Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Leptochloa mucronata
(mucronate sprangletop )

Cubiñá A, 2016. Leptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.115226.20203483411

Toolbox

Datasheet

Leptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop )

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 September 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Leptochloa mucronata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • mucronate sprangletop
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Leptochloa mucronata is a grass native to the warmer parts of North, Central and South America and the Caribbean; taxonomists disagree over whether the form found in the Caribbean is part of the same species or should be classified separa...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Leptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); Habit. Grayson County, TX, USA. September 2020.
TitleHabit
CaptionLeptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); Habit. Grayson County, TX, USA. September 2020.
Copyright©arosenbl/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Leptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); Habit. Grayson County, TX, USA. September 2020.
HabitLeptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); Habit. Grayson County, TX, USA. September 2020.©arosenbl/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Leptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); Habit. Mineral Wells Hwy, Cool, TX, US. September 2020.
TitleHabit
CaptionLeptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); Habit. Mineral Wells Hwy, Cool, TX, US. September 2020.
Copyright©Sam Kieschnick/via inaturalist - CC BY-SA 4.0
Leptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); Habit. Mineral Wells Hwy, Cool, TX, US. September 2020.
HabitLeptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); Habit. Mineral Wells Hwy, Cool, TX, US. September 2020.©Sam Kieschnick/via inaturalist - CC BY-SA 4.0
Leptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); Habit. Denton County, TX, USA. August 2018.
TitleHabit
CaptionLeptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); Habit. Denton County, TX, USA. August 2018.
Copyright©Eric Keith/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Leptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); Habit. Denton County, TX, USA. August 2018.
HabitLeptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); Habit. Denton County, TX, USA. August 2018.©Eric Keith/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Leptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); Leaves. Denton County, TX, USA. August 2018.
TitleLeaves
CaptionLeptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); Leaves. Denton County, TX, USA. August 2018.
Copyright©Eric Keith/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Leptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); Leaves. Denton County, TX, USA. August 2018.
LeavesLeptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); Leaves. Denton County, TX, USA. August 2018.©Eric Keith/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Leptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); inflorescence, Lake Creek Trail, Cedar Park, Texas, USA. August 2016.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionLeptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); inflorescence, Lake Creek Trail, Cedar Park, Texas, USA. August 2016.
Copyright©Chuck Sexton/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Leptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); inflorescence, Lake Creek Trail, Cedar Park, Texas, USA. August 2016.
InflorescenceLeptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); inflorescence, Lake Creek Trail, Cedar Park, Texas, USA. August 2016.©Chuck Sexton/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Leptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); inflorescence, Lake Creek Trail, Cedar Park, Texas, USA. August 2016.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionLeptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); inflorescence, Lake Creek Trail, Cedar Park, Texas, USA. August 2016.
Copyright©Chuck Sexton/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Leptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); inflorescence, Lake Creek Trail, Cedar Park, Texas, USA. August 2016.
InflorescenceLeptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop); inflorescence, Lake Creek Trail, Cedar Park, Texas, USA. August 2016.©Chuck Sexton/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Leptochloa mucronata (Michx.) Kunth

Preferred Common Name

  • mucronate sprangletop

Other Scientific Names

  • Aira panicea Willd. ex Steud
  • Dinebra panicea subsp. brachiata
  • Dinebra panicea var. mucronata (Michx.) P.M. Peterson & N. Snow
  • Eleusine elongata Willd. ex Steud.
  • Eleusine filiformis Persoon
  • Eleusine mucronata Michx.
  • Eleusine sparsa Muhl.
  • Eleusine stricta Willd. ex Steud.
  • Festuca filiformis Lam
  • Festuca filiformis Lam.
  • Leptochloa attenuata (Nutt.) Steud.
  • Leptochloa brachiata Steud
  • Leptochloa filiformis (Pers.) P. Beauv.
  • Leptochloa filiformis var. attenuata (Nutt.) Steyerm. & C.L. Kucera
  • Leptochloa filiformis var. humilior J. Presl
  • Leptochloa filiformis var. pulchella (Scribn.) Beetle
  • Leptochloa filiformis var. subuniflora A.Camus
  • Leptochloa mucronata var. pulchella Scribn.
  • Leptochloa panicea ssp. mucronata (Michx.) Nowack
  • Leptochloa paniculata E. Fourn.
  • Leptochloa pellucidula Steud
  • Leptochloa pilosa Scribn.
  • Leptostachys filiformis (Pers.) G. Mey.
  • Oxydenia attenuata Nutt.
  • Oxydenia filiformis Nutt. ex B.D. Jacks.
  • Rabdochloa mucronata (Michx.) P. Beauv.

International Common Names

  • English: Mississippi sprangletop
  • Spanish: zacate salado

Local Common Names

  • Colombia: paja mona
  • Cuba: plumilla
  • Dominican Republic: pata de cotorra; yerba de hilo; yerba de rabo de cotorra
  • Puerto Rico: yerba de hilo
  • USA/California: red sprangletop

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Leptochloa mucronata is a grass native to the warmer parts of North, Central and South America and the Caribbean; taxonomists disagree over whether the form found in the Caribbean is part of the same species or should be classified separately as Leptochloa panicea ssp. brachiata. The species is present in a number of countries in south and south-east Asia, in a few countries in Africa, and in Australia; in most of these countries it is considered to be introduced, although it is reported as native in some of them. Little information is available about how it was spread, but it probably involved the accidental movement of seeds. In parts of both its native range and its introduced range it is a significant agricultural weed, and this is the main reason why it is of interest, although there have been some studies of its use as a green manure.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Leptochloa
  •                                 Species: Leptochloa mucronata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Members of the genus Leptochloa are commonly known as sprangletops. The generic name is derived from the Greek words ληπτος (leptos), meaning "thin," and χλοα (chloa), meaning "grass," referring to the inflorescences (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016).

