Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Launaea intybacea
(bitter lettuce)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2018. Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.115165.20203483215

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Datasheet

Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Launaea intybacea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bitter lettuce
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Launaea intybacea is a fast-growing herb that grows as a weed in disturbed sites, and waste and cultivated land. Its ability to succeed on ruderal and disturbed sites has made L. intybaceae the most widespread species of the genu...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce); Flower. Curral Velho, Cape Verde. September 2015.
TitleFlower
CaptionLaunaea intybacea (bitter lettuce); Flower. Curral Velho, Cape Verde. September 2015.
Copyright©Duarte Frade/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce); Flower. Curral Velho, Cape Verde. September 2015.
FlowerLaunaea intybacea (bitter lettuce); Flower. Curral Velho, Cape Verde. September 2015.©Duarte Frade/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce); Foliage. Curral Velho, Cape Verde. September 2015.
TitleFoliage
CaptionLaunaea intybacea (bitter lettuce); Foliage. Curral Velho, Cape Verde. September 2015.
Copyright©Duarte Frade/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce); Foliage. Curral Velho, Cape Verde. September 2015.
FoliageLaunaea intybacea (bitter lettuce); Foliage. Curral Velho, Cape Verde. September 2015.©Duarte Frade/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce); Stems and flowers. Curral Velho, Cape Verde. September 2015.
TitleStems and flowers
CaptionLaunaea intybacea (bitter lettuce); Stems and flowers. Curral Velho, Cape Verde. September 2015.
Copyright©Duarte Frade/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce); Stems and flowers. Curral Velho, Cape Verde. September 2015.
Stems and flowersLaunaea intybacea (bitter lettuce); Stems and flowers. Curral Velho, Cape Verde. September 2015.©Duarte Frade/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Launaea intybacea (Jacq.) Beauverd

Preferred Common Name

  • bitter lettuce

Other Scientific Names

  • Brachyramphus caribaeus DC.
  • Brachyramphus goraeensis (Lam.) DC.
  • Brachyramphus heyneanus Wight
  • Brachyramphus intybaceus (Jacq.) DC.
  • Brachyramphus remotiflorus (DC.) Kamelin
  • Brachyramphus schimperi Sch.Bip. ex Schweinf.
  • Brachyramphus sonchifolius Thwaites
  • Brachyramphus taraxacoides DC.
  • Chondrilla indica Steud.
  • Chondrilla sonchifolia (Willd.) Poir.
  • Cicerbita intybacea (Jacq.) Wallr.
  • Lactuca caribaea (DC.) Sch.Bip.
  • Lactuca goraeensis (Lam.) Sch.Bip.
  • Lactuca intybacea Jacq.
  • Lactuca intybacea Jacq. ex Murray
  • Lactuca nudicaulis var. major Bolle
  • Lactuca pinnatifida (Lour.) Merr.
  • Lactuca remotiflora DC.
  • Lactuca remotiflora DC. ex Wight
  • Lactuca runcinata DC.
  • Lactuca runcinata DC. ex Wight
  • Lactuca schimperi Jaub. & Spach
  • Lactuca taraxacoides (DC.) Sch.Bip.
  • Launaea goraeensis (Lam.) O.Hoffm.
  • Launaea remotiflora Amin ex Rech.f.
  • Launaea stocksiana (Boiss.) Kuntze
  • Phoenixopus intybaceus (Jacq.) Less.
  • Prenanthes sonchifolia Willd.
  • Scorzonera pinnatifida Lour.
  • Sonchus calyculatus Roxb. ex DC.
  • Sonchus goraeensis Lam.
  • Sonchus spachii Schweinf.
  • Zollikoferia stocksiana Boiss.

