Invasive Species Compendium

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Malva pusilla
(round-leaved mallow)

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Datasheet

Malva pusilla (round-leaved mallow)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Malva pusilla
  • Preferred Common Name
  • round-leaved mallow
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. pusilla is a cosmopolitan weed found principally in temperate regions of the world (Randall, 2012). It is a fast-growing, annual or perenni...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Malva pusilla Sm.

Preferred Common Name

  • round-leaved mallow

Other Scientific Names

  • Malva lignescens Iljin
  • Malva rotundifolia L.

International Common Names

  • English: dwarf mallow; low mallow; small mallow
  • Spanish: malva; malvilla
  • French: mauve a petites feuilles; mauve fluette
  • Chinese: yuan ye jin kui

Local Common Names

  • Czech Republic: sléz nizounky; slez nizu
  • Denmark: liden katost
  • Estonia: maralehine kassinaeris
  • Germany: Kleinblutige malve
  • Haiti: malaguette; mauve a feuilles rondes
  • Norway: Dvergkattost
  • Poland: slaz drobnokwiatowy
  • Sweden: vit kattost

Summary of Invasiveness

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M. pusilla is a cosmopolitan weed found principally in temperate regions of the world (Randall, 2012). It is a fast-growing, annual or perennial herb with the capacity to grow forming dense patches in gardens, yards, roadsides, waste ground, orchards, pastures and agricultural fields (Makowski and Morrison, 1989; DAISIE, 2014). M. pusilla is listed as invasive in Canada, the United States, and the Dominican Republic and in many countries in Europe (see distribution table for details; Kairo et al., 2003; DAISIE, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Malvales
  •                         Family: Malvaceae
  •                             Genus: Malva
  •                                 Species: Malva pusilla

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Malvaceae is a large family of flowering plants containing about 243 genera and 4225 species of herbs, shrubs, and trees (Stevens, 2012). This family is largely tropical, but representatives can also occur in subtropical and temperate regions of the world (Stevens, 2012). The genus Malva includes about 35-40 species, most of them growing in disturbed situations and some of which have become cosmopolitan weeds (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). 

Description

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M. pusilla is a perennial and annual herb, usually procumbent, many branched, 20-50 cm tall, scabrous. Stipule small, ovate-lanceolate, 4-6 × 2-3 mm; petiole 3-12 cm, stellate velutinous; leaf blade reniform, rarely 5-7-lobed, 1-3 × 1-4 cm, papery, abaxially sparsely stellate puberulent, adaxially sparsely velutinous, base cordate, margin minutely denticulate, apex rounded. Flowers usually 3-4-fascicled, axillary, rarely solitary on stem. Pedicel 2-5 cm, sparsely stellate puberulent. Epicalyx lobes lanceolate, 2-5 × 1-1.5 mm, stellate puberulent. Calyx campanulate, 5-6 mm, stellate puberulent, 5-lobed, lobes triangularly acuminate. Corolla white to pinkish, 10-12 mm in diameter; petals obcordate, 9-15 × 3-5 mm, apex notched; claw bearded. Filament tube stellate puberulent. Style branches 13-15. Fruit flat globose, 5-6 mm in diameter; mericarps 12-15, abaxially smooth, angles rounded, puberulent. Seeds reniform, approximately 1 mm in diameter, reticulate or not (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). 

Plant Type

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Annual
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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M. pusilla is native to temperate Asia including Western and Middle Asia, Turkey, and the Caucasian region (USDA-ARS, 2014). It is naturalized and growing as a weed in China, Europe, North America (i.e., Canada and United States) and Hispaniola in the West Indies (DAISIE, 2014; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

South AfricaPresentIntroduced

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNative
ArmeniaPresentNative
AzerbaijanPresentNative
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AnhuiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
-GansuPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
-HebeiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
-HenanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
-JiangsuPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
-ShaanxiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
-ShandongPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
-ShanxiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
-SichuanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
-TibetPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
-XinjiangPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
-YunnanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised
GeorgiaPresentNative
IndiaPresent
-ChhattisgarhPresent
IranPresentNative
IraqPresentNative
KazakhstanPresentNative
KyrgyzstanPresentNative
TajikistanPresentNative
TurkeyPresentNative

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelarusPresentCasual alien
BelgiumPresentIntroduced
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
BulgariaPresentIntroduced
CroatiaPresent
CzechiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
DenmarkPresentIntroducedInvasive
EstoniaPresent
FinlandPresentIntroduced
FrancePresentIntroducedInvasive
GermanyPresentIntroducedInvasive
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
IrelandPresentIntroduced
ItalyPresent
LatviaPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MoldovaPresent
MontenegroPresent
NetherlandsPresent
NorwayPresentIntroducedInvasive
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresentIntroducedCasual alien
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Eastern SiberiaPresentNative
-Western SiberiaPresentNative
SerbiaPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SwedenPresentIntroduced
UkrainePresentIntroduced
United KingdomPresentIntroduced
-Channel IslandsPresentIntroducedCasual alien

