Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Lepidium perfoliatum
(clasping pepperweed)



Lepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed)


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Lepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); flowers and leaves. USA.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionLepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); flowers and leaves. USA.
Copyright©Mary Ellen (Mel) Harte/ - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Lepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); flowers and leaves. USA.
Flowers and leavesLepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); flowers and leaves. USA.©Mary Ellen (Mel) Harte/ - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Lepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); habit. USA.
CaptionLepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); habit. USA.
Copyright©Mary Ellen (Mel) Harte/ - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Lepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); habit. USA.
HabitLepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); habit. USA.©Mary Ellen (Mel) Harte/ - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Lepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); habit, showing leaves and stem. Bingham, Idaho, USA. JUne 2009.
CaptionLepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); habit, showing leaves and stem. Bingham, Idaho, USA. JUne 2009.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); habit, showing leaves and stem. Bingham, Idaho, USA. JUne 2009.
HabitLepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); habit, showing leaves and stem. Bingham, Idaho, USA. JUne 2009.©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); fruits. Bingham, Idaho, USA. June 2009.
CaptionLepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); fruits. Bingham, Idaho, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); fruits. Bingham, Idaho, USA. June 2009.
FruitsLepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); fruits. Bingham, Idaho, USA. June 2009.©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Lepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); seedling. Note USA 1 cent for scale (coin = 19.05 mm - 0.75 in).
CaptionLepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); seedling. Note USA 1 cent for scale (coin = 19.05 mm - 0.75 in).
Copyright©Steve Dewey/Utah State University/ - CC BY 3.0 US
Lepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); seedling. Note USA 1 cent for scale (coin = 19.05 mm - 0.75 in).
SeedlingLepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed); seedling. Note USA 1 cent for scale (coin = 19.05 mm - 0.75 in).©Steve Dewey/Utah State University/ - CC BY 3.0 US


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lepidium perfoliatum

Preferred Common Name

  • clasping pepperweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Alyssum heterophyllum Ruiz & Pav. ex DC.
  • Crucifera diversifolia E.H.L.Krause
  • Nasturtium perfoliatum (L.) Besser

International Common Names

  • English: clasping leaved pepper-grass; clasping pepper-grass; clasping pepperweed; clasping pepperwort; claspingleaf pepperweed; klamath pepper grass; perfoliate pepperwort; shield cress; shield peppergrass

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: mastuerzo
  • China: bao jing du xing cai
  • Czech Republic: rericha prorostlá
  • Finland: sepiväkrassi
  • France: passerage perfoliée; tabouret perfolié
  • Germany: durchwachsenblättrige kresse; durchwachsene kresse
  • Latvia: skraujlapu cietkersa
  • Netherlands: doorgroeide kruidkers
  • Sweden: hjulkrassing

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Capparidales
  •                         Family: Brassicaceae
  •                             Genus: Lepidium
  •                                 Species: Lepidium perfoliatum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Lepidium is a genus of plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae). This genus comprises 234 APG-III accepted and 98 unresolved species (The PlantList, 2013). Lepidium taxa are of worldwide distribution (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016). This genus owes its name to the Greek word for scale, lepis, alluding to the shape of the fruit (Johson and Smith, 1972). 

Lepidium perfoliatum was described in 1753 by Carl von Linnaeus (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). The Latin epitet perfoliatum means "with the leaf surrounding the stem" (SEINet, 2016).


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The following description has been adapted from the Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016).

Forbs of 10-40 cm in height. Rootstocks slender, taproot. Stem erect, woody, usually simple near the base and branched above, sparsely pubescent with simple setose hairs. Leaves simple, prominently dimorphic, basal leaves in rosulate, lanceolate in outline, about 2-12 x 0.5-4 cm across, margins deeply dissected into bipinnate narrow linear lobes, petiole about 1-3 cm long, lower cauline leaves somewhat similar but smaller, petiolate, middle and upper cauline leaves, suborbicular-ovate to cordate, with wing-like auricles on both sides, about 1.5-4 x 0.8-2.5 cm across, base amplexicaul or cordate not auriculate, margins entire, apex subobtuse, petiole sessile. Inflorescence racemes, terminal and axillary, many flowered, elongated in fruit, up to 10 cm long in fruit, ebracteate. Flowers bisexual, yellow, pale yellow, pedicel filiform, erect, divaricate, slender, terete, ascending, glabrous, about 3-8 mm long, sepals 4, ovate-oblong, caducous, usually deciduous, margins white, lateral pair base not saccate, apex obtuse, pubescent, about 0.8-1 mm long, petals 4, spathulate-obovate, base narrowed, margins entire, apex rounded, about 1.5-1.8 x 0.2-0.5 mm across, claw distinct about 1 mm long. Stamens 6, filaments not dilated near the base, about 0.6-0.7 mm long, anthers ovate about 0.1-0.2 mm long. Ovary superior, sessile, bicarpellary, ovules 2. Fruit silicula, dehiscent, broadly ovate to orbicular to rhombic, angustiseptate, about 3-4.5 x 3-4 mm across, compressed, keeled or rounded at the back, apex notched and narrowly winged, style about 0.1-0.4 mm long, stigma included with the apical notch, almost equal or slightly exserted. Seeds reddish brown, slightly compressed or flattened, oblong-ovoid, winged, about 1.5-1.75 x 1 mm across, smooth minutely reticulate, mucilaginous when exposed to water.


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L. perforatum is a native of Eurasia, but has been introduced and become naturalized in desert and steppe habitats around the world. It is found in Australia, west and south Europe, the temperate regions of the Far East, and South and North America. In North America, it grows from Alaska south to California, throughout western Canada, east in the USA to Ohio, and south to Kansas. This species is most common in the northern Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains. 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AfghanistanPresentNativeGBIF, 2016
ArmeniaPresentNativeGBIF, 2016
AzerbaijanPresentNativeGanepour et al., 2014; GBIF, 2016
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GansuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
-JiangsuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
-LiaoningPresentNativeGBIF, 2016
-ShanxiPresentNativeGBIF, 2016
-XinjiangPresentNativeGBIF, 2016
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativeGBIF, 2016
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Uttar PradeshPresentNativeGBIF, 2016
IranPresentNativeGBIF, 2016
IraqPresentNativeGBIF, 2016
JapanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016
-KyushuPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2016
-ShikokuPresentIntroduced1951GBIF, 2016
KazakhstanPresentNativeGBIF, 2016
KyrgyzstanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
LebanonPresentNativeGBIF, 2016
PakistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
SyriaPresentNativeGBIF, 2016
TajikistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
TurkeyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
TurkmenistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
UzbekistanPresentNativeGBIF, 2016

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentIntroduced1941GBIF, 2016
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced1931GBIF, 2016
-OntarioPresentIntroduced1953GBIF, 2016
-QuebecPresentIntroduced1962GBIF, 2016
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroduced1937GBIF, 2016
MexicoPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2016Baja California
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlaskaPresentGBIF, 2016
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced1941GBIF, 2016
-CaliforniaPresent Invasive GBIF, 2016
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedForcella, 1992; GBIF, 2016
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced1914GBIF, 2016
-IdahoPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2016
-KansasPresentIntroduced1957GBIF, 2016
-MissouriPresentIntroduced1917GBIF, 2016
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2016
-New YorkPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2016
-OregonPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2016
-UtahPresentIntroduced1937GBIF, 2016
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2016
-WyomingPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2016

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2016


AlbaniaPresentNativeGBIF, 2016
AustriaPresentNativeGBIF, 2016
BelarusPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
BelgiumPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016Not established
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
BulgariaPresentNativeDAISIE, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
CroatiaPresentNativeGBIF, 2016
CyprusPresentNativeGBIF, 2016
Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
DenmarkPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016Established
EstoniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
FinlandPresentIntroduced1902GBIF, 2016
FrancePresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
GermanyPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
GreecePresentNativeDAISIE, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
HungaryPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
IcelandPresentIntroduced1893GBIF, 2016
IrelandPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016Not established
ItalyEradicatedDAISIE, 2016
LatviaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
MacedoniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
NetherlandsPresentGBIF, 2016; NDFF, 2016
NorwayPresentIntroduced1890GBIF, 2016
RomaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Eastern SiberiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016Buryatia, Altay, Krasnoyarsk
-Southern RussiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016Dagestan, Ciscaucasia
SerbiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
SpainPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
SwedenPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016Not established
UKPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016Not established
-Channel IslandsPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016
UkrainePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016


AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedAVH, 2016; GBIF, 2016
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedAVH, 2016
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced1972AVH, 2016; GBIF, 2016
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced1976AVH, 2016; GBIF, 2016

History of Introduction and Spread

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L. perfoliatum was introduced into cultivation in Britain by 1640 and was first recorded from the wild in 1888 (Rich, 1991). In the past, this species was more frequent, but has now become extremely rare. It has however persisted at Northey Island (south Essex) since 1976 (Rich, 1991). Although there is no explicit record of an intentional introduction, L. perfoliatum was listed as a ballast species and first reported growing spontaneously within 100 miles of New York city in 1888 (Poggenburg et al., 1888). 

Risk of Introduction

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There is a risk of further accidental introductions of L. perforatum through produce contamination.


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This is a disturbance species common of wasteland, fallows, sinks (dry lakes), open deserts, roadsides, dry sandy slopes, and other ruderal places (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016), occasionally occurring in wetlands (Calflora, 2016). It is found from sea level up to 2500 m (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016).

Habitat List

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Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details
Natural grasslands Present, no further details
Wetlands Secondary/tolerated habitat
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details
Deserts Present, no further details
Arid regions Present, no further details
Coastal areas Present, no further details

Hosts/Species Affected

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Aminidehagui et al. (2006) noted that L. perfoliatum has allelopathic effects on the roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

Biology and Ecology

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L. perfoliatum has a chromosome number of 2n = 16 (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016).

Reproductive Biology

Lepidium species flowers are complete, bisexual, i.e., with functional male (androecium) and female (gynoecium) parts, including stamens, carpels and ovary. Pollination is entomophilous (by insects), or by cleistogamy (by self) or allogamy (by cross pollination) (India Biodiversity Portal, 2016).

This is a short-lived species that depends mainly on sexual reproduction, with a life cycle of approximately 60 days (Tang et al., 2010). The vegetative organs of L. perfoliatum show limited capacity to store water and withstand drought (Zhuang and Tian, 1990). According to Tang et al. (2010), this species has a young reproductive age, and its long reproductive period takes three fourths of life cycle. L. perfoliatum produces large numbers of small, light and mucilaginous seeds. Absorbing water rapidly, mucilaginous seed coat has key ecological influence to assure the germinating for its adhesion to the soil crust for some desert plants (Tang et al., 2010).

Seed dispersal of L. perfoliatum starts when daily temperatures reach above 25-30°C. After shedding, seeds have to experience natural hot treatment, after which most of the seeds are released from dormancy but only germinate if water is available and temperatures adequate (Tang et al., 2010). Choudhuri (1968) found that seeds of L. perfoliatum from saline habitats were more tolerant of salinity than those from non-saline habitats, indicating an ecotypic specialization in this species.

Physiology and Phelology

L. perfoliatum is a short-lived annual or biennial herb (USDA-ARS, 2016).

This species blossoms in spring (March to June) (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016), and bears fruit between May and July (Encyclopaedia of Life, 2016).

It may be abundant some years and extremely sparse in others (Pyke, 1994).

Seeds of L. perfoliatum show irregular germination (Young et al, 1970). As a result of this characteristic, it can become a large community (Abaturov and Nukhimovskaya, 2013), or be rare (Young et al., 1970).


In California, L. perfoliatum has been reported to benefit from the association with the Western White butterfly (Pontia occidentalis) (Calflora, 2016). In its native range, this species forms ephemeral associations with other plant species (Titlyanova and Nurmedov, 1986; Eisenman et al., 2012).

Environmental Requirements

This species requires exposure to full sun and grows well on warm, moist to wet, moderately acidic to sligtly alkaline soils. It thrives in nitrogen-rich soils (NDFF, 2016). In the subtropics this species is adapted to altitudes between 1500-2500 m.


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BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 34
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -9


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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration411number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall2541651mm; lower/upper limits

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Circulifer tenellus Herbivore All Stages not specific N
Myzus persicae Herbivore All Stages not specific
Saiga tatarica tatarica Herbivore All Stages not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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According to the India Biodiversity Portal (2016), Lepidium species are susceptible to various insect pests, virus, mildews and moulds. L. perfoliatum is reportedly grazed in small quantities by saiga antelopes (Saiga tatarica tatarica) (Dieterich and Sarsenova, 2011).

It is a major host species of the geen peach aphid (Myzus persicae) (Tamaki and Olsen, 1979) and affected by the beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Seeds may be dispersed by autochory (self-dispersal) or anemochory (wind dispersal) (India Biodiversity Portal, 2016).

Vector Transmission

Young and Evans (1973) suggested that mucilaginous seeds are of great ecological importance for L. perfoliatum as they become attached to potential vectors. Dispersal may be facilitated through birds or animals (zoochory) or by humans (anthropochory).

Accidental Introduction

According to USDA-ARS (2016), this species is a potential seed contaminant. In the Netherlands, it has been spread with bird feed and as contaminant in corn and wool. The former finds were particularly located in ports and landing sites in riverine areas. Subsequent deposits are most likely from spilled bird feed. The sharp decline will undoubtedly be due to the clearly changing way of grain supply (NDFF, 2016).

Impact Summary

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Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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L. perfoliatum has been reported as a weed in wheat fields in Quetta, Pakistan (Hussain and Dasti, 1985). In addition to its potential harm to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) (Aminidehaghi et al., 2006), the presence of this species near orchards poses a serious threat to food trees and crops, as it is a major host species of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) (Tamaki and Olsen, 1979).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Given its considerable aboveground biomass production (Abaturov and Nukhimovskaya, 2013), it is likely that when dried, this species increases the risk of wildfires.

Impact on Biodiversity

This species is a problematic weed in arable lands of eastern Azerbaijan and Iran (Ganepour et al., 2014). It has been reported as an invasive weed in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA (Forcella, 1992) and some North American national parks: Badlands National Park (South Dakota), Death Valley National Park (California), Theodore Roosevelt National Park (North Dakota) and Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming) (IPA, 2016). 

In overabundance, this species can compete with other plants and is a potentially lethal forage for wildlife, particularly, ungulates. In 2010, warm weather and regular precipitation provided the ideal conditions for L. perfoliatum to become widespread in the north west of West Kazakhstan province north-east and south-east of Borsy. As a result of its availability and subsequent grazing, about 12,000 saiga antelopes (Saiga tatarica tatarica) died of extreme bloating (Dieterich and Sarsenova, 2011).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Castilleja cinerea (ash-grey paintbrush)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Long lived
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control


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Economic Value

Seyedi et al. (2014) have investigated the microstructural, physical, mechanical and thermal properties of a novel biodegradable film based on Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum (LPSG). These authors found that LPSG could be a promising carbohydrate for food packaging that has a great potential to replace some of the plant hydrocolloids used currently in the food industry.

Moreover, research by Lorestani et al. (2013) showed that this species has a considerable potential for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

Social Benefit

In China, this species is sometimes eaten as a vegetable or used medicinally as an antiscorbutic (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016). In Central Asia, a decoction of L. perfoliatum leaves is used in the treatment of headaches and seeds are an ingredient in a treatment for fatigue (Eisenman et al., 2012).

Environmental Services

L. perforatum has been found to contribute considerable amounts of above ground biomass within a deserted steppe pasture in the northern Caspian Depression (Abaturov and Nukhimovskaya, 2013).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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L. perfoliatum and Lepidium campestre are the only species of this genus with lobed, clasping leaves. Both species are distinguishable by the latter’s dense indument (SEINet, 2016).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.


Seed germination in L. perfoliatum is irregular after overwintering in the field, making weed control difficult (Young et al, 1970).

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Generally, prescribed burning is ineffective, as fire creates conditions favourable to invasion (DiTomaso et al., 2013).

Physical/Mechanical Control

According to DiTomaso et al. (2013), grazing offers moderate control of L. perfoliatum. Likewise, mowing and cutting should be done shortly before flowering and near ground level (DiTomaso et al., 2013). Ganepour et al. (2014) suggest shallow ploghing to bury this species’ seeds below 4 cm in the soil as an effective method to reduce or control the emergence and population of L. perfoliatum.

Chemical Control

DiTomaso et al. (2013) suggests the following herbicides as offering excellent control for L. perfoliatum: sulfometuron, rimsulfuron, metsulfuron, imazapyr, imazapic, hexazinone, glyphosate, dicamba, chlorshulfuron, with 2-4 D; and sulfosulfuron offering good control. Aminopyralid, clopyralid, picloram, and praquat, on the other hand, are poor control agents (DiTomaso et al., 2013).


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Abaturov BD, Nukhimovskaya YD, 2013. Quantitative Assessment of Aboveground Plant Production and Its Components in Steppe Pasture. Arid Ecosystems, 3(4):198-204.

Aminidehaghi M, Rezaeinodehi A, Khangholi S, 2006. Allelopathic potential of Alliaria petiolata and Lepidium perfoliatum, two weeds of the Cruciferae family. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, Special Issue XX: 455-462. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, Special Issue XX:455-462.

AVH, 2016. Australia's Virtual Herbarium.

Baskin CC, Baskin JM, 2014. Seeds ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination, Second edition. San Francisco, California, USA: Academic Press, 1600 pp.

Calflora, 2016. Information on California plants for education, research, and conservation. Berkeley, California, USA: Calflora Database.

Choudhuri GN, 1968. Effect of soil salinity on germination and survival of some steppe plants in Washington. Ecology, 49:465-471.

DAISIE, 2016. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway.

Dieterich T, Sarsenova B, 2011. Examination of the forage basis of saiga in the ural population on the background of the mass death in may 2010 and 2011. Final Report for the Association for the Conservation of Biodiversity of Kazakhstan. 15-20.

DiTommaso JM, Kyser GB, Oneto SR, Wilson RG, Orloff SB, Anderson LW, Wright SD, Roncoroni JA, Miller TL, Prather TS, Ransom C, Beck KG, Duncan C, Wilson KA, Mann JJ, 2013. Weed Control in Natural Areas of the Western United States. California, USA: Weed Research and Information Center, University of California, 544 pp.

Duba DR, 1976. Plant demographic studies ofa desert annuals community in northern Utah dominated by non- native weedy species: Thesis. Utah, USA: Utah State University, 204 pp.

Eisenman SW, Zaurov DE, Struwe L, 2012. Medicinal Plants of Central Asia: Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. Berlin, Germany: Springer Science and Business Media, 340 pp.

Encyclopedia of Life, 2016. Encyclopedia of Life.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of North America North of Mexico. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.

Forcella F, 1992. Invasive weeds in the northern Rocky Mountains. Western Wildlands, 18(2):2-5

Ganepour S, Amini R, Mobli A, 2014. Initial seedling growth of pepperweed Lepidium perfoliatum L. as affected by salinity and burial depth. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research, 2(5):846-849.

GBIF, 2016. Global Biodiversity Information Facility.

Hesarinejad MA, Koocheki A, Razavi SMA, 2014. Dynamic rheological properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum: effect of concentration, temperature and heating/cooling rate. Food Hydrocolloids, 35:583-589.

Hussain F, Sajjad ur Reham, Dasti AA, 1985. Studies on weeds of wheat in Quetta. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(1):1-7.

India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity.

Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States, 2015. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States.

ITIS, 2016. Integrated Taxonomic Information System online database.

Lorestani B, Yousefi N, Cheraghi M, Farmany A, 2013. Phytoextraction and phytostabilization potential of plants grown in the vicinity of heavy metal-contaminated soils: a case study at an industrial town site. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(12):10217-10223.

Milani J, Maleki G, 2012. Hydrocolloids in food industry. INTECH Open Access Publisher.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.

NDFF, 2016. Nationale Databank Flora en Fauna: FLORON Verspreidingsatlas planten.

Poggenburg JF, Brown A, Britton NL, Porter TC, Sterns EE, Hollick A, 1888. Perliminary catalogue of Anthophyta and Pteridophyta reported as growing spontaneously within one hundred miles of New York City. New York, USA: Torrey Botanical Club, 90 pp.

Pyke DA, 1994. Ecological significance of seed banks with special reference to alien annuals. In: General Technical Report - Intermountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, No. INT-313 [ed. by Monsen, S. B.\Kitchen, S. G.]. Ogden, USA: Intermountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, 197-201.

Rich TCG, 1991. Crucifers of Great Britain and Ireland. BSBI Handbook no. 6. London, UK: Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland, 334 pp.

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02/03/16 Original text by: 

Diana Quiroz, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Netherlands

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