Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Leonurus japonicus
(honeyweed)

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Datasheet

Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Leonurus japonicus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • honeyweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed); habit and flowers.
TitleHabit and flowers
CaptionLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed); habit and flowers.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed); habit and flowers.
Habit and flowersLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed); habit and flowers.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); flower. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
TitleFlowers
CaptionLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); flower. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); flower. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
FlowersLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); flower. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); flower buds and leaves. Hanamu Rd Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
TitleFlower buds and leaves
CaptionLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); flower buds and leaves. Hanamu Rd Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); flower buds and leaves. Hanamu Rd Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
Flower buds and leavesLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); flower buds and leaves. Hanamu Rd Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); close-up of developing flower buds. Hanamu Rd Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
TitleDeveloping flower buds
CaptionLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); close-up of developing flower buds. Hanamu Rd Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); close-up of developing flower buds. Hanamu Rd Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
Developing flower budsLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); close-up of developing flower buds. Hanamu Rd Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); young and old leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2013.
TitleYoung and old leaves
CaptionLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); young and old leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); young and old leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2013.
Young and old leavesLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); young and old leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); stem. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2013.
TitleStem
CaptionLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); stem. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); stem. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2013.
StemLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); stem. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); young leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2013.
TitleYoung leaves
CaptionLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); young leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); young leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2013.
Young leavesLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed, motherwort, lion's tail); young leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Leonurus japonicus Houtt

Preferred Common Name

  • honeyweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Leonurus altissimus Bunge ex Benth.
  • Leonurus artemisia (Lour.) S.Y.Hu
  • Leonurus cuneifolius Raf.
  • Leonurus intermedius Didr.
  • Leonurus manshuricus Yabe
  • Leonurus mexicanus Sessé & Moc.
  • Stachys artemisia Lour.

International Common Names

  • English: Chinese motherwort; motherwort
  • Spanish: agripalma; botón de cadete; brujilla; cebadilla; chiquizá; chivirico; friega platos; mariguanilla; panchita; rabo de león; sulfatillo; trebolito
  • Chinese: yi mu cao

Local Common Names

  • Bahamas: lion’s tail; pipe-shank
  • Brazil: cha-de-frade; cordão-de-São-Francisco; erva-das-lavadeiras; erva-dos-Santos-Filho; lavanderia; rubim
  • Jamaica: greasy bush; honey weed
  • Lesser Antilles: chandalier; chandilyé; herbe à madame lalie

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Leonurus
  •                                 Species: Leonurus japonicus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Lamiaceae includes mostly herbs or shrubs comprising about 236 genera and 7173 species (Stevens, 2012). Species within this family are commonly aromatic plants with quadrangular stems and verticillate inflorescences. Leaves are opposite or whorled, and are simple or occasionally pinnately compound; stipules are absent. Flowers are bisexual and zygomorphic. Currently, the genus Leonurus includes about 25 species native to Eurasia (Harley and Paton, 2001).

The name Leonurus sibiricus L. has been incorrectly applied to collections from Australia, the West Indies, and islands in the Pacific Ocean (Pool, 2012; Conn, 2014; PIER, 2014). The species L. japonicus occurs naturally in temperate and tropical Asia, from China to the Russian Far East and the north of Australia, while L. sibiricus has a more restricted distribution, occurring naturally from Siberia (Russia) to China (Govaerts, 2014). These two species can be distinguished by their calyx, which is smaller in L. japonicus (see section on Similarities to other species/conditions).

Description

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L. japonicus is an annual or biennial herb. Taproots with dense, fibrous rootlets. Stems erect, 30-120 cm, retrorsely strigose, nodes and angles densely strigose. Petiole of stem leaves 0.5-3 cm, narrowly winged at apex; lower stem leaf blades ovate, base broadly cuneate, lobes oblong-rhombic to ovate, 2.5-6 × 1.5-4 cm, pinnately divided, adaxially strigose, abaxially pilose, glandular; mid stem leaf blade rhombic, lobes oblong-linear, base narrow cuneate. Verticillasters 8-15-flowered, 2-2.5 cm in diameter; floral leaves subsessile, linear to linear-lanceolate, 3-12 × 2-8 mm, entire or dentate; bracteoles spiny, shorter than calyx, approximately 5 mm. Flowers sessile. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 6-8 mm long, appressed puberulent; teeth broadly triangular, 2-3 mm long, apex spinescent. Corolla white or reddish to purplish red, 1-1.2 cm long, villous; tube approximately 6 mm, inconspicuously scaly annulate inside; upper lip straight, concave, oblong, approximately 7 × 4 mm, margin entire, ciliate; lower lip slightly shorter, base sparsely scaly; middle lobe obcordate, base constricted, margin membranous, apex emarginate; lateral lobes ovate. Filaments sparsely scaly. Fruit a brownish, oblong, triquetrous nutlet, approximately 2.5 mm long, base cuneate, apex truncate, smooth (eFloras, 2014).