Leptochloa mucronata is the preferred scientific name of this species, although several synonyms are accepted. Lamarck first described the species as Festuca filiformis, but today this is not considered a valid name. The name Leptochloa filiformis is often used, but according to World Flora Online (2020) it is considered as a synonym of L. mucronata. In some countries, Leptochloa panicea is considered the same species as L. mucronata. Axelrod (2011) and Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012) suggest on the other hand that L. mucronata and L. panicea are distinct species and the plants reported as L. mucronata in the Caribbean are misdetermined L. panicea ssp. brachiata. Calflora (2016) says that Leptochloa panicea ssp. brachiata was formerly L. mucronata. World Flora Online (2020) lists both species as valid, with L. panicea subsp. brachiata as a subspecies of L. panicea and L. panicea subsp. mucronata as a synonym of L. mucronata. The Distribution table in this datasheet includes records from the Caribbean which may be considered by some to be L. panicea. Some sources, such as PIER (2016) and USDA-ARS (2020), consider L. mucronata to be a synonym of Dinebra panicea subsp. brachiata, but this nomenclature is not followed in this datasheet.

Description

Top of page

The following description is taken from Hyde et al. (2016b): 'Leptochloa mucronata is an annual or perennial herb, rarely woody, often with rhizomes or stolons. Culms are usually cylindrical and usually hollow, but solid at the nodes. Leaves: alternate, 2-ranked, simple, consisting of sheath, ligule and lamina; sheath surrounding the stem, usually open; ligule usually present at junction of sheath and lamina, membranous, a row of hairs or 0; lamina linear to filiform, rarely lanceolate or ovate. Inflorescence consisting of numerous spikelets arranged in a spike, raceme or panicle. The basic unit of the inflorescence is the spikelet, consisting of a number of florets arranged distichously along an axis (rhachilla). At the base of the spikelet are 2 (rarely 0, 1 or more than 2) empty bracts (glumes). Each floret is enclosed within an outer bract (lemma) and an inner bracteole (palea). The palea is usually membranous and 2-keeled; the lemma is usually tougher and often awned. The lemma, palea and sexual parts are together called the floret. Flowers are usually bisexual, but sometimes unisexual. Perianth is represented by 2(–3) minute hyaline fleshy scales (lodicules).The base of the spikelet or floret may have a horny prolongation downwards (callus). Stamens (1-)3(-6); anthers versatile. Ovary superior, 1-locular with 1 ovule often attached to the adaxial side of the loculus, to a point or line visible in fruit as the hilum. Styles (1-)2(-3), generally with plumose stigmas. Fruit 1-seeded, usually a caryopsis, rarely with seed free from the pericarp.'

A source quoted in PIER (2016), and describing what PIER refer to as Dinebra panicea subsp. brachiata, says that it has 'slender culms to somewhat coarse, branching, erect, or ascending from geniculate base, 15-100 cm tall; sheaths glabrous or more or less papillose-pilose with long weak hairs; ligule a ciliate membrane 1-2 mm long; blades elongate, 3-8 mm wide, glabrous or sparsely papillose-pilose; inflorescence often half the length of culm, with several too many slender spreading to reflexed branches (1) 2-8 (15) cm long; spikelets 2- or 3-flowered, 2-3 mm long; glumes 1-nerved, narrow, acuminate, subequal, scabrous on keel, nearly as long as spikelet; lemmas about 1.5 mm long, awnless, appressed-pubescent on nerves'.

PIER (2016) point out other characteristics of what they refer to as Leptochloa panicea: 'lower glume lanceolate; 0.7–1.5 mm long; 0.8–0.9 x length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume has lateral veins absent and the apex acute. The upper glume is elliptic, 0.9–1.6 mm long; 1.1–1.3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. The upper glume apex obtuse (mucronate). Florets, fertile lemma oblong; 0.8–1.2 mm long; membranous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein, pubescent. Lemma lateral veins are close to the margins. Lemma surface puberulous. Lemma margins pubescent. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; obtuse. Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels, ciliolate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped. Flowers, anthers 3; oblong and 0.2–0.3 mm long. Fruit is a caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; isodiametric; trigonous; 0.5 mm long; dark brown.'

Plant Type

Top of page
Annual
Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page

The family Poaceae comprises 668 genera and 9500 species, cosmopolitan, but especially found in tropical and northern temperate sub-arid areas (Hyde et al., 2016b). Leptochloa is a widespread genus of Asian, African, Australian and American grasses (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). It includes 27 species in tropical and warm temperate regions.

Leptochloa mucronata has a wide distribution range in the New World. It is found from northern parts of the USA, such as Illinois or Massachusetts, to Argentina in the south. It is also reported in Europe (rarely), the Middle East (rarely), India, Madagascar, south-east Asia, Australia and a few countries in Africa.

It is most common in the southern United States, Central America and northern South America, where it is considered a native species. This includes, México, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panamá, Bolivia, Ecuador, Costa Rica and Perú (WCSP, 2016).

In the West Indies it is considered a native species and is reported from the Greater Antilles, and other islands of the Lesser Antilles (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016; Broome et al., 2016). However, there is disagreement between various authors about the existence of Leptochloa mucronata as a Caribbean species. Axelrod (2011) and Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012) claim that L .mucronata and L. panicea are separate taxa and that the Caribbean species is L. panacea ssp. brachiata.  Likewise, eMonocot (2016) do not recognize L. mucronata as a Caribbean species.  Calflora (2016) records Leptochloa panicea ssp. brachiata, formerly, L. mucronata, as a native species in California and elsewhere in the United States but do not refer it as a Caribbean species. World Flora Online (2020) lists both L .mucronata and L. panicea as valid, with L. panicea subsp. brachiata as a subspecies of L. panicea and L. panicea subsp. mucronata as a synonym of L. mucronata. The Distribution table in this datasheet includes records from the Caribbean which may be considered by some to be L. panicea.

