053e3d5f6c440d8a4cf086d5136fea1&pi=30

Christen DC; Matlack GR, 2008. The habitat and conduit functions of roads in the spread of three invasive plant species, 11(2):453-465.

Claridge K; Franklin SB, 2003. Compensation and plasticity in an invasive plant species, 4(4):339-347.

Cole PG; Weltzin JF, 2004. Environmental correlates of the distribution and abundance of Microstegium vimineum, in East Tennessee. Southeastern Naturalist, 3(3):545-562.

Cole PG; Weltzin JF, 2005. Light limitation creates patchy distribution of an invasive grass in eastern deciduous forests. Biological Invasions, 7(3):477-488. http://www.springerlink.com/media/4g117bnpng0jwv8d1mwk/contributions/g/m/5/3/gm5314165n686035.pdf

DeMeester JE; Richter DD, 2009. Feedbacks of nitrogen cycling and invasion with the non-native plant, Microstegium vimineum, in riparian wetlands. Durham, NC, USA: Duke University.

Dogra KS; Sood SK; Dobhal PK; Sharma S, 2010. Alien plant invasion and their impact on indigenous species diversity at global scale?: A review, 2:175-186.

Douce GK; Moorhead DJ; Bargeron CT; Reardon RC, 2004. Invasive.org: a Web-based Image Archive and Database System Focused on North American Exotic and Invasive Species. In Proceedings, XV U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species [ed. by Gottschalk, K. W.]. Northeastern Research Station, Evanston, USA: U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Droste T; Flory SL; Clay K, 2009. Variation for phenotypic plasticity among populations of an invasive exotic grass, 207(2):297-306.

Duncan WH, 2006. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus: Catalogue number: 42276. Knoxville, USA: University of Tennessee.

Ehrenfeld JG; Kourtev P; Huang W, 2001. Changes in soil functions following invasions of exotic understory plants in deciduous forests, 11(5):1287-1300.

EPPO Executive Committee, 2012. Microstegium vimineum (Poaceae). Paris, France: EPPO Global Database. http://www.eppo.int/INVASIVE_PLANTS/iap_list/Microstegium_vimineum

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Eschtruth AK; Battles JJ, 2009. Acceleration of exotic plant invasion in a forested ecosystem by a generalist herbivore. Conservation Biology, 23(2):388-399. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/cbi

Evans CW; Moorhead DJ; Bargeron CT; Douce GK, 2006. Invasive plant responses to silvicultural practices in the south. Tifton, Georgia, USA: The University of Georgia, 52.

Fairbrothers DE; Gray JR, 1972. Microstegium vimineum (Trin. Camus (Gramineae) in the United States, 99(2):97-100.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

Flory SL, 2010. Management of Microstegium vimineum invasions and recovery of resident plant communities. Restoration Ecology, 18(1):103-112. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/120848698/HTMLSTART

Flory SL; Clay K, 2009. Non-native grass invasion alters native plant composition in experimental communities, 12(5):1285-1294.

Flory SL; Clay K, 2010. Non-native grass invasion suppresses forest succession. Oecologia, 164(4):1029-1038. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/wm08q541526g0688/fulltext.html

Flory SL; Rudgers JA; Clay K, 2007. Experimental light treatments affect invasion success and the impact of Microstegium vimineum on the resident community. Natural Areas Journal, 27(2):124-132. http://www.naturalarea.org

Fryer JL, 2011. Microstegium vimineum , Fire Effects Information System. Washington, USA: U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Gage KL; Gibson DJ; Evans C; Shimp J, 2010. White Paper: 2010 Stiltgrass Summit. River to River Cooperative Weed Management Area. Carbondale, Illinois, USA: Southern Illinois University. http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/pb_reports/3

Gibson DJ; Spyreas G; Benedict J, 2002. Life history of Microstegium vimineum (Poaceae), an invasive grass in southern Illinois. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 129(3):207-219.

Glasgow LS; Matlack GR, 2007. The effects of prescribed burning and canopy openness on establishment of two non-native plant species in a deciduous forest, southeast Ohio, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 238(1/3):319-329. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781127

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), 2012. GBIF Data Portal. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Data Portal. http://data.gbif.org

Hitchcock AS; Chase A, 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. Second edition. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, 1051 pp.

Hong SH; Lee YH; Na CS; Kang BH; Lee SH; Shim SI, 2008. Characteristics of Vegetational Distribution of Weeds in Petroleum-Contaminated Soil, 28(3):220-228.

Horton JL; Neufeld HS, 1998. Photosynthetic responses of Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus, a shade-tolerant, C4 grass, to variable light environments. Oecologia, 114(1):11-19.

