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Datasheet

Macrothelypteris torresiana
(swordfern)

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Datasheet

Macrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Macrothelypteris torresiana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • swordfern
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •       Class: Filicopsida
  •         Family: Thelypteridaceae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Macrothelypteris torresiana is a perennial fern native to Asia, Madagascar, the Mascarene Islands and Oceania. It has been widely introduced across the Americas as an ornamental plant. It grows in disturbed are...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Macrothelypteris torresiana; habit. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionMacrothelypteris torresiana; habit. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2017.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macrothelypteris torresiana; habit. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2017.
HabitMacrothelypteris torresiana; habit. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2017.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macrothelypteris torresiana; frond. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2017.
TitleFrond
CaptionMacrothelypteris torresiana; frond. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2017.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Macrothelypteris torresiana; frond. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2017.
FrondMacrothelypteris torresiana; frond. Olinda, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2017.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaudich.) Ching

Preferred Common Name

  • swordfern

Other Scientific Names

  • Aspidium mollissimum Christ
  • Aspidium uliginosum Kunze
  • Dryopteris lasiocarpa Hayata
  • Dryopteris mollissima (Christ) C. Chr.
  • Dryopteris setigera (Blume) Kuntze
  • Dryopteris uliginosa (Kunze) C. Chr.
  • Lastrea flaccida (Blume) T. Moore
  • Lastrea setigera Bedd.
  • Lastrea tenericaulis T. Moore
  • Lastrea torresiana (Gaudich.) T. Moore
  • Nephrodium tenericaule (Wall. ex Hook.) Hook.
  • Polypodium pallidum Brack.
  • Polypodium tenericaule Wall. ex Hook.
  • Polystichum torresianum Gaudich.
  • Thelypteris setigera (Blume) Ching
  • Thelypteris torresiana (Gaudich.) Alston

International Common Names

  • English: Mariana maiden fern; Torres's fern
  • French: fougère mâle
  • Chinese: pu tong zhen mao jue
  • Portuguese: samambaia; samambaia-da-pedra

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: helecho; helecho alborescente; penquita

Summary of Invasiveness

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Macrothelypteris torresiana is a perennial fern native to Asia, Madagascar, the Mascarene Islands and Oceania. It has been widely introduced across the Americas as an ornamental plant. It grows in disturbed areas including roadsides and forest edges and behaves as a weed. It spreads via spores in wind and water but can also spread via stolons and rhizomes in garden waste. Currently, M. torresiana is listed as invasive in Cuba and Brazil and may also be invasive in Hawaii where it is spreading. The impact of this species where it is invasive is largely unknown, but it is possible that its weedy and opportunistic nature results in competition with native species and alteration of successional patterns.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •             Class: Filicopsida
  •                 Family: Thelypteridaceae
  •                     Genus: Macrothelypteris
  •                         Species: Macrothelypteris torresiana

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Thelypteridaceae is a family of ferns including approximately 38 genera and 900 species distributed primarily across tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Thelypteridaceae ferns typically have creeping rhizomes. The fronds are simply pinnate to pinnate-pinnatifid. The sori are mostly reniform in shape (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). The genus Macrothelypteris comprises 12 species of terrestrial ferns. The most recent molecular phylogenetic studies show that this family is clearly monophyletic and divided into two major clades: the phegopteroids, which includes the genus Macrothelypteris, and the thelypteroids (Almeida et al., 2016).

Description

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The following description is from the Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2017):

Stems short-creeping, thick, to 10 mm diameter. Leaves monomorphic, evergreen, 60-150 cm. Petiole to 75 cm x 3-12 mm, glaucous when living. Blade 2-3-pinnate, to 85 cm. Pinnae to 35 x 10(-17) cm; pinnules sessile to adnate, oblique, 2-8 x 0.8-2.5 cm, incised almost to costule into oblique segments 2-4 mm wide, segments entire to dentate or pinnatifid; veins forked or simple. Indument abaxially of septate hairs 1-2 mm on costae and costules; rachis, costae, and blade tissue with capitate glands 0.05 mm. Sori round, indusia small, less than 0.3 mm diameter, glabrous or glandular; sporangia with minute capitate glands near annulus.