In a few countries of the Old World, Leptochloa mucronata is considered as a native species, but in more it is considered as introduced. It is known from a number of countries in south and south-east Asia, from Australia, from a few countries in Africa, and in Europe from Belgium and Cyprus.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 08 Sep 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

GhanaPresentIntroduced
MadagascarPresentIntroduced
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresentIntroducedInvasive
SomaliaPresent

Asia

IndiaPresentPresent, based on regional distribution
-Madhya PradeshPresentNative
-West BengalPresentNativeInvasiveNadia district
IsraelPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced1998
LaosPresentIntroduced
MyanmarPresentNativeWidely distributed
PalestinePresentIntroduced
VietnamPresentIntroduced

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroduced
CyprusPresentIntroduced

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNative
BelizePresent
Cayman IslandsPresent
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentInvasive
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
El SalvadorPresentNative
GrenadaPresentNative
GuadeloupePresentNative
GuatemalaPresentNative
HondurasPresentNative
JamaicaPresentNative
MartiniquePresentNative
MexicoPresentNative
MontserratPresentNative
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentNativeInvasive
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNative
Saint LuciaPresentNative
Saint MartinPresentNative
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNative
United StatesPresentPresent, based on regional distribution
-AlabamaPresent
-ArizonaPresentNative
-ArkansasPresentNative
-CaliforniaPresent
-GeorgiaPresentNative
-IllinoisPresentNative
-KansasPresentNative
-KentuckyPresentNative
-LouisianaPresentNative
-MassachusettsPresentNative
-MississippiPresentNative
-MissouriPresentNative
-New MexicoPresentNative
-OklahomaPresentNative
-PennsylvaniaPresentInvasivePhiladelphia
-TennesseePresentNative
-TexasPresentNative

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BoliviaPresentNative
BrazilPresentNativeInvasive
-AcrePresent
-AlagoasPresent
-AmapaPresent
-AmazonasPresent
-BahiaPresent
-CearaPresent
-Distrito FederalPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-Fernando de NoronhaPresent
-GoiasPresent
-MaranhaoPresent
-Mato GrossoPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
-ParaibaPresent
-ParanaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-PiauiPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do NortePresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-RondoniaPresent
-RoraimaPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
-SergipePresent
-TocantinsPresent
ColombiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
EcuadorPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuyanaPresent
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
VenezuelaPresent

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

According to PIER (2016), Leptochloa mucronata is capable of naturalization beyond its native range, and was probably introduced to the Galapagos Islands; the Charles Darwin Foundation (2008) classify it as a “questionable native and possibly introduced". It is believed to have been introduced to most of its range in the Old World.

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

Leptochloa mucronata is found mainly in altered and disturbed areas in its natural range, so colonization in such areas is very possible. Propagules are likely to be dispersed unintentionally (e.g. from plants growing in heavily trafficked areas) (PIER, 2016). According to PIER (2016), Leptochloa panicea propagules and eleven other weed species are likely to be dispersed as a produce contaminant.

Habitat

Top of page

According to Encyclopedia of Life (2016), the elevation range of Leptochloa mucronata is between 100 m and 4600 m. Sources cited by PIER (2016) describe it (under the name of L. panicea) as suited to tropical, subtropical or warm temperate climates. In its native habitat L. mucronata is found in moist soil and mud, but it seems to grow in a variety of habitats and elevations. In Bolivia it is found in low areas, in the rainforest and in semideciduous forest at elevations from 0 to 1000 m (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). In Peru it is commonly found in disturbed areas (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). In Arizona it is common along roadsides and in desert grassland with Prosopis (National Museum of Natural History, 2016). There is disagreement over whether or not L. mucronata is the same species as L. panicea var. mucronata. According to Lichvar (2013), Dinebra panicea [Leptochloa panicea] is considered a facultative wetland species (usually occurs in wetlands although can be found in non-wetland areas); according to Baskin et al. (1999), L. panicea var. mucronata (synonym of L. mucronata) is recorded mainly from dry habitats. However, Mauz (2006) reported L. mucronata as a wetland-obligate plant in the Tucson Basin, Arizona, USA.

According to Baskin et al. (1999), differences in dormancy breaking and germination responses of seeds of Leptochloa species may help to explain why this genus occupies a wide range of habitats with regard to soil moisture conditions.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalDeserts Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

The species has been reported as an agricultural weed in a number of countries. In coastal areas of Ecuador, competition from weeds (including this species) accounts for losses of 20%-40% of cotton yields (Bohorquez and Salazar, 1975). Leptochloa filiformis [a synonym of Leptochloa mucronata] interferes with eggplant [aubergine] crops in Caribbean coastal regions of Colombia; the presence of weeds adversely affected plant height, stem diameter, yield and fruit quality (Aramendiz-Tatis et al., 2010).. Fischer et al. (1993) found that L. filiformis was one of several weed species that had a significant effect on rice yields in Colombia if abundant in the first 70 days after seedling emergence (after which weeds were suppressed by the crop).

Studies in Puerto Rico revealed that the presence of weeds during early growth stages reduced initial crop growth of pigeon peas and delayed differentiation including flowering. Cleome gynandra, Amaranthus dubius, Echinochloa colona, Leptochloa filiformis [synonym of L. mucronata but probably misapplied to L. panicea subsp. brachiata] and Digitaria sanguinalis were the dominant weeds. C. gynandra and E. colona dominated the early weed flora until approximately 40 days after crop emergence, but later the weed flora was dominated by L. filiformis, D. sanguinalis and A. dubius (Díaz-Rivera et al., 1985).

In Venezuela, among 46 species of weeds studied in sugarcane fields, the most abundant weed, comprising 22.3% of the weed flora, was Leptochloa filiformis. The presence of weeds caused the sugarcane plants to be stunted and chlorotic, and in extreme cases caused their death (Rincones, 1992). In a study in Lambayeque province, Peru, Leptochloa filiformis was one of the four major weeds of sugarcane (Diaz C., undated).

In Nigeria, Leptochloa filiformis [Leptochloa mucronata] has been found to be a host of insects that transmit the lethal yellowing disease in coconut palms (Eziashi et al., 2013). Elsewhere, it has been recorded as a host of the beetle Dicladispa (Hispa) armigera (rice hispa) (Sen and Chakravorty, 1970), the rice bug Oebalus insularis (Vivas C. and Astudillo, 2010), and the maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) (Garrido and Trujillo, 1992).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

2n = 20 [as Leptochloa filiformis] (Bhattacharyya, 1973)

Reproductive Biology

Leptochloa mucronata produces viable seed, although it is not a prolific seed producer (>1000/m2) (PIER, 2016).