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentIntroducedWeed
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedWeed
-ManitobaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New BrunswickPresentIntroducedWeed
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroducedWeed
-OntarioPresentIntroducedWeed
-Prince Edward IslandPresentIntroducedWeed
-QuebecPresentIntroducedWeed
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroducedInvasive
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasive
HaitiPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedWeed
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedWeed
-IndianaPresentIntroducedWeed
-IowaPresentIntroducedWeed
-KansasPresentIntroducedWeed
-MarylandPresentIntroducedWeed
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedWeed
-MichiganPresentIntroducedWeed
-MinnesotaPresentIntroducedWeed
-MissouriPresentIntroducedWeed
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedWeed
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedWeed
-North DakotaPresentIntroducedWeed
-OhioPresentIntroducedWeed
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedWeed
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedWeed
-South DakotaPresentIntroducedWeed
-TennesseePresentIntroducedWeed
-TexasPresentIntroducedWeed
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedWeed
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedWeed
-WyomingPresentIntroducedWeed

South America

EcuadorPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Jorgensen and Leon-Yanez (1999)

History of Introduction and Spread

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The history of introduction of M. pusilla is uncertain. It is highly probable that this species has been moved from Asia and introduced accidentally into Europe and North America as a seed contaminant or as a weed in nursery materials (Makowski and Morrison, 1989; DAISIE, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). For example, it is a regular alien known in Belgium since 1872. In the USA, M. pusilla was introduced relatively early, and was first reported in 1818. It was listed as common in the State of New York in the 1870s and in Rhode Island in 1892 (Makowski and Morrison, 1989). By the 1980s it was listed as one of the worst weeds of gardens in the United States (Steffey, 1980). In Canada, it was reported in 1821, and since at least the 1970s it has been considered a common weed (Makowski and Morrison, 1989). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of M. pusilla is moderate to high. Because this species is a common weed in ruderal areas, agriculture and pasture lands it has a high potential to be introduced as a crop seed contaminant, attached to agricultural machinery or associated with human activities. 

Habitat

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M. pusilla is a cosmopolitan weed, very common in disturbed areas, yards, gardens, and waste places, in field crops especially under moist conditions, and in pastures, grassy slopes and roadsides in temperate Asia, Europe and North America (Makowski and Morrison, 1989; DAISIE, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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M. pusilla is a weed of field crops including wheat, lentil, and flax, and in orchards and pasture lands principally in the United States and Canada (Steffey, 1980; Makowski and Morrison, 1989). 

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris (lentil)FabaceaeMain
    Linum usitatissimum (flax)Main
      Triticum spp.PoaceaeMain

        Growth Stages

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        Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

        Biology and Ecology

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        Genetics

        The chromosome number reported for M. pusilla is 2n=42 (Lövkvist and Hultgård, 1999).

        Reproductive Biology and Phenology

        In North America and China, flowering and fruiting occur from June until December (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). Seedlings emerge all summer and well into the autumn (Makowski and Morrison, 1989).

        Longevity

        M. pusilla has the potential to grow as a perennial or annual herb (Steffey, 1980).        

        Environmental Requirements

        M. pusilla has been reported growing on well-drained nutrient-rich soils as well as on clay and medium textured dark soils. It is tolerant to cold, retaining the capacity for photosynthesis and respiration after long periods of exposure to subfreezing and frosts in late autumn (Makowski and Morrison, 1989). 

        Climate

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        ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
        As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
        Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
        Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
        Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
        Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

        Air Temperature

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        Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
        Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -15
        Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20..5
        Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -3.8

        Soil Tolerances

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        Soil drainage

        • free

        Soil reaction

        • acid
        • alkaline
        • neutral

        Soil texture

        • light
        • medium

        Means of Movement and Dispersal

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        M. pusilla spreads by seeds. Seeds can be dispersed by wind, water or as contaminants in crop seeds, pasture seeds and in agricultural machinery (Makowski and Morrison, 1989; DAISIE, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014).

        Pathway Causes

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        CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        Crop productionCrop seed contaminant Yes Yes Makowski and Morrison (1989)
        Garden waste disposalGarden weed Yes Yes Makowski and Morrison (1989)
        Medicinal useMedicinal herb Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)

        Pathway Vectors

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        VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        Debris and waste associated with human activitiesGarden and agricultural weed Yes Yes Makowski and Morrison (1989)
        Machinery and equipmentSeed contaminant Yes Yes Makowski and Morrison (1989)
        Soil, sand and gravelSeed contaminant Yes Yes Makowski and Morrison (1989)

        Impact Summary

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        CategoryImpact
        Economic/livelihood Negative
        Environment (generally) Positive and negative

        Economic Impact

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        M. pusilla is a common weed in gardens, yards and agricultural fields and it is considered hard to control and eradicate because of its long and tough taproots. Among cultivated crops, this species can be very competitive and it can spread very quickly, completely outcompeting cultivated species (Makowski and Morrison, 1989; DAISIE, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014).

