Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Kyllinga nemoralis
(white kyllinga)

Ventosa-Febles E, 2017. Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.115089.20203483366

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Datasheet

Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 August 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Kyllinga nemoralis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white kyllinga
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Kyllingia nemoralis is a perennial sedge native to the tropical Old World that has been introduced elsewhere in Oceania, the Indian Ocean and the Americas. Several species of Cyperaceae are listed as highly invasive worldwide. Sedges of t...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Flowerhead. Waipa Ecological District. April 2008.
TitleFlowerhead
CaptionKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Flowerhead. Waipa Ecological District. April 2008.
Copyright©Auckland Museum/via Wikimedia Commons - CC-BY 4.0
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Flowerhead. Waipa Ecological District. April 2008.
FlowerheadKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Flowerhead. Waipa Ecological District. April 2008.©Auckland Museum/via Wikimedia Commons - CC-BY 4.0
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Seedhead. Waipa Ecological District. April 2008.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Seedhead. Waipa Ecological District. April 2008.
Copyright©Auckland Museum/via Wikimedia Commons - CC-BY 4.0
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Seedhead. Waipa Ecological District. April 2008.
SeedheadKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Seedhead. Waipa Ecological District. April 2008.©Auckland Museum/via Wikimedia Commons - CC-BY 4.0
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Seedhead. Waipa Ecological District. April 2008.
TitleSeedhead
CaptionKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Seedhead. Waipa Ecological District. April 2008.
Copyright©Auckland Museum/via Wikimedia Commons - CC-BY 4.0
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Seedhead. Waipa Ecological District. April 2008.
SeedheadKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Seedhead. Waipa Ecological District. April 2008.©Auckland Museum/via Wikimedia Commons - CC-BY 4.0
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Flowerhead. Drumsite, Christmas Island, Australia, April 2011.
TitleFlowerhead
CaptionKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Flowerhead. Drumsite, Christmas Island, Australia, April 2011.
Copyright©John Tann/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY 2.0
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Flowerhead. Drumsite, Christmas Island, Australia, April 2011.
FlowerheadKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Flowerhead. Drumsite, Christmas Island, Australia, April 2011.©John Tann/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY 2.0
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Flowers. YMCA Keanae, Maui, Hawaii. May 2009.
TitleFlowers
CaptionKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Flowers. YMCA Keanae, Maui, Hawaii. May 2009.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Flowers. YMCA Keanae, Maui, Hawaii. May 2009.
FlowersKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Flowers. YMCA Keanae, Maui, Hawaii. May 2009.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Fruit and leaves. India. August 2009.
TitleFruit and leaves
CaptionKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Fruit and leaves. India. August 2009.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.0
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Fruit and leaves. India. August 2009.
Fruit and leavesKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Fruit and leaves. India. August 2009.©Dinesh Valke/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.0
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Leaves and stems. Waipa Ecological District. April 2008.
TitleLeaves and stems
CaptionKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Leaves and stems. Waipa Ecological District. April 2008.
Copyright©Auckland Museum/via Wikimedia Commons - CC-BY 4.0
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Leaves and stems. Waipa Ecological District. April 2008.
Leaves and stemsKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Leaves and stems. Waipa Ecological District. April 2008.©Auckland Museum/via Wikimedia Commons - CC-BY 4.0
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Fruiting habit. Puaakaa State Park Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii. June 2009.
TitleFruiting habit
CaptionKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Fruiting habit. Puaakaa State Park Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Fruiting habit. Puaakaa State Park Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii. June 2009.
Fruiting habitKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga); Fruiting habit. Puaakaa State Park Hana Hwy, Maui, Hawaii. June 2009.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Kyllinga nemoralis (J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) Dandy ex Hutch. & Dalziel

Preferred Common Name

  • white kyllinga

Other Scientific Names

  • Cyperus kyllingia Endl.
  • Kyllinga cephalotes (Jacq.) Druce
  • Kyllinga monocephala Roth
  • Kyllinga planiculmis var. mucronata Cherm.
  • Thryocepahlon nemorale J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.

International Common Names

  • English: white water sedge; whitehead spikesedge

Local Common Names

  • Samoan Islands: mo’u upo’o; mutia; ta’ata a vili taliga; tuise
  • China: dan suy shui wu gong
  • Cook Islands: matie karanga; mauku oniani; neke enua; tama enua; vayavaya
  • Fiji: pake
  • French Polynesia: mutie iwa
  • Guam: botoncillo; chaguan lemae; chaguan lemai; chaguan ni; manonogcha lemai
  • Micronesia/Pohnpei: limeiseri; lingkarak tikitik; rehlingkarak
  • USA/Hawaii: kili’ o’opu; mau’ u mokae

Summary of Invasiveness

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Kyllingia nemoralis is a perennial sedge native to the tropical Old World that has been introduced elsewhere in Oceania, the Indian Ocean and the Americas. Several species of Cyperaceae are listed as highly invasive worldwide. Sedges of the genus Kyllinga are recognized for their invasive tendencies in tropical climates. K. nemoralis exhibits characteristics common to the success of an invasive species, such as asexual spreading, positive reaction to human‐caused disturbance, early and consistent reproduction and small seeds. In the tropics, it can be competitive with grass species and is sometimes aggressive in lawns, turf and pasture. A related species K. polyphylla, is a major weed of improved pastures, but can be suppressed by competition from vigorous, well managed grasses. K. nemoralis is listed as invasive in a number of islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Cyperaceae
  •                             Genus: Kyllinga
  •                                 Species: Kyllinga nemoralis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Kyllinga is a genus of 76 species in the Cyperaceae (World Flora Online, 2020). The Cyperaceae contains a number of genera and species that are classified as major weeds and are often difficult to control. A related plant, Kyllinga polyphylla, is a major weed of improved pastures in the Pacific (MPI, 2016).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016):

“Perennials. Rhizomes long creeping. Culms distant or laxly tufted, 10-40 cm tall, slender, compressed triquetrous, base not swollen. Leaves usually shorter than culm; sheath brown or purplish brown maculate, short, basalmost bladeless; leaf blade 2.5-4.5 mm wide, flat, flaccid, margin laxly dentate. Involucral bracts 3 or 4, leaflike, much longer than inflorescence. Spike 1(-3), ovoid to globose, 5-9 × 5-7 mm, with numerous spikelets. Spikelets sub-obovoid to narrowly ovoid-oblong, 2.5-3.5 × ca. 1.5 mm, compressed, 1-flowered. Glumes pale to straw-coloured and rusty brown maculate, boat-shaped, 2.5-3.5 mm, keel wings narrow at basal part and ± broad from middle to apex, veins 3 or 4 on each side of keel, margin spinulose, apex slightly recurved mucronate. Stamens 3. Style long; stigmas 2. Nutlet brown, oblong to obovoid-oblong, ca. 1/2 as long as subtending glume, compressed plano-convex, densely puncticulate, apex shortly mucronate. Fl. and fr. May-Aug”.

Plant Type

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Grass / sedge
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed / spore propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Kyllinga nemoralis is a common and widely distributed species in tropical and sub-tropical Old World, with no known major threats (Kumar, 2013). It is common in South East Asia and Malesia, less so in Africa, Madagascar and Australia and scarce in the New World (Flora of Australia, 2016). It was an early introduction to the Pacific, with a later European introduction to Hawai’i (PIER, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

CameroonPresentNative
GabonPresentNative
GhanaPresentNative
LiberiaPresentNative
MadagascarPresentNative
MauritiusPresent
MayottePresentNative
NigeriaPresentNative
SeychellesPresentIntroducedInvasiveCousin Island
TanzaniaPresentNative

Asia

BhutanPresent
British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasiveDiego Garcia Island
CambodiaPresentNative
ChinaPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-HainanPresentNative
-HunanPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNative
-Andhra PradeshPresentNative
-GoaPresentNative
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNative
-KarnatakaPresentNative
-KeralaPresentNative
-Madhya PradeshPresentNative
-MaharashtraPresentNative
-MeghalayaPresentNative
-Tamil NaduPresentNative
IndonesiaPresentNative
JapanPresentNative and IntroducedIntroduced on the Bonin Islands
-Bonin IslandsPresentIntroduced
LaosPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentNative
NepalPresentNative
PakistanPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentNative
SingaporePresentNative
Sri LankaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative

North America

DominicaPresentIntroducedExotic
JamaicaPresentIntroducedExotic
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedNaturalized
United StatesPresentIntroducedInvasiveHawai'i only
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveHawai'i (Big) Island, Kaua'i, Lana'i, Maui, Moloka'i, and O'ahu Islands

Oceania

American SamoaPresentNative and IntroducedInvasiveNative to Ta'u Island, Tutuila. Introduced and invasive on Swain's Island
AustraliaPresent
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveAitutaki Atoll, Atiu, Mangaia, Ma'uke, Miti'aro, and Rarotonga Islands
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentNative
-ChuukPresentNativeWeno Island
-KosraePresentDifferent sources list as native, probably native or as introduced and invasive
-PohnpeiPresentInvasiveDifferent sources list as native or as introduced and invasive
-YapPresentNative
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveKandavu, Lakemba, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, and Viti Levu Islands
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveAkamaru, Mangareva, Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Kuky Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou, Huahine, Maupiti, Mehetia, Moorea, Raitea, Taha'a, Tetiaroa, Tupai, Makatea, Niau, Rangiroa,Takapoto, Tikehau, Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu and Tubuai Islands
GuamPresentNative
KiribatiPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlint and Teraina Islands
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveJaluit and Majuro Atolls
New CaledoniaPresentNative
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasiveRaoul Island
-Kermadec IslandsPresentIntroduced1967
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasiveNiue Island
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveAgrigan Island, Alamagan, Sarigan and Anathan Islands
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasiveSonsorol Island
Papua New GuineaPresentNative
PitcairnPresentIntroducedInvasive
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUpolu Island
Solomon IslandsPresentNative
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasiveLifuka and Foa Islands, Vava'u Island
VanuatuPresentNative
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWallis ('Uvea) Island