Hsiu-Lan Ho; Yen H-F; Hu W-H, 1992. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A Camus: Catalogue number: E00016512. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Data Portal. http://data.gbif.org/

Huebner CD, 2003. Vulnerability of oak-dominated forests in West Virginia to invasive exotic plants: temporal and spatial patterns of nine exotic species using herbarium records and land classification data. Castanea, 68(1):1-14.

Hunt DM; Zaremba RE, 1992. The northeastward spread of Microstegium vimineum (Poaceae) into New York and adjacent states. Rhodora, 94(878):167-170.

Imlay M, 2012. .

Invasive Plants Association of Wisconsin, 2012. IPAW Working List of the Invasive Plants of Wisconsin. Wisconsin, USA: Invasive Plants Association of Wisconsin. http://www.ipaw.org/

ISSG, 2012. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

Jacques RR, 2007. Effects of Microstegium Vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus (Asian Stiltgrass; Poaceae) on native hardwood seedling growth and survival. Ohio, USA: Ohio University, College of Arts and Sciences.

Jennison HM, 1936. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus: Catalogue number: 2589553. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Data Portal. http://data.gbif.org/occurrences/321051995/

Judge CA; Neal JC; Shear TH, 2008. Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) management for restoration of native plant communities. Invasive Plant Science and Management, 1(2):111-119. http://www.wssa.net

Kandwal MK; Gupta BK, 2009. A new variety of Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus from Uttarakhand (India). Indian Journal of Forestry, 32(1):171-173.

Kleczewski N; Flory SL; Nice G, 2011. An Introduction to Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stiltgrass/Nepalese browntop) an Emerging Invasive Grass in the Eastern United States. Indiana, USA: Purdue University. http://www.btny.purdue.edu/weedscience/2011/Microstegium-01.pdf

Kleczewski NM; Flory SL, 2010. Leaf blight disease on the invasive grass Microstegium vimineum caused by a Bipolaris sp. Plant Disease, 94(7):807-811. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Kourtev PS; Ehrenfeld JG; Huang WZ, 1998. Effects of exotic plant species on soil properties in hardwood forests of New Jersey. In: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 105(1/2) [ed. by Wieder, R. K.\Novák, M.\Cerny, J.]. 493-501.

Kourtev PS; Ehrenfeld JG; Häggblom, 2002. Exotic plant species alter the microbial community structure and function in the soil. Ecology, 83(11):3152-3166.

Kourtev PS; Huang WZ; Ehrenfeld JG, 1999. Differences in earthworm densities and nitrogen dynamics in soils under exotic and native plant species. Biological Invasions, 1(2/3):237-245. http://www.springerlink.com/media/np330rwyvr2tng13xxb0/contributions/u/3/x/6/u3x6u02505647j30.pdf

Krings A, 2010. Manual of the vascular flora of Nags Head Woods, Outer Banks, North Carolina. Bronx, USA: New York Botanical Garden Press, 308.

Ku S-M, 2003. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus: Catalogue number: 100100. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus: Catalogue number: 100100. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF.

Kuntze CEO, 2012. Eulalia viminea var. variabilis Kuntze: Catalogue number: 381035. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Data Portal. http://data.gbif.org/occurrences/216658255/

Kuoh C, 2003. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Cleistogamy and Chasmogamy in Microstegium vimineum (Poaceae) in Taiwan: In Monocots III Abstracts [ed. by Simon, B. K.]. Claremont, USA: Rancho Santa Ana.

Leicht SA; Silander JA Jr; Greenwood K, 2005. Assessing the competitive ability of Japanese stilt grass, Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 132(4):573-580.

Marshall JM; Buckley DS, 2007. Influence of litter removal and mineral soil disturbance on the spread of an invasive grass in a Central Hardwood forest, 10(4):531-538.

Mehrhoff LJ, 2000. Perennial Microstegium vimineum (Poaceae): an apparent misidentification? Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 127(3):251-254.

Miller NP; Matlack GR, 2010. Population expansion in an invasive grass, Microstegium vimineum: a test of the channelled diffusion model. Diversity and Distributions, 16(5):816-826. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ddi

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012. Tropicos database. Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Morrison JA; Mauck K, 2007. Experimental field comparison of native and non-native maple seedlings: natural enemies, ecophysiology, growth and survival. Journal of Ecology (Oxford), 95(5):1036-1049. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jec

Moser WK; Barnard EL; Billings RF; Crocker SJ; Dix ME; Gray AN; Ice GG; Kim M-sook; Reid R; Rodman SU; McWilliams WH, 2009. Impacts of Nonnative Invasive Species on US Forests and Recommendations for Policy and Management, 107(6):320-327.