Distribution

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L. japonicus is native to temperate and tropical Asia including China, Russia (Far East), north Australia (Queensland), Japan, Korea, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, India, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Malaysia (see distribution table for details). The species is widely naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
CambodiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AnhuiPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-FujianPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-GansuPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-GuangdongPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-GuangxiPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-GuizhouPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-HainanPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-HebeiPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-HenanPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-Hong KongPresentNativeWu, 2001
-HubeiPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-HunanPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-JiangsuPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-JiangxiPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-JilinPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-LiaoningPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-Nei MengguPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-NingxiaPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-QinghaiPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-SichuanPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-TianjinPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-TibetPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-XinjiangPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-YunnanPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Arunachal PradeshPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-AssamPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-SikkimPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-UttarakhandPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-KalimantanPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-MoluccasPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-Nusa TenggaraPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-SulawesiPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-SumatraPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
JapanPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
LaosPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-SabahPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
-SarawakPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
MyanmarPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
NepalPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
PhilippinesPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
SingaporePresentNativeChong et al., 2009
TaiwanPresentNativeeFloras, 2014
ThailandPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
VietnamPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014

Africa

Cape VerdePresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
MauritiusPresentHolm et al., 1977
RéunionPresentHolm et al., 1977
Saint HelenaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ManitobaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
MexicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Villaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia, 2004
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-DelawarePresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-FloridaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1999
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-IowaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-MississippiPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-MissouriPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-OhioPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-TexasPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized / Widespread
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized / Widespread
BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized / Widespread
BelizePresentIntroducedBalick et al., 2000
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedTortola
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Chacón and Saborío, 2012
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive González-Torres et al., 2012Cited for this island as Leonurus sibiricus L.
DominicaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized / Widespread
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
GrenadaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized / Widespread
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized / Widespread
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized / Widespread
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized / Widespread
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized / Widespread
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
PanamaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized / Widespread
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Naturalized / Widespread
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentIntroducedHarley et al., 2014Naturalized
-BahiaPresentIntroducedHarley et al., 2014Naturalized
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedHarley et al., 2014Naturalized
-GoiasPresentIntroducedHarley et al., 2014Naturalized
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedHarley et al., 2014Naturalized
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedHarley et al., 2014Naturalized
-ParanaPresentIntroducedHarley et al., 2014Naturalized
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedHarley et al., 2014Naturalized
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedHarley et al., 2014Naturalized
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedHarley et al., 2014Naturalized
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedHarley et al., 2014Naturalized
ColombiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
French GuianaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007Naturalized
GuyanaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007Naturalized
ParaguayPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
PeruPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
SurinamePresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007Naturalized
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russian Far EastPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedConn, 2014Naturalized
-QueenslandPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2002
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florence et al., 2013
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive MacKee, 1994
NiuePresentIntroduced Invasive Sykes, 1970
PalauPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1979
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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L. japonicus was probably introduced to areas outside its native range as an ornamental or medicinal herb, which is the most common use of the species within its native distribution range (Teo and Pin, 2001). However, the year of introduction of this species into the New World and the Pacific islands is very difficult to determine. For the West Indies, this species was first collected in 1850 in Jamaica, 1869 in the Dominican Republic, 1876 in St Croix, and 1884 in Puerto Rico (Eggers, 1876; US National Herbarium).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of L. japonicus is moderate to high. It is commonly planted as an ornamental and medicinal herb and has escaped from cultivation. Once established this species behaves as a weed mostly in disturbed and waste places (Randall, 2012). The risk of introduction of seeds as a contaminant of garden soils remains high principally in areas close to cultivation. Additionally, seeds and seedlings of L. japonicus are still sold online and in the nursery trade in many countries and thus it is available for further dispersal.