International Common Names

  • English: wild lettuce
  • Spanish: achicoria; achicoria azul; chicoria; lechuga amarga
  • French: chicorée alimentaire; chicorée cultivée; chicorée des jardins; chicorée frisée ; chicorée marrón; chicorrée; laitue amère

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: achicoria silvestre; lenteja de agua
  • Dominican Republic: lechugilla; lino criollo
  • Haiti: chicorée sauvage; laitue sauvage
  • Namibia: dai-haib

Summary of Invasiveness

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Launaea intybacea is a fast-growing herb that grows as a weed in disturbed sites, and waste and cultivated land. Its ability to succeed on ruderal and disturbed sites has made L. intybaceae the most widespread species of the genus. This species is also adapted to dry conditions and thus can be found growing in dry and semi-arid habitats. L. intybacea spreads by seeds which can be easily dispersed by wind and water and as a contaminant in soil, on agricultural machinery or stuck to vehicles and clothing. Currently it is listed as invasive in the Bahamas, Cuba and the Dominican Republic and as “potentially invasive” in Jamaica, Aruba, Curacao, Bonaire, St Eustatius and Grand Cayman.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Launaea
  •                                 Species: Launaea intybacea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Launaea comprises about 50-60 species of annual and perennial herbs mostly native to tropical Asia and Africa. Lowlands across Northern and Eastern Africa are particularly rich in Launaea species (PROTA, 2018). Kilian (1997) revised the genus Launaea and recognized a total of 54 species including many species that previously were classified within the genus Lactuca. In fact, Kilian proposed and described the vegetative features that can be used to distinguish Launaea from the similar genus Lactuca: Launaea consists of herbs with subcompressed to subterete cypselae and weakly exannulate and irregularly-costate carpopodia, while Lactuca consists of herbs with compressed cypselae and smooth-annular carpopodia (Kilian, 1997).

The species Launaea intybacea was first described as a Lactuca species due to its (shortly) rostrate (marginal) achenes. The first attempts to separate it from Lactuca date back to the 1830s (Lessing in 1832 and De Candolle in 1838), but the inclusion of L. intybacea and other closely related species (often known as the L. intybacea group) in Lactuca continued until 1906 when Dalla Torre and Harms (1906) finally excluded the L. intybacea group from Lactuca. However, even though the exclusion of the L. intybacea group from Lactuca is beyond doubt today, in many modern floristic accounts L. intybacea and related species such as L. taraxacifolia are still maintained as Lactuca species (Kilian, 1997; Pruski and Robinson, 2018).

Description

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The following is based on the description by Pruski and Robinson (2018). Annual or biennial herbs, 0.3-1(-1.5) m height; stems leafy in proximal 1/3, glabrous or very rarely stipitate-glandular. Leaves (5-)10-20(-28) × 1.5-6(-11) cm, typically runcinate-pinnatilobed, rosulate or cauline, chartaceous, marginal lobes to 3(-4) cm, shallow to deep, triangular, lobe margins irregularly spinulose and serrulate, lobe apices acute to acuminate, blade apex obtuse to rounded, surfaces glabrous; basal and proximal-cauline leaves oblanceolate to ovate, base long-attenuate, winged-petiolariform; distal cauline leaves (when present) sessile, subauriculate. Capitulescence typically paniculate-racemose, leafless, few to several-branched, infrequently somewhat compacted and corymbiform, branches to 30+ cm, ascending, often nearly as long as central axis, capitula few, usually remote, lateral; peduncles 2-5 mm; bracteoles few-several, 1-2 mm, triangular-ovate, moderately imbricate distally. Capitula 12-15 mm; involucre 10-12 × 2.5-4(-5) mm, narrow-urceolate in bud becoming at anthesis narrowly cylindrical; phyllaries 2-12 × 1-2 mm, glabrous or nearly so; outer phyllaries triangular-ovate, scarious margins as broad as central green portion, quickly grading to inner ones, inner phyllaries 8, 2-3 × longer than the outer ones, linear-lanceolate. Ligulate florets 12-24(-35); corolla 11-13 mm, short-exserted from involucre, pale yellow, tube 6-8 mm, limb 5 mm. Cypselae 3-5 (including the narrowed apex) × 0.6-0.7 mm, cylindrical-subfusiform, greyish-green, glabrous, narrowly sulcate, narrowed apex 0.5-1 mm, base only slightly tapered; pappus bristles 6-9 mm, the outer sometimes slightly broad-based.