Physiology and Phenology

The following description was obtained from Baskin et al. (1999): 'Leptochloa panicea ssp. mucronata is an annual grass that grows in relatively dry habitats. Seeds of L. panicea were dormant at maturity in autumn, but when exposed to actual or simulated autumn temperatures (e.g. 20/10, 15/6 °C), they entered conditional dormancy and thus germinated to high percentages in light at 35/20 °C. Seeds buried in non-flooded soil exposed to natural seasonal temperature changes in Kentucky (USA) were non-dormant by the following summer and germinated to 80–100 % in light at 25/15, 30/15 and 35/20 °C. Seeds buried in non-flooded soil exhibited an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, with seeds mostly germinating to 80–100 % in light at 30/15 and 35/20 °C throughout the year but to 80–100 % in light at 25/15 °C only in summer. Results for L. panicea were compared to published data for L. panicoides and L. fusca. Whereas seeds of L. panicea buried in flooded soil failed to come out of dormancy, those of L. panicoides, an annual of moist habitats such as mudflats, exhibited an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, and those of L. fusca, a semi-aquatic, required flooding for both dormancy loss and germination. Differences in dormancy breaking and germination responses of seeds of Leptochloa species may help to explain why this genus occupies a wide range of habitats with regard to soil moisture conditions'.

Associations

Leptochloa mucronata has been recorded as a host of the beetle Dicladispa (Hispa) armigera (rice hispa) (Sen and Chakravorty, 1970), the rice bug Oebalus insularis (Vivas C. and Astudillo, 2010), the maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) (Garrido and Trujillo, 1992), and insects that transmit the lethal yellowing disease in coconut palms (Eziashi et al., 2013).

Environmental Requirements

Leptochloa mucronata grows in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate climates, in a variety of different habitats; it tolerates a wide range of annual rainfall levels.

In California, Calflora (2016) report the following: Elevations range from -50 to 550 meters, although elevation as high as 1000 meters has been reported. Precipitation 101.6 mm to 584.2mm. Growing season from 6 to 11 months. Wet Season from 0 to 5 months, Temp Range < 17 °C .; December Low 0 °C.; July High 40 °C.; Accumulated Temperature 75.5 °C  to 162°C .; Hardiness Zones 8b to 10b.

For information on the effects on seed germination of temperature, light and flooding, see above under 'Physiology and Phenology'.

See also the 'Notes on Habitat' section.

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
45 30

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall1001959mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

There is little information on dispersal of this species, although it probably involves seeds being dispersed unintentionally by people (according to PIER (2016), Leptochloa panicea propagules and eleven other weed species are likely to be dispersed as a produce contaminant). Seeds can be dispersed by water. There is no risk of propagules being dispersed by birds, but there is a probability that they could be dispersed by other animals (PIER, 2016).

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

Leptochloa mucronata is considered an invasive species or a weed of cultivated fields in many areas of its native and non-native range. Randall (2017) lists it (as L. filiformis) as an agricultural weed in a number of countries.

Leptochloa mucronata is reported as a potential threat to the viticulture industry in Western Australia where it is an introduced species.  It is reported to have an impact on cotton fields in Ecuador (Bohorquez and Salazar, 1975), rice fields in Colombia (Fischer et al., 1993), sugarcane  in Venezuela (Rincones, 1992) and Peru (Diaz C., undated), eggplant (aubergine) in Colombia (Aramendiz-Tatis et al., 2010), and pigeon peas in Puerto Rico (Díaz-Rivera et al., 1985). For more information on these studies, see the 'Host Plants and Other Plants Affected' section.

In Nigeria, Eziashi et al. (2013) found that Leptochloa mucronata [as L. filiformis] was a host of insects that are vectors of lethal yellowing disease (LYD) in coconut palms. Eggs, nymphs and adult Cicadellidae and Flugoroidea species were excised from ten weed species including L. filiformis; together with the presence of suitable breeding habitats for the insects, this could expose coconut palms to a series of infections including possible transmission of LYD to healthy palms (Eziashi et al., 2013).

Sen and Chakravorty (1970) found that Leptochloa mucronata (as Leptochloa filiformis) was one of several weeds that were hosts of the beetle Dicladispa (Hispa) armigera (rice hispa) in the Nadia district of West Bengal, India. In Venezuela, it was found to be a host plant for the rice bug Oebalus insularis (Vivas C. and Astudillo, 2010).

Leptochloa mucronata is also a host of the maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) (​Garrido and Trujillo, 1992).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page
Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition (unspecified)
  • Interaction with other invasive species
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

Top of page

Although Leptochloa mucronata is considered by many as a pest, invasive or potentially harmful, studies by Maia et al. (2004) in Pacajus, Ceara, Brazil, from 1999 to 2004, investigated the potential of weeds as soil cover in fields planted with cashew. Weed persistence during drought and dry matter yield were determined, and nutrient accumulation was quantified. Weeds provided soil cover throughout the year, and accumulated K, Ca, Mg and C mainly during the initial growth stage of cashew. L. mucronata (as L.filiformis) was one of the species that exhibited the greatest potential for use as green manure.

Uses List

Top of page

Materials

  • Green manure

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

According to Hitchcock (1903), Leptochloa pilosa is closely related to L. mucronata but it is distinguished by its rigid leaves and papillate-pilose sheaths; the leaves are somewhat more rigid than is usual in this species, but the papillate-pilose sheaths are found commonly in L. mucronata.  There is a controversy in which some authors such as Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012) and Axelrod (2011) believe that L. mucronata is not the same species as L. panicea var. mucronata, while other authors understand that both are the same species. According to Lichvar (2013), Dinebra panicea [Leptochloa panicea] is considered a facultative wetland species (usually occurs in wetlands although can be found in non-wetland areas); L. panicea var. mucronata (synonym of L. mucronata) is recorded mainly from dry habitats (Baskin et al., 1999).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

In Colombia, recommendations to control Leptochloa mucronata are: (i) for small planted areas of eggplant (aubergine), the use of physical methods such as hand removal or weeding with machete or other tools, plus cultural practices; and (ii) for large areas, pre-sowing herbicides combined with physical methods and cultural practices (Aramendiz-Tatis et al., 2010).  According to Ascencio and Lazo (2009), L. mucronata [as L.filiformis], was sensitive to shade, so it may be controlled by canopy closure.

Chemical Control

Weed control literature often uses the name Leptochloa filiformis, which according to World Flora Online (2020)​ is considered as a synonym of L. mucronata.