Plant Type

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Perennial

Distribution

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M. torresiana is native to tropical and temperate Asia, Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands, Polynesia, New Zealand and Australia (Lindsay and Middleton, 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). This species has also been introduced and is naturalized in North, Central and South America and the Caribbean (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Flora Mesoamericana, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017). According to GRIN (USDA-ARS, 2017), M. torresiana is considered native to Hawaii, however, Wagner (1993) and the USDA Plants Database (USDA-NRCS, 2017) record it as introduced and Wilson (1996) reports it as invasive. There is also conflicting information regarding its native status in South Africa where it occurs in the KwaZulu-Natal province. Schelpe and Anthony (1986) report that it is present as an escape from cultivation, in contrast, GRIN (USDA-ARS, 2017) records M. torresiana as native to this region of South Africa. This species is also reported as invasive in Cuba and some states in Brazil (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; I3N-Brazil, 2017).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MadagascarPresentNativeMadagascar Catalogue (2017); USDA-ARS (2017)
MauritiusPresentNativeLindsay and Middleton (2012)
-RodriguesPresentNativeLindsay and Middleton (2012)
RéunionPresentNativeLindsay and Middleton (2012)
South AfricaPresentNative and IntroducedSchelpe and Anthony (1986); USDA-ARS (2017)Reported as both native and introduced in the country

Asia

BangladeshPresentMirza (2006)Probably native
BhutanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
ChinaPresentNativeCABI (Undated a)
-AnhuiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
-ChongqingPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
-FujianPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
-GuizhouPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
-HenanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
-HubeiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
-HunanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
-JiangsuPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
-JiangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
-SichuanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
-TibetPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
-ZhejiangPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-KeralaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2017)
IndonesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
JapanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-HonshuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-KyushuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-ShikokuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
LaosPresentNativeLindsay and Middleton (2012)
MalaysiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
MyanmarPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
NepalPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
PhilippinesPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
Sri LankaPresentNativeMirza (2006)
TaiwanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
ThailandPresentNativeLindsay and Middleton (2012); USDA-ARS (2017)
VietnamPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)

North America

BahamasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCorrell and Correll (1982)Naturalized
BelizePresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2017)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2017)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2017)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2017)
HondurasPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2017)
MexicoPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated); Flora Mesoamericana (2017)Original citation: Flora of Nicaragua (2017)
PanamaPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2017)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2017)
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedGraveson (2012)Naturalized and becoming more common
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedLiogier and Martorell (2000)Trinidad
United StatesPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated a)
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2017)
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2017)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2017)
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2017)
-HawaiiPresentWilson (1996); USDA-ARS (2017); USDA-NRCS (2017)Reported as native, introduced and invasive
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2017)
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2017)
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2017)
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2017)
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2017)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-Northern TerritoryPresentNativeCowie and Westaway (2012)Listed as a threatened and endangered species
-QueenslandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
French PolynesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
New ZealandPresentNativeNZPCN (2017); USDA-ARS (2017)
SamoaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
BoliviaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCABI (Undated)Naturalized, very common; Original citation: Jørgensen et al. (2014)
BrazilPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated a)
-AlagoasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017)Naturalized
-BahiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017); CABI (Undated)Naturalized
-CearaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017)Naturalized
-Distrito FederalPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017)Naturalized
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017)Naturalized
-GoiasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017); Zenni and Ziller (2011); CABI (Undated)Naturalized
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017); Zenni and Ziller (2011)Naturalized
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017); Zenni and Ziller (2011)Naturalized
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017); Zenni and Ziller (2011)Naturalized
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017)Naturalized
-ParanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017); CABI (Undated)Naturalized
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017); CABI (Undated)Naturalized
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017); CABI (Undated)Naturalized
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017)Naturalized
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017)Naturalized
-RondoniaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017)Naturalized
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2017); CABI (Undated)Naturalized
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: I3N-Brazil (2017)
-TocantinsPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Zenni and Ziller (2017)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2017)
EcuadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedLawesson et al. (1987)
ParaguayPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2017)
PeruPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2017)Cultivated
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)

History of Introduction and Spread

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M. torresiana has spread outside its native range across southeastern USA, Central America, South America and the Caribbean. It was first reported as naturalized in Hawaii in 1892 and was first collected from O'ahu in 1908. M. torresiana has spread through the island forests of Hawaii (Wilson, 1996). In continental USA, the first known collection of this species was made in 1904 in Florida (Leonard, 1972) and it is continuing to spread (Diggs and Lipscomb, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2017).

In South Africa, M. torresiana was reported as an escape from Durban Botanic Garden in 1890 where it was in cultivation (Schelpe and Anthony, 1986).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of M. torresiana is moderate to high. This species spreads naturally via the dispersal of spores and by accidental movement of stolons and rhizomes in garden waste dumping (Wilson, 1996; Diggs and Lipscomb, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2017).