Nagy C; Aschen S; Christie R; Weckel M, 2011. Japanese stilt grass (Microstegium vimineum), a nonnative invasive grass, provides alternative habitat for native frogs in a suburban forest, 6:1-10.

Namsuk L; Seonghui Y, 1999. Microstegium vimineum var. vimineum: Catalogue number: EWUA200007172051. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Data Portal. http://data.gbif.org/occurrences/33931368/

National Herbarium of New South Wales GBIF Data Portal, 1921. Microstegium vimineum A.Camus: Catalogue number: 742123. Microstegium vimineum A.Camus: Catalogue number: 742123. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Data Portal. http://data.gbif.org

Nees Esenbeck CGD von, 1836. Microstegium willdenowianum in A Natural System of Botany (Lindley)., USA 447.

Nickrent DL; Barcelona J; Pelser P; Molina JE; Callado JR, 2011. Leonardo L. Co - Flora of the Philippines., Philippines: Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines . http://www.philippineplants.org/

Noltie; Pradhan; Sherub; Wangdi, 1998. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A.Camus: Catalogue number: E00163633. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Data Portal. http://data.gbif.org/occurrences/574917303/

Osborne TL; Edgin B, 2007. Japanese Stilt Grass [Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus. Illinois, USA: Illinois Nature Preserves Commission.

Oswalt CM; Oswalt SN; Clatterbuck WK, 2007. Effects of Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus on native woody species density and diversity in a productive mixed-hardwood forest in Tennessee. Forest Ecology and Management, 242(2/3):727-732. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781127

Pomp J; McGill D; Grafton W; Chandran R; Richardson R, 2010. No Title. In Proceedings of the 14th biennial southern silvicultural research conference [ed. by Stanturf, J. A.]. Ashville, USA: USDA.

Pulliam HR, 1988. Sources, Sinks, and Population Regulation, 132(5):652-661.

Raghavendra AS; Sage RF, 2010. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration: C4 Photosynthesis and Related Co2 Concentrating Mechanisms, 32. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

Raunkiaer C, 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography; being the collected papers of C. Raunkiaer. Oxford: Clarendon Press., xvi. + 632 pp.

Rauschert ESJ; Mortensen DA; Bjørnstad ON; Nord AN; Peskin N, 2010. Slow spread of the aggressive invader, Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stiltgrass). Biological Invasions, 12(3):563-579. http://www.springerlink.com/content/45v1227390302254/?p=253d5999cca84bdab4ea509b11a793a4&pi=14

Redman DE, 1995. Distribution and habitat types for Nepal Microstegium [Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) Camus] in Maryland and the District of Columbia. Castanea, 60(3):270-275.

Reed CF, 1977. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus: Catalogue number: 3416559. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Data Portal. http://data.gbif.org/occurrences/321052141/

Reed CF, 1979. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus: Catalogue number: 3416496. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Data Portal. http://data.gbif.org/occurrences/321052123/

Romanello GA, 2009. Microstegium vimineum invasion in central Pennsylvanian slope, seep wetlands: site comparisons, seed bank investigation and water as a vector for dispersal. Pennsylvania, USA: Pennsylvania State University.

Sanderson M, 2012. Microstegium: Cluster 0 (up to parent cluster). Arizona, USA: Sanderson M. http://ceiba.biosci.arizona.edu/cgi-bin/pb

Scaetta, 1929. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A.Camus: Catalogue number: K000280771. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Data Portal. http://data.gbif.org/occurrences/92335398/

Scaetta, 1929b. Microstegium aristulatum: Catalogue number: P01909658. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Data Portal. http://data.gbif.org/occurrences/442635730/

Scholz H; Byfield AJ, 2000. Three grasses new to Turkey. Turkish Journal of Botany, 24(4):263-267.

Schramm JW, 2008. Historical legacies, competition and dispersal control patterns of invasion by a non-native grass, Microstegium vimineum Trin. (A. Camus). New Jersey, USA: ProQuest, The State University of New Jersey.

Shukla U, 1996. The Grasses of North-Eastern India. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers, 325 pp.

Simao MCM; Flory SL; Rudgers JA, 2010. Experimental plant invasion reduces arthropod abundance and richness across multiple trophic levels. Oikos, 119(10):1553-1562. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/oik

Sprengel KPJ, 1815. Plantarum minus cognitarum pugillus (Plantarum minus cognitarum pugillus)., Germany: Kümmelium.

Steudel EGvon, 1855. Synopsis plantarum glumacearum (Synopsis plantarum glumacearum)., Germany: J.B. Metzler.

Stichte S, 2011. 63 Northern Pearly-Eye Lethe anthedon A. Clark, 1936. Massachusetts, USA: Stichte, S. http://www.butterfliesofmassachusetts.net/northern-pearlyeye

Swearingen J; Slattery B; Reshetiloff K; Zwicker S, 2010. Plant invaders of mid-Atlantic natural areas. Washington, D.C, USA: National Park Service and US Fish and Wildlife Service, 168.

Swearingen JM, 2000. Japanese Stilt Grass (Microstegium vimineum). Washington, D.C, USA: U.S. National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/mivi1.htm

Taehyeon J, 1958. Microstegium vimineum var. vimineum: Catalogue number: SKKA200105171039. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Data Portal. http://data.gbif.org/occurrences/33931400/

Taehyeon J, 1964. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.Camus var. vimineum: Catalogue number: SKKA200105171049. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Data Portal. http://data.gbif.org/occurrences/33931272/

Tai FL, 1979. Sylloge fungorum Sinicorum. Sylloge fungorum Sinicorum. Peking, China: Science Press, Academia Sinica, 1527 pp.

The Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth Geosystems Research Institute, 2012. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus, Nepalese browntop. Mississippi, USA: Mississippi State University.

Touchette BW; Romanello GA, 2009. Growth and water relations in a central North Carolina population of Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus, 12(4):893-903.

Trinius CBvon, 1832. Andropopgon vimineus - Nathaniel Wallich - 8838 (Andropopgon vimineus - Nathaniel Wallich - 8838), 6(1-2).

Tu M, 2000. Element Stewardship Abstract for Microstegium vimineum - Japanese stilt grass, Nepalese browntop, Chinese packing grass. Arlington, Virginia, USA: The Nature Conservancy. http://www.imapinvasives.org/GIST/ESA/esapages/documnts/micrvim

USDA, 2012. Microstegium vimineum. Washington. D.C, USA: USDA National Invasive Species Information Centre. http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Valdés B; Scholz H; Raab-Straube E von; Parolly G, 2009. Poaceae (pro parte majore). Berlin, Germany: Euro+Med Plantbase. http://ww2.bgbm.org/euroPlusMed

Vidra RL; Shear TH; Stucky JM, 2007. Effects of vegetation removal on native understory recovery in an exotic-rich urban forest. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 134(3):410-419. http://www.torreybotanical.org/journal.html

Wallich N, 1821a. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus: Catalogue number: K000245720. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Data Portal. http://data.gbif.org/occurrences/92335267/

Wallich N, 1821b. Microstegium vimineum: Catalogue number: P00740667. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Data Portal. http://data.gbif.org/occurrences/437996218/

Warren RJ; Wright JP; Bradford MA, 2010. The putative niche requirements and landscape dynamics of Microstegium vimineum: an invasive Asian grass, 13(2):471-483.

Watson L; Dallwitz MJ, 1992. The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. The Families of Flowering Plants. http://delta-intkey.com

Weakley AS, 2011. Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. North Carolina, USA: University of North Carolina.

Whisenhunt JW, 2008. Microstegium vimineum (Japanese Stiltgrass) [Poaceae] in Arkansas: Distribution, Ecology and Competition. Arkansas, USA: University of Arkansas, ProQuest.

Winter K; Schmitt; Edwards G, 1982. Microstegium vimineum, a shade adapted C4 grass, 24(3):311-318.

Wood JRI, 1987. Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A.Camus: Catalogue number: E00068286. Copenhagen, Denmark: GBIF Data Portal. http://www.gbif.org/

Woods FW, 1989. Control of Paulownia tomentosa and Microstegium vimineum in national parks. A report to The Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Knoxville, Tennessee, USA: The University of Tennessee, Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries.

Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Yanxing H, 1999. Flora Fungorum Sinicorum (Flora Fungorum Sinicorum), 11. Beijing, China: Science Press, 251.

Yi Y, 1993. Manual of the Korean grasses (Manual of the Korean grasses)., Korea: Ewha Womans University Press.

Yunchang W; Jianyun Z, 1998. Flora Fungorum Sinicorum (Flora Fungorum Sinicorum), 10. Beijing, China: Science Press.

Zhang G; Chang G-S; Tiesen Z, 1983. Economic insect fauna of China (Economic insect fauna of China). Beijing, China: Science Press, 387.

Zheng H; Wu Y; Ding J; Binion D; Fu W; Reardon RC, 2006. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team Invasive Plants of Asian Origin Established in the United States and Their Natural Enemies, 1. Washington DC, USA: USDA, 160.

Zhou Y; Chou I, 1994. Monographia Rhopalocerrum Sinensium. Zhengzhou, China: Henan Scientific and Technological Publishing House, 854.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
EPPO A2 listhttp://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/listA2.htm
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

Top of page

23/07/12 Original text by:

John Peter Thompson, Maryland, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map