In cotton fields in Colombia, excellent control of the major weeds Echinochloa colona, Leptochloa filiformis and Portulaca oleracea was obtained with pre-emergence applications of fluometuron followed by slashing 55 or 65 days after sowing. Yields were superior to those from mechanically weeded controls. Herbicide costs were offset by the increased yields (Bohorquez and Salazar, 1975).

Hernandez et al. (1972)​​ recommended the following treatments to control Leptochloa filiformis in cotton crops in the Costa de Hermosillo region of Mexico: fluometuron 80% at 1.4-1.8 kg; diuron 80% 1.4-1.8 kg; monuron 80%, 0.8-1.6 kg; trifluralin 44.5%, 0.8-1.6 litres; all to be applied 1 to 5 days before the first irrigation (before sowing) or the second (50 days after sowing).

In soyabean crops at Saavedra, Colombia, Leptochloa filiformis, was not controlled by dinitroaniline herbicides (Tollervey et al., 1979).

In dry sown rice fields in Cuba, Leptochloa filiformis, and L. panicea were among the weeds initially well controlled by thiobencarb, propanil and oxadiazon; unlike with some other weeds, residual control of Leptochloa was acceptable. Oxadiazon and propanil were the most phytotoxic to rice (Colón and Almarales, 1985).

Fischer et al. (1993)​ report that in field trials conducted at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical in Colombia during 1989-1990, Leptochloa filiformis was one of several important weed species. Economic analysis showed that under heavy weed infestations, in a system where rice cannot be early and continuously flooded, three post-emergence herbicide applications (propanil + butachlor + pendimethalin applied at 9 days after emergence (DAE), thiobencarb + propanil + picloram + 2,4-D at 18 DAE, and fenoxaprop-ethyl + bentazone at 44 DAE, followed by spot applications of paraquat) were justified.

In studies of the use of fluorodifen, which compared to many herbicides is less affected by soil type or lack of moisture and less likely to be leached away, in tropical and sub-tropical countries, Leptochloa filiformis was among the monocotyledonous weeds controlled (Green and Le Poole, 1970).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Top of page

In view of the confusion over the taxonomy and distribution of Leptochloa species, there is a need for a definitive taxonomic work with good geographical information for each species in the genus (and other genera that are also part of the taxonomic confusion).

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams, C. D., 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica, Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies.848 pp.

Aramendiz-Tatis, H., Cardona-Ayala, C., Oro, R. de, 2010. Weed interference period in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) crops. (Periodo de interferencia de arvenses en el cultivo de berenjena (Solanum melongena L.)). Agronomía Colombiana, 28(1), 81-88. http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0120-99652010000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=es

Ascencio, J., Lazo, J. V., 2009. Shade avoidance syndrome in Rottboellia exaltata and Leptochloa filiformis (Gramineae-Poaceae). (Respuestas de escape a la sombra en Rottboellia exaltata y Leptochloa filiformis (Gramineae-Poaceae)). Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía, 26(4), 490-507. http://ve.scielo.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0378-78182009000400003

Auquier, P., 1978. Adventive grasses new or interesting to the Belgian Flora, I. (Graminées adventices nouvelles ou intéressantes pour la flore belge, I). Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique / Bulletin van de Koninklijke Belgische Botanische Vereniging, 111(2), 151-163. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20793737

Australian Biological Resources Study, 2002. Flora of Australia volume 43: Poaceae 1: Introduction and Atlas, Clayton, Victoria, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.https://www.publish.csiro.au/book/3280/

Axelrod, F., 2011. A systematic vademecum to the vascular plants of Puerto Rico, Fort Worth, Texas, USA: Botanical Research Institute of Texas.428 pp.

Barkworth, M. E., Capels, K. M., Long, S., Piep, M. B., 2003. Flora of North America, Vol. 25. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2, i-xxv + 783 pp.

Baskin, C. C., Baskin, J. M., Chester, E. W., 1999. Seed germination ecology of the annual grass Leptochloa panicea ssp. mucronata and a comparison with L. panicoides and L. fusca. Acta Oecologica, 20(5), 571-577. doi: 10.1016/S1146-609X(00)86624-2

Bhattacharyya, B., 1973. Chromosome analysis of some Indian members of the tribe Eragrosteae. Journal of Cytology and Genetics, 7-8, 161-164.

Bohorquez, J., Salazar, E., 1975. Integration of weed control methods in cotton crops. In: Sociedad Colombiana de Control de Malezas y Fisiologia, Vegetal "COMALFI". Resumenes de los Trabajos en el VII Seminario, Bogota, 1975 [Sociedad Colombiana de Control de Malezas y Fisiologia, Vegetal "COMALFI". Resumenes de los Trabajos en el VII Seminario, Bogota, 1975], 8-10.

Broome, R., Carrington, S., Sabir, K., 2016. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Calflora, 2016. Calflora: Information on California plants for education, research, and conservation. In: Calflora: Information on California plants for education, research, and conservation Berkeley, California, USA: Calflora Database.http://www.calflora.org

Carvajal, F. , Edgerton, C. W. , 1944. The perfect stage of Colletotrichum falcatum. Phytopathology, 34(2), 206-213 pp.

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. In: Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.unpaginated.

Colón, C., Almarales, P., 1985. Control of weeds in rice with mixtures of propanil and residual herbicides. (Control de malezas en arroz con mezclas de propanil y herbicidas residuales). Ciencia y Técnica en la Agricultura, Arroz, 8(1), 43-61.

Consortium of California Herbaria, 2016. CCH1: Featuring California vascular plant data from the Consortium of California Herbaria and other sources. Berkeley, California, USA: Consortium of California Herbaria.https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/consortium/

Danin, A., Danin, B., Fragman-Sapir, O., 2016. Flora of Israel Online. https://flora.org.il/en/plants/

Diaz C., A., Identification and quantitative analysis of weeds in rice, sugar cane, cotton and chickpea. (Identificacion y analisis cuantitativo de malezas en arroz, cana de azucar, algodon y garbanzo). In: Trabajos y Resumenes, III Congreso Asociacion Latinoamericana de Malezas "ALAM" y VIII Reunion Argentina de Malezas y su Control, "ASAM", Mar del Plata, 1976 [Trabajos y Resumenes, III Congreso Asociacion Latinoamericana de Malezas "ALAM" y VIII Reunion Argentina de Malezas y su Control, "ASAM", Mar del Plata, 1976], (Vol. 1) . 1356 Av. Corrientes 123, Buenos Aires, Argentina: ASAM. 15-30.