Habitat

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M. torresiana grows in moist disturbed sites, sunny slopes along roadsides, forest edges and in forest gaps (Wilson, 1996; Mirza, 2006; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2017). In China, it occurs in wet mountain valleys from sea level to elevations of 1000 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). In India, it grows in semi-evergreen and evergreen forests (India Biodiversity Portal, 2017).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for M. torresiana has been variously reported as 2n = 124, 2n = 144 and 2n = 186 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2017).

Reproductive Biology

M. torresiana reproduces via spores, which develop in very small spots called sori. Each sorus consists of numerous tiny, spherical granules that contain sporangia. Once the sporangia mature, they burst and release spores into the wind (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2017).

Physiology and Phenology

In Australia, M. torresiana produces spores in September, but in tropical regions it has been recorded sporulating throughout the year. In North America, this species produces spores in summer and autumn (Mirza, 2006; Cowie and Westaway, 2012; Diggs and Lipscomb, 2014).

Environmental Requirements

M. torresiana prefers to grow in warm, moist locations at low to medium elevations. It grows on loamy or loamy clay soils with neutral to acidic conditions. Plants are very cold sensitive (Burrell, 1995; Diggs and Lipscomb, 2014; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). In New Zealand, plants die back in winter but if well established, they resprout when warmer conditions return (NZPCN, 2017).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
40 45 0 1000

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 22

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7002000mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cercospora coniogrammes Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Cercospora coniogrammes is a fungal pathogen that causes leaf spots on ferns such as M. torresiana (Guatimosim et al., 2016).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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M. torresiana spreads via spores dispersed by wind and water and also via stolons and rhizomes dispersed primarily by humans e.g. in dumped garden waste (Diggs and Lipscomb, 2014; NZPCN, 2017).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosOrnamental Yes Yes Diggs and Lipscomb, 2014
DisturbanceCommon in disturbed sites Yes Yes NZPCN, 2017
Garden waste disposalStolons and rhizomes in garden waste dumping Yes Yes Diggs and Lipscomb, 2014
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Diggs and Lipscomb, 2014

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesStolons and rhizomes in garden waste dumping Yes Yes Diggs and Lipscomb, 2014
WaterSpores Yes Yes
WindSpores Yes Yes

Impact

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M. torresiana is listed as invasive in Cuba, Brazil and possibly Hawaii where it is reported to be spreading (Wilson, 1996).

In Australia, where it is native, wild populations of M. torresiana are declining in size and subpopulations are severely fragmented. Feral pigs and domestic cattle livestock have been observed impacting populations of this species in the Northern Territory. Consequently it is listed as Endangered in the Northern Territory (Cowie and Westaway, 2012).

Environmental Impact

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M. torresiana is a weedy, opportunistic species that colonizes disturbed sites such as landslides, forest gaps, roadsides and forest margins (NZPCN, 2017), it is possible that this results in competition with native species and alteration of successional patterns.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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M. torresiana is sometimes planted as an ornamental (USDA-ARS, 2017). Leaves and roots of M. torresiana are used in traditional Asian medicine. The aerial parts are used for treatment of fever, pain and granulation by tribes in Pakistan, India and China. It is also used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of oedema in patients suffering from kidney problems (Mondal et al., 2017).

Uses List

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Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Control

Chemical Control

There are no specific recommendations for the chemical control of M. torresiana. However, a study investigating the glyphosate susceptibility of different fern species, including M. torresiana, showed that glyphosate concentrations of 0.33 g a.i. L-1 may negatively impact natural spore banks of ferns and result in mortality of 31–50% of all green life stages (Aguilar-Dorantes et al., 2015).

References

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Aguilar-Dorantes, K., Mehltreter, K., Mata-Rosas, M., Vibrans, H., Esqueda-Esquivel, V., 2015. Glyphosate susceptibility of different life stages of three fern species. American Fern Journal, 105(3), 131-144. http://www.bioone.org/loi/amfj doi: 10.1640/0002-8444-105.3.131

Almeida TE, Hennequin S, Schneider H, Smith AR, Batista JAN, Ramalho AJ, Proite K, Salino A, 2016. Towards a phylogenetic generic classification of Thelypteridaceae: Additional sampling suggests alterations of neotropical taxa and further study of paleotropical genera. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 94, 688-700.

Burrell CC, 1995. Ferns: wild things make a comeback in the garden (Issue 138), New York, USA: Brooklyn Botanic Garden.

Correll DS, Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago (including the Turks and Caicos Islands), Lehre, Germany: J. Cramer.1692 pp.

Cowie I, Westaway J, 2012. Macrothelypteris torresiana. In: Threatened Species of the Northern Territory : Northern Territory Government.https://nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/208473/macrothelypteris-torresiana.pdf

Diggs G Jr, Lipscomb B, 2014. The Ferns and Lycophytes of Texas, Texas, USA: Botanical Research Institute of Texas Press.

Flora de Nicaragua, 2017. Flora of Nicaragua. In: Tropicos website St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FN

Flora do Brasil, 2017. Brazilian Flora 2020. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ConsultaPublicaUC.do#CondicaoTaxonCP

Flora Mesoamericana, 2017. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/fm

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of North America North of Mexico. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Guatimosim, E., Schwartsburd, P. B., Barreto, R. W., Crous, P. W., 2016. Novel fungi from an ancient niche: cercosporoid and related sexual morphs on ferns. Persoonia, 37, 106-141. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/nhn/pimj doi: 10.3767/003158516X690934

I3N-Brasil, 2017. National database of exotic invasive species. (Base de dados nacional de espécies exóticas invasora). Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental.http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br

India Biodiversity Portal, 2017. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Jørgensen, P. M., León-Yànez, S., 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.viii + 1182 pp.

Lawesson JE, Adsersen H, Bentley P, 1987. An updated and annotated check list of the vascular plants of the Galapagos Islands, 16. Aarhus, Denmark: Botanical Institute, University of Aarhus.74 pp.

Leonard SW, 1972. The distribution of Thelypteris torresiana in the southeastern United States. American Fern Journal, 62(4), 97-99.

Lindsay S, Middleton DJ, 2012. Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/thaiferns/

Liogier HA, Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised, San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico.382 pp.

Madagascar Catalogue, 2017. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. St. Louis, Missouri and Antananarivo, USA and Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Madagascar

Mirza MM, 2006. Macrothelypteris torresiana (Guad.) Ching (Thelypteridaceae) - A new record for Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy, 13(1), 69-71.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org

Mondal S, Ghosh D, Ganapaty S, Chekuboyina SVG, Samal M, 2017. Hepatoprotective activity of Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaudich.) aerial parts against CCl 4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodents and analysis of polyphenolic compounds by HPTLC. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 7(3), 181-189.

NZPCN, 2017. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network.http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Schelpe EACLE, Anthony NC, 1986. Pteridophyta. In: Flora of Southern Africa, [ed. by Leistner OA]. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.http://plants.usda.gov/

Wagner WH Jr, 1993. New species of Hawaiian pteridophytes. Contributions of the University of Michican Herbarium, 19, 63-82.

Wilson, K. A., 1996. Alien ferns in Hawai'i. Pacific Science, 50(2), 127-141.

Zenni, R. D., Ziller, S. R., 2011. An overview of invasive plants in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Botânica, 34(3), 431-446. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-84042011000300016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en doi: 10.1590/S0100-84042011000300016

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Correll DS, Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago (including the Turks and Caicos Islands)., Lehre, Germany: J. Cramer. 1692 pp.

Cowie I, Westaway J, 2012. Macrothelypteris torresiana. In: Threatened Species of the Northern Territory, Northern Territory Government. https://nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/208473/macrothelypteris-torresiana.pdf

Flora do Brasil, 2017. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

Flora Mesoamericana, 2017. Flora Mesoamericana. (Flora Mesoamericana.). In: Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/fm

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). In: The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean), http://www.saintlucianplants.com

India Biodiversity Portal, 2017. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Lawesson JE, Adsersen H, Bentley P, 1987. An updated and annotated check list of the vascular plants of the Galapagos Islands., 16 Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press. 74 pp.

Lindsay S, Middleton DJ, 2012. Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia., http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/thaiferns/

Liogier HA, Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised., San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico. 382 pp.

Madagascar Catalogue, 2017. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar., St. Louis, Missouri and Antananarivo, USA and Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Madagascar

Mirza MM, 2006. Macrothelypteris torresiana (Guad.) Ching (Thelypteridaceae) - A new record for Bangladesh. In: Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy, 13 (1) 69-71.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

NZPCN, 2017. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network., Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Schelpe EACLE, Anthony NC, 1986. Pteridophyta. In: Flora of Southern Africa, [ed. by Leistner OA]. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture and Water Supply. 100-101.

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Wilson K A, 1996. Alien ferns in Hawai'i. Pacific Science. 50 (2), 127-141.

Zenni R D, Ziller S R, 2011. An overview of invasive plants in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Botânica. 34 (3), 431-446. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-84042011000300016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en DOI:10.1590/S0100-84042011000300016

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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03/04/17 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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