Invasive Species Compendium

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Martynia annua
(tiger's claw)

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Datasheet

Martynia annua (tiger's claw)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Martynia annua
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tiger's claw
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Martynia annua is grown as an ornamental and medicinal herb. Originally native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, its effective seed dispersal mechanism has helped it spread throughout tropical and s...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Martynia annua (tiger's claw); flowering habit. Yeoor Hills, Thane, Maharashtra, India. August 2009.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionMartynia annua (tiger's claw); flowering habit. Yeoor Hills, Thane, Maharashtra, India. August 2009.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Martynia annua (tiger's claw); flowering habit. Yeoor Hills, Thane, Maharashtra, India. August 2009.
Flowering habitMartynia annua (tiger's claw); flowering habit. Yeoor Hills, Thane, Maharashtra, India. August 2009.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Martynia annua (tiger's claw); habit, showing laves and flowers. Yeoor Hills, Thane, Maharashtra, India. August 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionMartynia annua (tiger's claw); habit, showing laves and flowers. Yeoor Hills, Thane, Maharashtra, India. August 2009.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Martynia annua (tiger's claw); habit, showing laves and flowers. Yeoor Hills, Thane, Maharashtra, India. August 2009.
HabitMartynia annua (tiger's claw); habit, showing laves and flowers. Yeoor Hills, Thane, Maharashtra, India. August 2009.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Martynia annua (tiger's claw); habit, showing lowers and leaves. Trichirappalli, Tamilnadu, India. December 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionMartynia annua (tiger's claw); habit, showing lowers and leaves. Trichirappalli, Tamilnadu, India. December 2014.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Dr.S. Soundarapandian/via wikipedia - CC 0
Martynia annua (tiger's claw); habit, showing lowers and leaves. Trichirappalli, Tamilnadu, India. December 2014.
HabitMartynia annua (tiger's claw); habit, showing lowers and leaves. Trichirappalli, Tamilnadu, India. December 2014.Public Domain - Released by Dr.S. Soundarapandian/via wikipedia - CC 0
Martynia annua (tiger's claw); close view of flowers. Yeoor Hills, Thane, Maharashtra, India. August 2009.
TitleFlowers
CaptionMartynia annua (tiger's claw); close view of flowers. Yeoor Hills, Thane, Maharashtra, India. August 2009.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Martynia annua (tiger's claw); close view of flowers. Yeoor Hills, Thane, Maharashtra, India. August 2009.
FlowersMartynia annua (tiger's claw); close view of flowers. Yeoor Hills, Thane, Maharashtra, India. August 2009.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Martynia annua (tiger's claw); seed pods. India. November 2010.
TitleSeed pods
CaptionMartynia annua (tiger's claw); seed pods. India. November 2010.
Copyright©Lalithamba/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Martynia annua (tiger's claw); seed pods. India. November 2010.
Seed podsMartynia annua (tiger's claw); seed pods. India. November 2010.©Lalithamba/via flickr - CC BY 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Martynia annua L.

Preferred Common Name

  • tiger's claw

Other Scientific Names

  • Carpoceras longiflora A.Rich.
  • Disteira angulosa (Lam.) Raf.
  • Martynia angulosa Lam.
  • Martynia diandra Gloxin
  • Vatkea diandra (Gloxin) O.Hoffm.

International Common Names

  • English: devil's claw; ice plant; small fruit devil's claw
  • Spanish: alacrancillo; araña gato; uña de gato
  • French: tête de mort
  • Chinese: jiao hu ma

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: cabeza de aura; cinco llagas; pico de aura; pico de pájaro
  • Dominican Republic: arito de chivo; cornucopia; hortensia; pico de gallo
  • Guatemala: chiche de gata
  • India: bichu; hathajori; indiagarudamukku ; puli-nagam; puli-nakam; thelkodukkukkay; ulat-kanta; vinchu
  • Mexico: caza pulgas; hoja de pulga; perrito; toritos; uña de gavilán
  • Nicaragua: uñas de gato
  • Pakistan: chooa; hathjori
  • Puerto Rico: escorzonera
  • Sweden: elefantsnabel

Summary of Invasiveness

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Martynia annua is grown as an ornamental and medicinal herb. Originally native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, its effective seed dispersal mechanism has helped it spread throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world as a weed of pastures, disturbed sites, roadsides, moist thickets, riverbanks and floodplains. Currently, it is listed as invasive in Australia, New Caledonia, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Cuba.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Scrophulariales
  •                         Family: Pedaliaceae
  •                             Genus: Martynia
  •                                 Species: Martynia annua

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Martyniaceae is a small family of flowering plants comprising five genera and 16 species distributed in arid and semi-arid regions in the southern United States, Mesoamerica, South America and the Caribbean (Gutierrez, 2009; Stevens, 2012). Species within this family are herbs with sticky hairs and large, monosymmetric flowers with a superior ovary. The placentation is parietal and the fruits have two large apical hooks, as well as other hooks, spines or prickles that become evident as the outer layer of the fruit falls off (Stevens, 2012). Martynia is a monotypic genus varying in flower size and colour and in leaf form (Standley et al., 1974; Taylor, 1983).

Description

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The following description is from the Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016):

M. annua is an erect herb, 30-100 cm tall. Stems are terete, usually woody at base, 2 cm in diameter. Petiole 6-18 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate to triangular-ovate, 9-22 x 9-20 cm, base cordate, margin sinuolate-dentate, apex acute. Inflorescences 10-20-flowered; bracts pale red, broadly ovate, 1.2-2.5 x 0.7-1.3 cm, membranous; bractlets ovate-oblong; 0.6-1.5 cm x 4-10 mm. Calyx lobes are pale yellow-green. Corolla is dark red, white to pale red adaxially, with pale purple-red spots, 3-4 cm; lobes semi-rounded, with yellow and purple spots adaxially, purple striated abaxially. Filaments are white, glabrous, 1-1.5 cm. Capsules ovoid, 3.5-4 x 2-2.5 cm, 0.5-1.5 cm thick, with hook-like apical beak with 5 mm, densely glandular pubescent, spiny along suture. 

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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M. annua is native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean (Gutierrez, 2009; USDA-ARS, 2016). It has been widely grown as an ornamental and medicinal herb and now it can be found naturalized in Australia, New Caledonia, South-eastern Asia, India and tropical Africa (MacKee, 1994; Smith, 2002; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; PROTA, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentIntroducedWest African Plants (2016)
Burkina FasoPresentIntroducedWest African Plants (2016)
MadagascarPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCABI (Undated)Naturalized; Original citation: Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar (2016)
MaliPresentIntroducedWest African Plants (2016)
NigeriaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2016)

Asia

CambodiaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
ChinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeber et al. (2008)
-YunnanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
IndiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveReddy (2008)
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity (2016)
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar (2012)
-BiharPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity (2016)
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar (2012)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar (2012)
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity (2016)
-KeralaPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity (2016)
-Madhya PradeshPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity (2016)
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity (2016)
-ManipurPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar (2012)
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar (2012)
-NagalandPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar (2012)
-RajasthanPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity (2016)
-SikkimPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar (2012)
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity (2016)
-TripuraPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar (2012)
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveKhanna (2009)
-UttarakhandPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar (2012)
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSmith (2002)
LaosPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSmith (2002)
MyanmarPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
NepalPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
PakistanPresentIntroducedFlora of Pakistan (2016)Cultivated
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
VietnamPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)

Europe

United KingdomPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedParsons and Cuthbertson (2001)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
BahamasPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
BelizePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Tortola
CubaPresentNative and IntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012)Both native and introduced in the country
DominicaPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
El SalvadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
GuadeloupePresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
HaitiPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
MartiniquePresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
NicaraguaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
Puerto RicoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)St Croix and St Thomas

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeeds of Australia (2016)
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeeds of Australia (2016)First reported: 1860s
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeeds of Australia (2016)
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMacKee (1994)

History of Introduction and Spread

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M. annua has been introduced as an ornamental across most of the warmer parts of the world. By 1731, it was growing in the Chelsea Botanical Garden in England (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). Since the early 1800s, it has been widely grown as an ornamental plant in Europe and Asia. In Australia, it was introduced during the 1860s and was first recorded in the wild at Pine Creek in Northern Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). In 1920, it was reported in New South Wales. In the mid-1980s, when land use in northern Australia changed from grazing to national parks, M. annua became a serious problem (Gardener et al., 2010). 

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia 1860s Yes No Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001)
UK 1731 No No Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001) Growing in a botanical garden
India 1800s Yes No Kenwat et al. (2013) Widely cultivated as medicinal plant

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of M. annua is moderate to high. It is often cultivated as an ornamental and medicinal plant. Additionally, its excellent dispersal mechanism has helped it spread and rapidly colonize new habitats (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; Smith 2002; Gardener et al., 2010).

Habitat

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M. annua grows as a weed of disturbed sites, roadsides, moist thickets, riverbanks, floodplains, waste area and pastures (Taylor, 1983; Gutierrez, 2009; Weeds of Australia, 2016). In China, it can be found naturalized in disturbed forests and along roadsides at elevations from 500 m to 1500 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016). In Guatemala, it grows in damps or dry thickets, open fields, hedgerows, and clearings from sea level to 2400 m (Standley et al., 1974). In Australia, the species grows as a weed in sub-humid and semiarid thickets, steppes, rubbish dumps, pastures and cropping areas (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). In India, it is a common element of wastelands, pastures and disturbed sites from the coast up to 900 m (Kenwat et al., 2013).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for M. annua varies from 2n = 32 to 2n = 36 (Sanjappa, 1979; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016).

Reproductive Biology

The flowers of M. annua produce nectar and are tubular and pendant, with the corolla mouth directed laterally. Anthesis is diurnal. In India, flowers are frequently visited and pollinated by the carpenter bees Xylocopa latipes and X. pubescens, the digger bee Amegilla sp. and the hawkmoth Macroglossom gyrans. In this species, the floral arrangement facilitates spontaneous autogamy by contact of the stigma curved lobe with the dehisced anthers (Rao et al., 1994).

Physiology and Phenology

In China, M. annua produces flowers throughout the year (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016). In Central America, it has been recorded flowering from July to October and fruiting from September to December (Gutierrez, 2009).

Longevity

M. annua is an annual or short-lived perennial herb (Taylor, 1983).

Activity Patterns

The seeds of M. annua germinate at any time of the year when sufficient moisture is present. Seedlings and young plants grow rapidly and produce flowers and fruits within a period of 5 to 6 months (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; PROTA, 2016).

Environmental Requirements

M. annua grows better in open areas with full sunlight to partial shade, in soils with pH ranging from 6.1 to 7.8 (PROTA, 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Engytatus varians
Heliothis virescens
Macrolophus praeclarus
Manduca sexta
Nesidiocoris tenuis
Oecanthus allardi

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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M. annua spreads by seeds. Seeds remain in the 'clawed' fruits, which are easily dispersed when they become attached to animal’s fur (i.e., cattle), human clothing, farm machinery and other vehicles (Gutierrez, 2009; Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceWeed of wastelands and roadsides Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
Intentional releaseGrown in botanical gardens Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
Medicinal useWidely used in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Kenwat et al., 2013
Ornamental purposesGrown as ornamental for its flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsSeeds/“clawed” fruit Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
LivestockSeeds/“clawed” fruit Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Machinery and equipmentSeeds/“clawed” fruit Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Land vehiclesSeeds/“clawed” fruit Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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The sharp claws of the fruits injure livestock by working into the soft parts of animal hooves, mouths and other parts of the body (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). In Cuba, M. annua is a host plant of serious insect pests impacting tobacco plantations. Larvae of Heliothis virescens, Manduca sexta and Oecanthus allardi have been found feeding on this species. M. annua is also a host of the mirids Cyrtopeltis varians [Engytatus varians], Cyrtopeltis tenuis [Nesidiocoris tenuis] and Macrolophus praeclarus, also common pests in tobacco plantations (Catala and Ayala, 1979).