Díaz-Rivera, M., Hepperly, P. R., Riveros, G., Almodóvar-Vega, L., 1985. Weed-crop competition in pigeon peas in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 69(2), 201-213.

eMonocot, 2016. eMonocot - An online resource for monocot plants. http://e-monocot.org

Encyclopedia of Life, 2016. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life . http://www.eol.org

Esqueda-Esquivel, V. A., 2008. Effect of the mineral oil Agratex-HE on the control of weeds in sugarcane. (Efecto del aceite mineral Agratex-HE en el control de malezas en caña de azúcar). Agronomía Mesoamericana, 19(1), 93-98. http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/redalyc/src/inicio/HomRevRed.jsp?iCveEntRev=437

Eziashi, E. I., Omamor, I. B., Aisueni, N. O., Aisagbonhi, C. I., Airede, C. E., Ikuenobe, C. E., Ataga, C. D., Oruade-Dimaro, E. A., Odewale, J. O., Osagie, I. J., 2013. Potential weed species as alternate hosts of insect vectors of the lethal yellowing disease (LYD) of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L.) in Nigeria. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 3(1), 123-130. http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract.php?iid=160&id=&aid=873

Fischer, A. J., Lozano, J., Ramirez, A., Sanint, L. R., 1993. Yield loss prediction for integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice. International Journal of Pest Management, 39(2), 175-180. doi: 10.1080/09670879309371786

Funk, V., Hollowell, T., Berry, P., Kelloff, C., Alexander, S. N., 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 55, 584 pp.

Garrido, M. J., Trujillo, G. E., 1992. Additional hosts of the Venezuelan strain of maize dwarf mosaic virus. (Hospederos adicionales del virus del mosaico enanizante del maíz-raza venezolana). Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Central de Venezuela, 18(1), 67-77.

Green, D. H., Le Poole, H. A. C., 1970. A summary of results in tropical crops with fluorodifen. In: 4th E. Afr. Herbicide Conference, Arusha [4th E. Afr. Herbicide Conf], Arusha. 15 pp.

Greuter, W., Raus, T., 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia, 28(1/2), 163-174. doi: 10.3372/wi.28.2816

Hernandez, F. M., Martinez, I. C., Herrera, R., Pacheco, F., Reyes, D. M., 1972. Cotton growing in the Costa de Hermosillo. Ciano Informa, 1(8), 3-8.

Hitchcock, A.S., 1903. North American Species of Leptochloa [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Plant Industry - Bulletin No. 33.], USA: United States Department of Agriculture.

Howard, R. A., 1979. Flora of the Lesser Antilles. Leeward and Windward Islands. Volume 3. Monocotyledoneae. In: Flora of the Lesser Antilles. Leeward and Windward Islands. Volume 3. Monocotyledoneae . Massachusetts, USA: Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University.xi + 586 pp.

Hyde, M. A., Wursten, B. T., Ballings, P., Coates Palgrave, M., 2016. Flora of Mozambique. In: Flora of Mozambique . http://www.mozambiqueflora.com/index.php

Hyde, M. A., Wursten, B. T., Ballings, P., Coates Palgrave, M., 2016. Flora of Zimbabwe. In: Flora of Zimbabwe . http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/

JSTOR, 2016. JSTOR Global Plants Database. In: JSTOR Global Plants Database Ann Arbor, MI and New York, NY, USA: JSTOR.http://plants.jstor.org/

Kress, W. J., Defilipps, R. A., Farr, E., Kyi, D. Y. Y., 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar, 590 pp.

Lichvar, R.W., 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron, 2013(49), 1-241. http://www.phytoneuron.net/2013Phytoneuron/49PhytoN-2013NWPL.pdf

Liogier, A. H., 1974. Botanical dictionary of common names of Hispaniola. (Diccionario botanico de nombres vulgares de la Espanola). In: Diccionario botanico de nombres vulgares de la Espanola . Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: Universidad Nacional Pedro Henriquez Urena.813 pp.

Liogier, H. A., Martorell, L. F., 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, (Edn 2 (revised)) . San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico.382 pp.

Maia, S. M. F., Oliveira, T. S. de, Oliveira, F. N. S., 2004. Spontaneous plants in the soil covering and accumulate of nutrients in areas cultivated with cashew. (Plantas espontâneas na cobertura do solo e acúmulo de nutrientes em áreas cultivadas com cajueiro). Revista Ceres, 51(293), 83-97.

Mauz, K., 2006. Native wetland-obligate plant species documented in the Tucson Basin during the period 1855-1920. Tucson, Arizona, USA: Tucson Water Gardeners.2 pp. http://www.kathrynmauz.com/Tucson-historic-wetland-species_watergardeners082406.pdf

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

National Museum of Natural History, 2016. National Museum of Natural History Database, US Herbarium. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.http://botany.si.edu/colls/collections_overview.htm

Oviedo Prieto, R., Herrera Oliver, P., Caluff, M. G., et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Procópio, S. O., Menezes, C. C. E., Pires, F. R., Barroso, A. L. L., Cargnelutti Filho, A., Rudovalho, M. C., Moraes, R. V., Silva, M. V. V., Caetano, J. O., 2006. Efficacy of imazethapyr and chlorimuron-ethyl in pre-sowing applications on soybean crop. (Eficácia de imazethapyr e chlorimuron-ethyl em aplicações de pré-semeadura da cultura da soja). Planta Daninha, 24(3), 467-473. doi: 10.1590/S0100-83582006000300007

Proctor, GR, 1984. Flora of the Cayman Islands. In: Kew Bulletin Additional Series , (XI) . London, UK: Royal Botanical Gardens.834 pp.