        Risk and Impact Factors

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        Invasiveness
        • Proved invasive outside its native range
        • Has a broad native range
        • Abundant in its native range
        • Highly adaptable to different environments
        • Is a habitat generalist
        • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
        • Pioneering in disturbed areas
        • Highly mobile locally
        • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
        • Fast growing
        Impact outcomes
        • Damaged ecosystem services
        • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
        • Monoculture formation
        • Negatively impacts agriculture
        • Negatively impacts forestry
        • Reduced amenity values
        • Reduced native biodiversity
        • Threat to/ loss of native species
        Impact mechanisms
        • Competition - monopolizing resources
        • Competition - shading
        • Competition - smothering
        • Hybridization
        • Rapid growth
        Likelihood of entry/control
        • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
        • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
        • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

        Uses

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        M. pusilla has medicinal uses. The leaves are used as a soothing agent to relieve minor pain and membrane inflammation, and to treat inflammation of the digestive and urinary systems. The seeds are used in the treatment of coughs, bronchitis, ulcers, and haemorrhoids (PFAF, 2014).

        Uses List

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        Medicinal, pharmaceutical

        • Traditional/folklore

        Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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        In Canada, M. pusilla is frequently confused with M. neglecta and occasionally with M. parviflora. A key for identification is given by Makowski and Morrison (1989).

        Prevention and Control

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        Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

        M. pusilla is difficult to control, except in early seedling stages, because of its tolerance to many common herbicides once it is established (Makowski and Morrison, 1989). For greatest efficacy, herbicides must be applied at the 1–6 leaf stage. Applications at later growth stages may result in temporary knock down, but normal growth resumes. Cultivation can kill M. pusilla if the taproot is severed below the crown (Hildbrand et al., 2013).

        M. pusilla was the target of Canada's first registered bioherbicide, a conidial preparation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides [Glomerella cingulata] f.sp. malvae. A review of the biological control programme is given by Hildebrand et al. (2013).

        References

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        Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

        DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

        Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

        Gibbs Russell GE; Welman WG; Reitief E; Immelman KL; Germishuizen G; Pienaar BJ; Wyk Mvan; Nicholas A, 1987. List of species of southern African plants. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa, 2(1 & 2):1-152 & 1-270.

        Hildebrand PD; Konoff C; Jensen KIN, 2013. Malva pusilla Smith, round-leaved mallow (Malvaceae). In: Biological control programmes in Canada 2001-2012 [ed. by Mason, P. G.\Gillespie, D. R.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 367-370. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20133355785

        Jørgensen PM; León-Yànez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard, 75. i-viii, 1-1182.

        Kairo M; Ali B; Cheesman O; Haysom K; Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

        Lövkvist B; Hultgard UM, 1999. Chromosome numbers in south Swedish vascular plants. Opera Botanica, 137:1-42.

        Makowski RMD; Morrison IN, 1989. The biology of Canadian weeds. 91. Malva pusilla Sm. (= M. rotundifolia L.). Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 69(2):861-879.

        PFAF, 2014. Plants for a future. http://www.pfaf.org

        Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

        Steffey J, 1980. The mallow family (Malvaceae). American Horticulturist, 59:7-8.

        Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

        USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

        USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

        Distribution References

        Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

        CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

        CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

        CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

        DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

        Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

        Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International. 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

        Kämpf I, Hölzel N, Kühling I, Kiehl K, 2016. Arable weed flora in the Western Siberian grain belt. In: Julius-Kühn-Archiv. [ed. by Nordmeyer H, Ulber L]. Quedlinburg, Germany: Julius Kühn Institut, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Kulturpflanzen. 76-83. http://pub.jki.bund.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/6209/5913

        Li K, Zhang J, Jing C C, Wu G T, Sun X C, Qing L, 2015. First report of Tomato yellow leaf curl chinavirus infecting Malva rotundifolia in China. Journal of Plant Pathology. 97 (3), 547. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

        Makowski R M D, Morrison I N, 1989. The biology of Canadian weeds. 91. Malva pusilla Sm. (= M. rotundifolia L.). Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 69 (2), 861-879.

        Russell Gibbs G E, Welman W G, Reitief E, Immelman K L, Germishuizen G, Pienaar B J, Wyk M van, Nicholas A, 1987. List of species of southern African plants. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa. 2 (1; 2), 1-152; 1-270.

        USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

        USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

        Yadav V K, Sharma N D, Verma K P, 2011. A new powdery mildew disease of Malva pusilla. Journal of Mycopathological Research. 49 (2), 371-372. http://www.imskolkata.org/

        Contributors

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        27/06/14 Original text by:

        Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

        Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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