Environmental Impact

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M. annua is regarded as an environmental weed with the potential to outcompete native vegetation. It is listed as a noxious weed in Western Australia and the Northern Territory (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; Weeds of Australia, 2016). In Cuba, it is listed as a “potential habitat transformer” with the capability to change the character, condition, form or nature of native ecosystems (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

M. annua contains alkaloids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, amino acids, steroids and phenols. Pharmacological activities such as anthelmintic, analgesic, antipyretic, antibacterial, anti-convulsant, antioxidant and wound healing activity have been documented (Kenwat et al., 2013).

 

Social Benefit

M. annua is often grown as a medicinal herb. In South-eastern Asia and India, it has been present long enough to become part of the traditional pharmacopia. Traditional healers use it for treating epilepsy, inflammation, sore throat, skin affections and tuberculosis (Kenwat et al., 2013). The whole plant is also used in Indian rituals (Katare et al., 2012).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

General

  • Ritual uses

Materials

  • Beads

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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M. annua can be confused with other species within the family Martyniaceae, such as Proboscidea louisianica and Ibicella lutea. These three species can be distinguished by the following floral traits (Weeds of Australia, 2016):

- M. annua has dark red to purple-red flowers, with yellow and purple spots adaxially, purple striated abaxially. Capsules are ovoid (3.5-4 x 2-2.5 cm) with hook-like apical beak with 5 mm, densely glandular pubescent;

- P. louisianica has relatively loose clusters of purple, mauve or creamy-white coloured tubular flowers with darker purple and orange markings in the throat. Its fruits are very large (8-30 cm long), with “claws” longer than the body of the capsule;

- I. lutea has relatively dense clusters of tubular yellow flowers with red or purplish coloured markings in the throat. Its fruits are very large (8-25 cm long), with “claws” longer than the body of the capsule.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

Eradication

M. annua was introduced into Australia in the 1860s and has since become naturalized and locally abundant. In Gregory (Jutburra) National Park in Northern Australia, a project to eradicate M. annua was started in the late 1980s. The eradication of the species from within this National Park has not been successful, but there have been other benefits of the project (Gardener et al., 2010). The authors suggest that the main barriers to eradication have been: occasional inaccessibility during the crucial seed production window; many widely dispersed small infestations; a perennial seed bank; and long-distance dispersal mechanisms. The two benefits of the eradication project were the control of M. annua to a level where ecological impact was negligible, and extensive community engagement. Long-term institutional leadership and investment seem to be crucial for the success of this kind of project (Gardener et al., 2010).

 

Control

Physical/mechanical control

Small infestations of M. annua can be controlled by hand pulling or grubbing plants. Plants should be removed before they produce flowers and fruits (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001).

 

Chemical control

In Australia, herbicides such as 2,4-D and glyphosate have been successfully used to manage areas invaded by M. annua (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, No. 98. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 1192 pp

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Catala, E. R. V., Ayala, S., J. L., 1979. Martynia annua L.: host plant of the major insect pests of tobacco. Centro Agricola, 6(2), 3-14.

Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar, 2016. Tropicos online database. St Louis, Missouri, USA and Antananarivo, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/MADA

Chandra Sekar, K., 2012. Invasive alien plants of Indian Himalayan Region - diversity and implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3(2), 177-184. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=17533 doi: 10.4236/ajps.2012.32021

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2016. Pakistan Plant Database. Tropicos website. St Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachussets, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Gardener, M. R., Cordell, S., Anderson, M., Tunnicliffe, R. D., 2010. Evaluating the long-term project to eradicate the rangeland weed Martynia annua L.: linking community with conservation. Rangeland Journal, 32(4), 407-417. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/202.htm doi: 10.1071/RJ10029

Gutierrez R, 2009. Martyniaceae. In: Davidse G, Sousa-Peña M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F, eds. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden

India Biodiversity, 2016. India Biodiversity Portal. Bangalore, India: Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Katare V, Pathak AK, Kori ML, Chakraborthy B, Nandy S, 2012. Phytochemical and pharmacognostical studies of Martynia annua. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 3(6):104-108

Kenwat R, Prasad P, Satapathy T, Roy A, 2013. Martynia annua: an overview. UK Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biosciences, 1:7-10

Khanna, K. K., 2009. Invasive alien angiosperms of Uttar Pradesh. Biological Forum, 1(2), 34-39. http://www.researchtrend.net

MacKee, H. S., 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.unpaginated.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. [National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011]. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Parsons, W. T., Cuthbertson, E. G., 2001. Noxious weeds of Australia, (Ed.2) : CSIRO Publishing.xii + 698 pp.

PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.info

Rao, C. B., Reddi, C. S., 1994. Pollination ecology of Martynia annua L. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 91(2), 187-193.

Reddy CS, 2008. Catalogue of invasive alien flora of India. Life Science Journal, 5:84-89

Sanjappa M, 1979. Reports. In: Löve A, ed. IOPB chromosome number reports LXIV. Taxon, 28:393-395

Smith NM, 2002. Weeds of the wet/dry tropics of Australia - a field guide. Darwin, Australia: Environment Centre NT, 112 pp.

Standley, P. C., Williams, L. O., Gibson, D. N., 1974. Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana: Botany, 24(Part X, No. 3/4), 153-466.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. St Louis, Missouri, USA: University of Missouri and Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Taylor KA, 1983. Martyniaceae. In: Sosa V, Cabrera L, Duncan RT, Mejía-Saulés MT, Moreno NP, Nee M, eds. Flora de Veracruz. Fascículo 30. Xalapa, Veracruz, México: Instituto de Ecología

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

Weber, E., Sun ShiGuo, Li Bo, 2008. Invasive alien plants in China: diversity and ecological insights. Biological Invasions, 10(8), 1411-1429. http://www.springerlink.com/content/c25570xj6u44645h/?p=3d093fec46ab4097b45b287d6033e986&pi=21 doi: 10.1007/s10530-008-9216-3

Weeds of Australia, 2016. Queensland Government Biosecurity Edition. Online resources. Queensland, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/index.htm

West African Plants, 2016. West African Plants - a photo guide. Frankfurt/Main, Germany: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg. http://www.westafricanplants.senckenberg.de/root/index.php

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.htm

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2016. Pakistan Plant Database., Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.

India Biodiversity, 2016. India Biodiversity Portal., Bangalore, India: Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Khanna K K, 2009. Invasive alien angiosperms of Uttar Pradesh. Biological Forum. 1 (2), 34-39. http://www.researchtrend.net

MacKee H S, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. unpaginated.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Parsons W T, Cuthbertson E G, 2001. Noxious weeds of Australia. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. xii + 698 pp.

PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database., [ed. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.info

Reddy CS, 2008. Catalogue of invasive alien flora of India. In: Life Science Journal, 5 84-89.

Sekar K C, 2012. Invasive alien plants of Indian Himalayan Region - diversity and implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 3 (2), 177-184. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=17533 DOI:10.4236/ajps.2012.32021

Smith NM, 2002. Weeds of the wet/dry tropics of Australia - a field guide., Darwin, Australia: Environment Centre NT. 112 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Weber E, Sun ShiGuo, Li Bo, 2008. Invasive alien plants in China: diversity and ecological insights. Biological Invasions. 10 (8), 1411-1429. http://www.springerlink.com/content/c25570xj6u44645h/?p=3d093fec46ab4097b45b287d6033e986&pi=21 DOI:10.1007/s10530-008-9216-3

Weeds of Australia, 2016. Queensland Government Biosecurity Edition. Online resources., Queensland, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Fisheries.

West African Plants, 2016. West African Plants - a photo guide., Frankfurt/Main, Germany: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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19/09/16 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA 

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