Puente, R., Tona, C., Rodríguez, N., 2005. Evaluation of cropstar (oxadiazon) in pre-emergence grass weed control in rice (Oryza sativa). In: XVII Congreso de la Asociación Latinoamericana de Malezas (ALAM) I Congreso Iberoamericano de Ciencia de las Malezas, IV Congreso Nacional de Ciencia de Malezas, Matanzas, Cuba, 8 al 11 de noviembre del 2005 [XVII Congreso de la Asociación Latinoamericana de Malezas (ALAM) I Congreso Iberoamericano de Ciencia de las Malezas, IV Congreso Nacional de Ciencia de Malezas, Matanzas, Cuba, 8 al 11 de noviembre del 2005], Matanzas, Cuba: Asociación Latinoamericana de Malezas (ALAM). 262-263.

Randall, R. P., 2017. A global compendium of weeds, (Ed.3) [ed. by Randall, R. P.]. Perth, Australia: R. P. Randall.iii + 3653 pp.

Rhoads, A.F., Block, T.A., Anisko, A., 2007. The plants of Pennsylvania: an illustrated manual, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: University of Pennylvania Press.https://www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/14335.html

Rincones, C., 1992. Weed distribution in sugarcane fields of Carabobo state, Venezuela. (Distribucion de las malezas en cañamelares del estado Carabobo Venezuela). Caña de Azúcar, 10(1), 3-19.

Roy, GP, Shukla, BK, Datt, B, 1992. Flora of Madhya Pradesh: Chhatarpur and Damoh. India: Ashish Publishing House.

Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2016. Herbarium Catalogue. In: Herbarium Catalogue Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/navigator.do

Sen, P., Chakravorty, S., 1970. Biology of Hispa (Dicladispa) armigera Oliv. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Indian Journal of Entomology, 32(2), 123-126.

Tollervey, F. E., Frans, R., Paniagua, O., Lara, R., 1979. Weed control investigations in Bolivian crops 1977-1978. In: Report, Centro de Investigacion Agricola Tropical (CIAT) , (No. 2) . 90 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-ARS, 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Verloove, F., Hoste, I., Lambinon, J., 2014. Casuals omitted from the sixth edition of Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique. Dumortiera, 114, 74-82. http://www.br.fgov.be/DUMORTIERA/DUM_104/Dum_104_74-82_NF-6_Omitted_casuals.pdf

Vivas C., L. E., Astudillo, D., 2010. Host plants of vaneadora bug in the cultivation of rice in Calabozo, Guárico state, Venezuela. (Plantas hospederas de chinche vaneadora en el cultivo de arroz en Calabozo, estado Guárico, Venezuela). Agronomía Tropical (Maracay), 60(4), 369-373. http://sian.inia.gob.ve/repositorio/revistas_ci/Agronomia%20Tropical/at6004/at6004_vivas.pdf

WCSP, 2016. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/home.do

World Flora Online, 2020. World Flora Online. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.http://www.worldfloraonline.org

Distribution References

Adams C D, 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies. 848 pp.

Aramendiz-Tatis H, Cardona-Ayala C, Oro R de, 2010. Weed interference period in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) crops. (Periodo de interferencia de arvenses en el cultivo de berenjena (Solanum melongena L.).). Agronomía Colombiana. 28 (1), 81-88. http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0120-99652010000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=es

Auquier P, 1978. Adventive grasses new or interesting to the Belgian Flora, I. (Graminées adventices nouvelles ou intéressantes pour la flore belge, I). Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique / Bulletin van de Koninklijke Belgische Botanische Vereniging. 111 (2), 151-163. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20793737

Australian Biological Resources Study, 2002. Flora of Australia volume 43: Poaceae 1: Introduction and Atlas. Clayton, Victoria, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. https://www.publish.csiro.au/book/3280/

Axelrod F, 2011. A systematic vademecum to the vascular plants of Puerto Rico. Fort Worth, Texas, USA: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 428 pp.

Barkworth M E, Capels K M, Long S, Piep M B, 2003. Flora of North America, Vol. 25. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2. i-xxv + 783 pp.

Baskin C C, Baskin J M, Chester E W, 1999. Seed germination ecology of the annual grass Leptochloa panicea ssp. mucronata and a comparison with L. panicoides and L. fusca. Acta Oecologica. 20 (5), 571-577. DOI:10.1016/S1146-609X(00)86624-2

Bohorquez J, Salazar E, 1975. Integration of weed control methods in cotton crops. In: Sociedad Colombiana de Control de Malezas y Fisiologia, Vegetal "COMALFI". Resumenes de los Trabajos en el VII Seminario, Bogota, 1975. [Sociedad Colombiana de Control de Malezas y Fisiologia, Vegetal "COMALFI". Resumenes de los Trabajos en el VII Seminario, Bogota, 1975.], 8-10.

Broome R, Carrington S, Sabir K, 2016. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, 2020a. CABI Distribution Database: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CARVAJAL F , EDGERTON C W, 1944. The perfect stage of Colletotrichum falcatum. Phytopathology. 34 (2), 206-213 pp.

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. In: Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation. unpaginated.

Consortium of California Herbaria, 2016. CCH1: Featuring California vascular plant data from the Consortium of California Herbaria and other sources., Berkeley, California, USA: Consortium of California Herbaria. https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/consortium/

Danin A, Danin B, Fragman-Sapir O, 2016. Flora of Israel Online., https://flora.org.il/en/plants/

Diaz C A, Undated. Identification and quantitative analysis of weeds in rice, sugar cane, cotton and chickpea. (Identificacion y analisis cuantitativo de malezas en arroz, cana de azucar, algodon y garbanzo.). In: Trabajos y Resumenes, III Congreso Asociacion Latinoamericana de Malezas "ALAM" y VIII Reunion Argentina de Malezas y su Control, "ASAM", Mar del Plata, 1976. [Trabajos y Resumenes, III Congreso Asociacion Latinoamericana de Malezas "ALAM" y VIII Reunion Argentina de Malezas y su Control, "ASAM", Mar del Plata, 1976.], 1356 Av. Corrientes 123, Buenos Aires, Argentina: ASAM. 15-30.

eMonocot, 2016. eMonocot - An online resource for monocot plants., http://e-monocot.org

Esqueda-Esquivel V A, 2008. Effect of the mineral oil Agratex-HE on the control of weeds in sugarcane. (Efecto del aceite mineral Agratex-HE en el control de malezas en caña de azúcar.). Agronomía Mesoamericana. 19 (1), 93-98. http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/redalyc/src/inicio/HomRevRed.jsp?iCveEntRev=437