Plant Type

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Annual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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Launaea intybacea is native to Africa. It can be found naturalized in tropical and temperate regions of Asia, North, Central and South America, the West Indies and on many islands in the Indian Ocean (Pruski and Robinson, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 18 Jun 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNative
BotswanaPresentNative
Burkina FasoPresentIntroduced
Cabo VerdePresentNative
ComorosPresentIntroducedNaturalized
EritreaPresentNative
EthiopiaPresentNative
GambiaPresentNative
GhanaPresentNative
KenyaPresentNative
MadagascarPresentIntroducedNaturalized
MauritaniaPresentNative
MozambiquePresentNative
NamibiaPresentNative
NigerPresentNative
SenegalPresentNative
SeychellesPresentIntroducedNaturalized
SomaliaPresentNative
South AfricaPresentNative
SudanPresentNative
TanzaniaPresentNative

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedNaturalized
IranPresentIntroducedNaturalized
OmanPresentIntroducedNaturalized
PakistanPresentIntroducedNaturalized
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
United Arab EmiratesPresentIntroducedNaturalized
YemenPresentIntroducedNaturalized

North America

AnguillaPresentIntroduced
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced
ArubaPresentIntroducedListed as potentially invasive
BahamasPresentIntroducedInvasive
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-BonairePresentIntroducedListed as potentially invasive
-Sint EustatiusPresentIntroducedListed as potentially invasive
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced
Cayman IslandsPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
CuraçaoPresentIntroducedListed as potentially invasive
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
HaitiPresentIntroduced
JamaicaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedListed as potentially invasive
MexicoPresentIntroducedNaturalized
MontserratPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
Saint BarthélemyPresentIntroduced
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedNaturalized
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced

South America

ColombiaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
PeruPresentIntroducedNaturalized
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedNaturalized

History of Introduction and Spread

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Outside its native distribution range, L. intybacea was likely to have been introduced by human activities. In the Caribbean region, L. intybacea appears in herbarium collections made as early as 1885 in Puerto Rico, 1888 in St John, and 1898 in Jamaica (US National Herbarium). This species has spread across the Greater and Lesser Antilles and it is now widespread and fully naturalized as a weed and pioneer plant on disturbed sites and open grounds (Kilian, 1997; Liogier, 1997; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012).

Habitat

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Launaea intybacea grows as a weed in disturbed areas, grasslands, open deciduous forests, roadsides, sandy streams, coastal strands and forest edges at low to middle elevations (e.g. 0-1300 m). It also grows as a weed on agricultural land (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018). In India, it has been reported growing in dry evergreen forests and dry deciduous forests (India Biodiversity Portal, 2018).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for L. intybacea is 2n=18 (Pruski and Robinson, 2018).

Reproductive Biology

Launaea intybacea has bisexual flowers and plants are self-fertile (PROTA, 2018).

Physiology and Phenology

Under favourable conditions, flowering and fruiting plants of L. intybacea can be found almost all year round. In Central America, it has been reported flowering from November to December, in March and from June to August (Pruski and Robinson, 2018). Seeds germinate within a few days. After emergence, the young plant develops a rosette of leaves and starts producing flowers within a few weeks (Kilian, 1997; PROTA, 2018).

Environmental Requirements

Launaea intybacea prefers sandy soils in relatively dry localities. It is adapted to dry conditions and thus can be found growing in semi-arid habitats and dry savanna regions. This species cannot grow in shaded areas (PROTA, 2018).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
~35 ~35

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 13 28

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall3002000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Launaea intybacea spreads by seeds. Seeds may be dispersed by wind and water, stuck to clothing and as a contaminant in soil, machinery and agricultural produce (PROTA, 2018).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionWeed in agricultural land Yes Yes Liogier (1997)
DisturbanceCommon weed on disturbed and waste sites Yes Yes Pruski and Robinson (2018)
Medicinal useUsed in traditional African medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
People foragingLeaves consumed as a vegetable Yes Yes PROTA (2018)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsSeeds as contaminants Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds as contaminants Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Machinery and equipmentSeeds as contaminants Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Land vehiclesSeeds as contaminants Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
WaterSeeds Yes Yes Kilian (1997)
WindSeeds Yes Yes Kilian (1997)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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As an annual, pioneer species, L. intybacea rarely invades closed vegetation and will not persist as other vegetation develops. It can, however, delay natural successional processes and inhibit the establishment of native plant species in disturbed areas and secondary forests (Mir, 2012; Pruski and Robinson, 2018; GRIIS, 2018; ISSG, 2018). L. intybacea is also a common weed in agricultural areas (Más and Lugo-Torres, 2013).

Impact: Biodiversity

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Launaea intybacea is a troublesome weed principally across the Caribbean region (GRIIS, 2018; ISSG, 2018). Currently it is listed as invasive in the Bahamas, Cuba and the Dominican Republic, but it is spreading across the region and listed as “potentially invasive” on islands such as Jamaica, St Eustatius, Aruba, Curacao and Bonaire (Mir, 2012; Burg et al., 2012Moultrie, 2013; Oviedo Prieto and Gonzalez-Oliva, 2015). It is reported to be spreading rapidly in disturbed areas on Grand Cayman (ISSG, 2018).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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In various regions across Africa, the leaves of L. intybacea are eaten as a wild salad. Young, large rosette leaves are selected because older leaves and small stem leaves are usually too bitter. The leaves, roots and flowers are used in folk medicine. In Africa, this species also has several ceremonial uses (Kilian, 1997; PROTA, 2018).

Uses List

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Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Religious

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Burg, W. J. van der, Freitas, J. de, Debrot, A. O., Lotz, L. A. P., 2012. Naturalised and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands: status distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations. Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project. In: Naturalised and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands: status distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations. Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project . Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Research International.82 pp. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/C185-11%20Invasive%20plants%20Dutch%20Caribbean.pdf

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of North America North of Mexico. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. http://www.griis.org/

India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

ISSG, 2018. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) : Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Kilian N, 1997. Revision of Launaea Cass. (Compositae, Lactuceae, Sonchinae). Englera, 17, 1-478.

Liogier HA, 1997. Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands, Volume 5 Spermatophyta: Acanthaceae to Compositae, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico Press.436 pp.

Más, E, Lugo-Torres, ML, 2013. Common Weeds in Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands (Malezas Comunes in Puero Rico & Islas Virgenes Americanas. University of Puerto Rico, Recinto Universitario de Mayaquez; Conservation Service USDA Natural Resources, Caribbean Area.395 pp.

Mir, C, 2012. [English title not available]. (Estrategia Nacional de especies exóticas invasoras realizado en el marco del Proyecto “Mitigando las amenazas de las especies exóticas invasoras en el Caribe Insular”). Dominican Republic: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Santo Domingo.

Moultrie, S, 2013. The Bahamas National Invasive Species Strategy 2013. Nassau, The Bahamas: Department of Marine Resources.60 pp. http://www.friendsoftheenvironment.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Bahamas-Revised-NISS-2013-FINAL.pdf

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Oviedo Prieto, R., González-Oliva, L., 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 9(Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Pruski JF, Robinson H, 2018. Asteraceae. Compositae, nom. alt. . In: Flora Mesoamericana , 5(2) [ed. by Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F ]. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. 1–608.

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Burg W J van der, Freitas J de, Debrot A O, Lotz L A P, 2012. Naturalised and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands: status distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations. Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project. In: Naturalised and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands: status distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations. Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Research International. 82 pp. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/C185-11%20Invasive%20plants%20Dutch%20Caribbean.pdf

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

ISSG, 2018. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Mas E, Lugo-Torres ML, 2013. Common Weeds in Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands (Malezas Comunes in Puero Rico & Islas Virgenes Americanas., University of Puerto Rico, Recinto Universitario de Mayaquez; Conservation Service USDA Natural Resources, Caribbean Area. 395 pp.

Mir C, 2012. [English title not available]. (Estrategia Nacional de especies exóticas invasoras realizado en el marco del Proyecto “Mitigando las amenazas de las especies exóticas invasoras en el Caribe Insular”)., Dominican Republic: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Santo Domingo.

Moultrie S, 2013. The Bahamas National Invasive Species Strategy 2013., Nassau, The Bahamas: Department of Marine Resources. 60 pp. http://www.friendsoftheenvironment.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Bahamas-Revised-NISS-2013-FINAL.pdf

Oviedo Prieto R, González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 9 (Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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12/03/2018 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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