Habitat

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Within its native distribution range (e.g., China), L. japonicus grows in sunny areas from 0 to 3400 m elevation (eFloras, 2014). In Hawaii, this species can be found naturalized in relatively dry areas, especially pastures from 40 to 600 m elevation (Wagner et al., 1999). It is also a common weed in waste places, disturbed sites, pastures and gardens (Sykes, 1970; MacKee, 1994; Teo and Pin, 2001; Randall, 2012).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for L. japonicus is 2n=20 (Shatokhina, 2006). 

Reproductive Biology

Leonurus are nectar-yielding plants and most species are pollinated by insects. Flowers in L. japonicus are bisexual and zygomorphic (Teo and Pin, 2001; Pool, 2012). 

Physiology and Phenology

In China, L. japonicus has been reported flowering from June to September and fruiting from September to October (eFloras, 2014). However, in tropical regions of Asia and America, this species flowers throughout the year (Teo and Pin, 2001; Pool, 2012). 

Longevity

L. japonicus is an annual or biennial herb (Wagner et al., 1999). 

Environmental Requirements

L. japonicus grows in moist environments in temperate and tropical regions in areas from sea level to 3400 m. This species can grow in semi-shade areas, but it prefers to grow in areas with full sunlight exposure and soils with pH ranging from 4 to 8 (Teo and Pin, 2001).

 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
55 37

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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L. japonicus has been intentionally planted as ornamental and medicinal herb and currently it is widely naturalized in temperate and tropical regions of the world. This species behaves as weed and it is primarily dispersed by seeds. Seeds are small <2.5 mm) and can be dispersed by water, wind, and as a contaminant in soils (Teo and Pin, 2001; eFloras, 2014).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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L. japonicus is a weed in pastures, arable land and sugar cane plantations (Wagner et al., 1999; Conn, 2014). It has been identified as a highly invasive weed in natural grasslands and disturbed sites. L. japonicus grows rapidly and can form mats along roadsides, waste ground, hillsides, gardens, forest edges and coastal areas (Conn, 2014). The invasive nature of this weed has allowed it to become very common in areas where it was planted and consequently it has the potential to out-compete native vegetation.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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L. japonicus is commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine, where it is considered one of the 50 fundamental herbs. The leaves are diuretic and are placed in bath water to relieve itching and painful shingles. Flowers are used in pregnancy and to help to expel the placenta after giving birth. Fruits are considered antibacterial, diuretic, hypotensive, ophthalmic and a vasodilator and they are used in the treatment of abnormal menstruation, nebulae and conjunctivitis. Seeds are considered an aphrodisiac, diuretic and ophthalmic and are also used in the treatment of various women's complaints. In Peninsular Malaysia, the leaves are applied as a compress for headaches. In Thailand, fresh or dried aerial parts are used against malaria (Teo and Pin, 2001; Zhou et al., 2013).

A number of bioactive secondary metabolites, including alkaloids, phenylethanoid glycosides, iridoid glucosides, cyclic peptides, diterpenoids, and triterpenoids have been reported from several plants of this genus including the species L. japonicus (Xiong et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2013). In a recent work, Xiong, et al. (2013) described the chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of essential oils from different parts of L. japonicus. These essential oils showed antibacterial activity against various Gram-positive bacteria.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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L. japonicus is similar to Leonurus sibiricus, but has a smaller calyx, with calyx lobes erect and almost equal in length. L. sibiricus has a more distinctly 2-lipped calyx with a deflexed lower calyx lip (Pool, 2012; Conn, 2014).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Balick MJ; Nee M; Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chacón E; Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica ([English title not available]). San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Conn BJ, 2014. Leonurus japonicus Houtt. in PlantNET. Sydney, Australia: The Plant Information Network System of The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

eFloras, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Eggers HFA, 1876. The St Croix's Flora. Washington, USA: Government Printing Office, 158 pp.

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Fosberg FR; Sachet MH; Oliver RL, 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica, 15:222.

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

González-Torres LR; Rankin R; Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

Govaerts R, 2014. World Checklist of Lamiaceae. Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Flora of Chinahttp://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
Flora of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Inter-American Biodiversity Information Networkhttp://i3n.iabin.net/
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER): Plant threats to Pacific ecosystemshttp://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
Plants of the Eastern Caribbeanhttp://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Contributors

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04/02/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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