Eziashi E I, Omamor I B, Aisueni N O, Aisagbonhi C I, Airede C E, Ikuenobe C E, Ataga C D, Oruade-Dimaro E A, Odewale J O, Osagie I J, 2013. Potential weed species as alternate hosts of insect vectors of the lethal yellowing disease (LYD) of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L.) in Nigeria. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 3 (1), 123-130. http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract.php?iid=160&id=&aid=873

Fischer A J, Lozano J, Ramirez A, Sanint L R, 1993. Yield loss prediction for integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice. International Journal of Pest Management. 39 (2), 175-180. DOI:10.1080/09670879309371786

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

Garrido M J, Trujillo G E, 1992. Additional hosts of the Venezuelan strain of maize dwarf mosaic virus. (Hospederos adicionales del virus del mosaico enanizante del maíz-raza venezolana.). Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Central de Venezuela. 18 (1), 67-77.

Greuter W, Raus T, 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia. 28 (1/2), 163-174. DOI:10.3372/wi.28.2816

Hernandez F M, Martinez I C, Herrera R, Pacheco F, Reyes D M, 1972. Cotton growing in the Costa de Hermosillo. Ciano Informa. 1 (8), 3-8.

Howard R A, 1979. Flora of the Lesser Antilles. Leeward and Windward Islands. Volume 3. Monocotyledoneae. In: Flora of the Lesser Antilles. Leeward and Windward Islands. Volume 3. Monocotyledoneae. Massachusetts, USA: Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University. xi + 586 pp.

Hyde M A, Wursten B T, Ballings P, Coates Palgrave M, 2016. Flora of Mozambique. In: Flora of Mozambique. http://www.mozambiqueflora.com/index.php

JSTOR, 2016. JSTOR Global Plants Database. In: JSTOR Global Plants Database. Ann Arbor, MI and New York, NY, USA: JSTOR. http://plants.jstor.org/

Kress W J, Defilipps R A, Farr E, Kyi D Y Y, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. 590 pp.

Liogier A H, 1974. Botanical dictionary of common names of Hispaniola. (Diccionario botanico de nombres vulgares de la Espanola.). In: Diccionario botanico de nombres vulgares de la Espanola. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: Universidad Nacional Pedro Henriquez Urena. 813 pp.

Liogier H A, Martorell L F, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico. 382 pp.

Maia S M F, Oliveira T S de, Oliveira F N S, 2004. Spontaneous plants in the soil covering and accumulate of nutrients in areas cultivated with cashew. (Plantas espontâneas na cobertura do solo e acúmulo de nutrientes em áreas cultivadas com cajueiro.). Revista Ceres. 51 (293), 83-97.

Mauz K, 2006. Native wetland-obligate plant species documented in the Tucson Basin during the period 1855-1920., Tucson, Arizona, USA: Tucson Water Gardeners. 2 pp. http://www.kathrynmauz.com/Tucson-historic-wetland-species_watergardeners082406.pdf

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

National Museum of Natural History, 2016. National Museum of Natural History Database, US Herbarium., Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/colls/collections_overview.htm

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Procópio S O, Menezes C C E, Pires F R, Barroso A L L, Cargnelutti Filho A, Rudovalho M C, Moraes R V, Silva M V V, Caetano J O, 2006. Efficacy of imazethapyr and chlorimuron-ethyl in pre-sowing applications on soybean crop. (Eficácia de imazethapyr e chlorimuron-ethyl em aplicações de pré-semeadura da cultura da soja.). Planta Daninha. 24 (3), 467-473. http://www.scielo.br/pd DOI:10.1590/S0100-83582006000300007

Proctor GR, 1984. Flora of the Cayman Islands. In: Kew Bulletin Additional Series, London, UK: Royal Botanical Gardens. 834 pp.

Puente R, Tona C, Rodríguez N, 2005. Evaluation of cropstar (oxadiazon) in pre-emergence grass weed control in rice (Oryza sativa). In: XVII Congreso de la Asociación Latinoamericana de Malezas (ALAM) I Congreso Iberoamericano de Ciencia de las Malezas, IV Congreso Nacional de Ciencia de Malezas, Matanzas, Cuba, 8 al 11 de noviembre del 2005 [XVII Congreso de la Asociación Latinoamericana de Malezas (ALAM) I Congreso Iberoamericano de Ciencia de las Malezas, IV Congreso Nacional de Ciencia de Malezas, Matanzas, Cuba, 8 al 11 de noviembre del 2005.], Matanzas, Cuba: Asociación Latinoamericana de Malezas (ALAM). 262-263.

Rhoads AF, Block TA, Anisko A, 2007. The plants of Pennsylvania: an illustrated manual. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: University of Pennylvania Press. https://www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/14335.html

Rincones C, 1992. Weed distribution in sugarcane fields of Carabobo state, Venezuela. (Distribucion de las malezas en cañamelares del estado Carabobo Venezuela.). Caña de Azúcar. 10 (1), 3-19.

Roy GP, Shukla BK, Datt B, 1992. Flora of Madhya Pradesh: Chhatarpur and Damoh., India: Ashish Publishing House.

Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2016. Herbarium Catalogue. In: Herbarium Catalogue. Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. http://apps.kew.org/herbcat/navigator.do

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Verloove F, Hoste I, Lambinon J, 2014. Casuals omitted from the sixth edition of Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique. Dumortiera. 74-82. http://www.br.fgov.be/DUMORTIERA/DUM_104/Dum_104_74-82_NF-6_Omitted_casuals.pdf

Vivas C L E, Astudillo D, 2010. Host plants of vaneadora bug in the cultivation of rice in Calabozo, Guárico state, Venezuela. (Plantas hospederas de chinche vaneadora en el cultivo de arroz en Calabozo, estado Guárico, Venezuela.). Agronomía Tropical (Maracay). 60 (4), 369-373. http://sian.inia.gob.ve/repositorio/revistas_ci/Agronomia%20Tropical/at6004/at6004_vivas.pdf

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
eMonocot, 2016http://e-monocot.org
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

Top of page

28/08/16 Original text by:

Alejandro Cubiñá, Reforesta, Inc., Puerto Rico

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: