Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Merremia tuberosa
(woodrose)

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Datasheet

Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Merremia tuberosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • woodrose
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. tuberosa is a woody vine commonly cultivated as an ornamental which has escaped from cultivation and has become naturalized mostly in wet, mesic, and lowland forests in tropical and subtropical regions of th...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose); habit. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionMerremia tuberosa (woodrose); habit. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose); habit. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
HabitMerremia tuberosa (woodrose); habit. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose); habit, showing foliage and flowers. Kamalo, Molokai. May, 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionMerremia tuberosa (woodrose); habit, showing foliage and flowers. Kamalo, Molokai. May, 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose); habit, showing foliage and flowers. Kamalo, Molokai. May, 2005.
HabitMerremia tuberosa (woodrose); habit, showing foliage and flowers. Kamalo, Molokai. May, 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose); flowers and foliage. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
TitleFlowers and foliage
CaptionMerremia tuberosa (woodrose); flowers and foliage. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose); flowers and foliage. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
Flowers and foliageMerremia tuberosa (woodrose); flowers and foliage. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose); flowers. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
TitleFlowers
CaptionMerremia tuberosa (woodrose); flowers. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose); flowers. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
FlowersMerremia tuberosa (woodrose); flowers. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose); fruit. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
TitleFruit
CaptionMerremia tuberosa (woodrose); fruit. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose); fruit. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
FruitMerremia tuberosa (woodrose); fruit. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Merremia tuberosa (L.) Rendle

Preferred Common Name

  • woodrose

Other Scientific Names

  • Batatas tuberosa (L.) Bojer
  • Convolvulus gossypiifolius Kunth
  • Convolvulus kentrocaulos Steud. ex Choisy
  • Convolvulus tuberosus (L.) Spreng.
  • Ipomoea nuda Peter
  • Ipomoea tuberosa L.
  • Operculina tuberosa (L.) Meisn.

International Common Names

  • English: Brazilian jalap; Hawaiian wood rose; Spanish arborvine; Spanish woodbine; wood rose; yellow morning-glory
  • Spanish: bejuco golondrina; foco de luz; quinamacal; rosa de barranco; rosa de palo
  • French: liane à tonelle; liane de Gondelour; liane jaune; liane sultane jaune; rose de bois
  • Portuguese: flor-de-pau; ipoméia-do-ceilão; rosa-de-pau

Local Common Names

  • Bahamas: wood-rose
  • Belize: seven fingers
  • Cuba: bejucco de indio; flor de madera; indio trepador; rosa de madera
  • Guatemala: bejuco de golondrina; quiebra cajete
  • Haiti: ferrocarril
  • Honduras: mala hierba
  • Japan: bara-asa-gao
  • Lesser Antilles: bois patate; liane a courtine; rose de Jericho
  • Mexico: xixicamdtic
  • Puerto Rico: batilla ventruda; ferrocarril

Summary of Invasiveness

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M. tuberosa is a woody vine commonly cultivated as an ornamental which has escaped from cultivation and has become naturalized mostly in wet, mesic, and lowland forests in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Austin, 1998; Wagner et al., 1999; Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005). M. tuberosa is a fast-growing vine with the capability to reproduce sexually by seeds and vegetatively from discarded cuttings (PIER, 2014). Once established, it completely smothers tall forest canopies, killing host-trees and out-competing understory plants (Smith, 1985). It is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and is also listed as invasive in Florida, Cuba, St Lucia, Hawaii, and on several islands in the Pacific Ocean (Wagner et al., 1999; Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011; Graveson, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2014). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Convolvulaceae
  •                             Genus: Merremia
  •                                 Species: Merremia tuberosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Convolvulaceae includes 57 genera and 1625 species of mostly herbaceous vines, but also trees, shrubs and herbs (Stevens, 2012). The subfamily Dichondroideae includes two genera: Jacquemontia with about 90 species and Merremia with 70 species (Stevens, 2012). Merremia is a pantropical genus of twining vines, with milky or watery latex, bisexual and actinomorphic flowers, and capsular dehiscent fruits (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005).

During the years between 1691 and 1753, the species was in the genus Convolvulus. But in 1753, Linnaeus took up one of the descriptors applied by Plukenet and the plants became Ipomoea tuberosa. Finally, in 1905 the name became Merremia tuberosa. Through most of the 1800s people thought that M. tuberosa was native to tropical Africa, Asia and the Americas because authors combined an American with an Old World species under a single name. This confusion was clarified in 1883 when Clarke finally called the African species Ipomoea kentrocaulos; which later became Merremia kentrocaulos (Austin, 1998 and references therein). 

Description

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M. tuberosa is a woody vine, climbing, twining, 10-15 m in length, with abundant milky latex. Stems thick, cylindrical, glabrous. Leaves alternate; blades simple, 7-12 × 6-11 cm, 7-palmatilobed, the lobes elliptical, long-acuminate at the apex, the base cordiform, the margins revolute, slightly sinuate; upper surface dark green, slightly shiny, glabrous, with the venation sunken; lower surface pale green, dull, glabrous or puberulous, with the venation yellowish, prominent; petioles as long as the blade, cylindrical, glabrous or puberulous. Flowers functionally unisexual, solitary or in simple dichasia. Calyx yellowish green, the sepals unequal, 2-3 cm long, fleshy, accrescent and woody once the fruit is formed; corolla yellow, infundibuliform, 4-5 cm long, the limb 4-5 cm in diameter; stamens exserted, the anthers white; stigma bilobed, green, exserted. Capsules ovoid, opening irregularly, 1.5-2.5 cm long, light brown, with the sepals persistent and accrescent at the base; seeds 4 per fruit, black, obtusely trigonal, 1-1.5 cm long, velvety (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005). 

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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M. tuberosa is native to Mexico and Central America (Austin, 1998). Now it can be found naturalized and cultivated throughout tropical Africa, South America, the Caribbean, the Mascarene Islands, China, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Australia and on islands in the Pacific (see distribution table for details, Austin, 1998; Mansur, 2001; Broome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; ISSG, 2014; PIER, 2014PROTA, 2014). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2014)Cultivated
CameroonPresentIntroducedPROTA (2014)Cultivated
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedISSG (2014)
KenyaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2014)Cultivated
MauritiusPresentIntroducedMansur (2001)
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)Invasive in disturbed areas
MozambiquePresentIntroducedPROTA (2014)Cultivated
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
UgandaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2014)Cultivated

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedISSG (2014)Cultivated
Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu (2001)Cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroducedISSG (2014)
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedISSG (2014)
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedISSG (2014)
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedISSG (2014)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedISSG (2014)

Europe

FrancePresentIntroducedISSG (2014)
SwedenPresentIntroducedISSG (2014)
United KingdomPresentIntroducedISSG (2014)

North America

BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
BelizePresentNativeDavidse et al. (2012)
BermudaPresentIntroducedISSG (2014)
Costa RicaPresentNativeHammel (2010)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012)Habitat transformer. One of the 100 worst invasive plants on the island
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
El SalvadorPresentNativeDavidse et al. (2012)
GuadeloupePresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
GuatemalaPresentNativeDavidse et al. (2012)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez (2005)
HondurasPresentNativeDavidse et al. (2012)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez (2005)
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
MexicoPresentNativeAustin (1998)
PanamaPresentDavidse et al. (2012)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedAcevedo-Rodríguez (2005); Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez (2014)Naturalized but rarely found growing in the wild
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGraveson (2012)Expanding into Union River; huge vines; potential threat to riparian systems
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)St Croix, St John
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlorida Exotic Pest Plant Council (2011)Invasive category II
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWagner et al. (1999)
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedAtlas of Living Australia (2014)Cultivated
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated a)Cultivated
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn (2002)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedFlorence et al. (2013)Cultivated
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
KiribatiPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)Cultivated
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)Cultivated
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMacKee (1994)
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2000)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)Cultivated
SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)Cultivated
U.S. Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)Cultivated

South America

BoliviaPresentHammel (2010)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-BahiaPresentIntroducedSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira (2014)
-GoiasPresentIntroducedSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira (2014)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira (2014)
-ParanaPresentIntroducedSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira (2014)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira (2014)
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira (2014)
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira (2014)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2012)
EcuadorPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2012)
PeruPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2012)
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedHokche et al. (2008)

History of Introduction and Spread

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M. tuberosa was spread as a medicine (mostly in Europe and Asia) and subsequently through horticultural trade around the world. In the West Indies, H. Sloane collected this species in Jamaica between 1687 and 1689 (Austin, 1998). As early as 1731, M. tuberosa was in cultivation in the Chelsea Physic Garden, in London, UK and more seeds were taken to Europe in 1793 from Jamaica. In Cuba, this species was first recorded in 1819 by Humboldt, Bonpland and Kunth (Austin, 1998). By the early 1800s, M. tuberosa was introduced into Africa, Mauritius, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Ethiopia, and Australia and in 1897 Hallier recorded the first specimens of M. tuberosa from Brazil (Austin, 1998). This species apparently arrived late in Hawaii, with the first collection having been made in 1932 (Austin 1998) and more recently it has been recorded arriving on some of the islands in the Pacific Ocean (Austin, 1998; PIER, 2014). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of M. tuberosa is high. This vine species has been actively cultivated as an ornamental and has repeatedly escaped from cultivation. In addition it behaves as a weed in open and disturbed habitats. Because M. tuberosa spreads by seeds and vegetatively by cuttings, its probability of escaping from cultivation and becoming naturalized into new habitats is high. 

Habitat

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M. tuberosa is often grown as an ornamental in gardens, yards, parks and roadsides. It has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized in open and disturbed areas in mesic forests, wet forests, lowland forests, riparian areas, coastal forests and shrublands from sea level to 1400 m (Wagner, 1999; Mansur, 2001; ISSG, 2014; PIER, 2014). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

M. tuberosa has bisexual, showy, funnel shaped yellow flowers which fully bloom in sunlight and are probably pollinated by insects. Bees, butterflies and birds have been recorded visiting these flowers. However, there is no information on the breeding system or the reproductive biology for this species.

Physiology and Phenology

In Puerto Rico, M. tuberosa has been recorded flowering from October to December and fruiting from November to March (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005). In Florida (USA), it flowers in late autumn and fruits occur abundantly in early winter. By late December and early January dieback occurs. The seeds remain viable for several years and germinate readily even in conditions of low light (Langeland and Stocker, 2001; PIER, 2014).

Environmental Requirements

M. tuberosa grows best on sandy well-drained soils with pH ranging from 6.1 to 7.8 (PROTA, 2014). It is a climbing vine that grows over trees or other surfaces and prefers high levels of sunlight (PIER, 2014).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 11 30

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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M. tuberosa spreads by seeds and vegetatively by cuttings. However, it has been widely dispersed by humans to be used as medicine and through the horticulture trade around the world. It is grown and introduced for the flowers and ornamental fruits that are used by florists (Austin, 1998). Seeds can be dispersed by water, wind and humans and they remain viable for several years and germinate readily even in conditions of low light (Langeland and Stocker, 2001). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeOften escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Garden waste disposalStem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Mansur, 2001
Medicinal useRoots are used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Mansur, 2001
Nursery tradeOrnamental Yes Yes Mansur, 2001
Ornamental purposesCommonly cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Mansur, 2001

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesStem fragments and seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Mansur, 2001
Machinery and equipmentGarden tools Yes Yes Mansur, 2001
WaterStem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Mansur, 2001
WindStem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Mansur, 2001

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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M. tuberosa is a woody, vigorous vine that overgrows and smothers tall forest canopies. It blocks sunlight from trees and the understory, killing native trees and shubs in the forest understory. It has been especially problematic on islands such as Cuba, St Lucia, Hawaii, and Niue where it has spread quickly and aggressively (Space and Flynn, 2000; Graveson, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). M. tuberosa is also reported to be toxic to animals and humans and should not be ingested by either (ISSG, 2014).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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M. tuberosa is commonly planted as an ornamental and to be used in traditional medicine. Its root was historically found useful for those that have swollen bellies and whose intestines rumble. A mixture was also drunk while fasting, to purge, and to lower fever (Austin, 1998). Plants are also grown for their flowers and ornamental fruits that are used by florists. 

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Ornamental

  • Cut flower
  • Potted plant

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

ln Florida, the herbicides Garlon 4 and Garlon 3 [active ingredient triclopyr] have been used for the chemical control of M. tuberosa. Garlon 4 at 10% concentration applied to the basal surface of plants was evaluated to achieve excellent control. Garlon 3A at 50% applied to cut surfaces of this species achieved good control. Both herbicides have been recommended to be applied to cut stems (Langeland and Stocker, 2001). Seedlings of M. tuberosa can also be hand pulled.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Atlas of Living Australia, 2014. Atlas of Living Australia. http://www.ala.org.au

Austin DF, 1998. Xixicamátic or wood rose (Merremia tuberosa, Convolvulaceae): origins and dispersal. Economic Botany, 52(4):412-422.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Davidse G; Sousa Sánchez M; Knapp S; Chiang Cabrera F, 2012. Rubiaceae a Verbenaceae. Flora Mesoamericana, 4:1-533.

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011. Florida EPPC's 2011 Invasive Plant Species List. http://www.fleppc.org/list/11list.html

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hammel BE, 2010. Convolvulaceae. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 119:72-126. [Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, Vol. 5.]

Hokche O; Berry PE; Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, 860 pp.

ISSG, 2014. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Langeland KA; Stocker RK, 2001. Control of non-native plants in natural areas of Florida. SP 242. USA: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/WG/WG20900.pdf

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

Mansur M, 2001. Merremia tuberosa (L.) Rendle: Record from Proseabase. Proseabase [ed. by Valkenburg, J. L. C. H. van \Bunyapraphatsara, N.]. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation.

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Rojas-Sandoval J; Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2014. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Biological Invasions. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3

Simão-Bianchini R; Ferreira PPA, 2014. Merremia in the list of species of the flora of Brazil (Merremia in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB7102

Smith CW, 1985. Impact of alien plants on Hawaii's native biota. In: Hawaii's terrestrial ecosystems: preservation and management. Proceedings of a symposium held June 5-6, 1984, at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. [ed. by Stone CP, Scott JM] Honolulu, HI, USA: University of Hawaii Press, 180-250.

Space J; Flynn T, 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on Invasive Plant Species of Environmental Concern. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 146.

Space JC; Flynn T, 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu, 34.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Wu TL, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised):384 pp.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 51, 483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Atlas of Living Australia, 2014. Atlas of Living Australia., http://www.ala.org.au

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Contributors

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23/07/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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