South America

BrazilPresentIntroduced
-AlagoasPresentIntroduced
-BahiaPresentIntroduced
-ParaibaPresentIntroduced
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroduced
-SergipePresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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Kylllinga nemoralis is an ancient introduction to the Pacific as far east as Tahiti. It was introduced more recently to Hawaii by Europeans (Whistler, 1995). It was first recorded on the Kermadec Islands in 1966/1967 in Denham Bay. By 1996, it had reduced in abundance, probably due to increased density of the understorey vegetation (Sykes and West, 1996). It is listed as an introduced invasive in parts of Samoa, Mariana Islands, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Hawaii, Kiribati Islands, Marshall Islands, Niue, Palau, Tonga and Christmas Island (PIER, 2016).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hawaii Europe No No Whistler (1995)
Kermadec Islands 1966-1967 No No Sykes and West (1996)

Habitat

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Kyllinga nemoralis is found growing in grasslands (subtropical/tropical dry), wetlands (inland, permanent freshwater marshes/pools, seasonal/intermittent freshwater marshes), and cultivated land (Kumar, 2013). It is a major weed of improved pastures, but also occurs in crops, gardens, plantations and roadsides. In Hawai’i, it grows in full sun in lawns beside houses and pastures. It is also found alongside roads in ditches, thriving on the moist habitats formed by storm drainage (Sullivan, 2007).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
FreshwaterIrrigation channels Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for K. nemoralis is 2n=18 (eflora.org, 2016)

Reproductive Biology

Kyllinga nemoralis propagates by seed and creeping rhizomes (Komai and Tang, 1989).

Associations

It grows with Aeluropus lagopoides, Bacopa monnieri and Eleocharis geniculata (Daniel and Umamaheswari, 2001).

Environmental Requirements

Kyllinga nemoralis is restricted to tropical or sub-tropical climates with associated high humidity and warm temperatures (MPI, 2016). It grows best in moist fertile soil that is seldom cultivated and in full sunshine, up to altitudes of 850 m (Smith, 1979; Swarbrick, 1997). It is listed as a facultative wetland plant and probably has limited tolerance for dry conditions Under greenhouse trials, the growth, productivity and reproduction of K. nemoralis was greatly reduced by drought and was best in soils with moisture at field capacity (Rodiyati et al., 2005). Cook (1996) does not consider this species to be aquatic

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Hieroglyphus banian Predator Plants|Whole plant not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Kyllinga nemoralis is a preferred host of Hieroglyphus banian, a major agricultural pest in rice (Oryza sativa) paddies in the tropics (Amlan et al., 2002). Palatability to mammalian browsers is unknown but it is unlikely to be a preferred forage species (MPI, 2016).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Kyllinga nemoralis is probably dispersed passively by wind or gravity. Other possibilities for dispersal include water and by fragmentation and transport of the rhizome (MPI, 2016).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Seeds may be carried on the exterior of animals (e.g. on pelts, or in mud on hooves, etc.) or after being eaten by animals and birds is possible (MPI, 2016).

Accidental Introduction

Human-mediated dispersal is probably via transport of seeds or rhizome fragments in contaminated machinery, produce, soil and stock feed (MPI, 2016).

Pathway Causes

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Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Livestock Yes MPI (2016)
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes MPI (2016)
Water Yes Yes MPI (2016)
Wind Yes MPI (2016)

Economic Impact

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The economic impacts of K. nemoralis are low to moderate and are restricted to tropical regions. Wetland crops such as rice (Oryza sativa) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) are most affected - also dryland crops, nurseries, pastures and lawns (MPI, 2016).

Potential economic impacts of Kyllinga nemoralis in New Zealand were assessed and found to be negligible. Its behaviour under cultivation in New Zealand suggests it is unlikely to be competitive in pasture, crops or the environment. Impacts, if any, would probably be limited to the northern North Island (MPI, 2016). In continental Australia it is not ranked as an agricultural weed (Holm et al., 1979). In Christmas Island, it is a major weed of improved pastures and also occurs in crops, gardens, plantations and roadsides (PIER, 2016). In the Pacific, it is generally an unimportant, or minor, weed of wetland crops, plantations, orchards, pasture, lawns, wasteland and roadsides. It assumes intermediate importance in ornamental/vegetable gardens and nurseries (Swarbrick, 1997).

Environmental Impact

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No environmental impacts are specified for K. nemoralis (MPI, 2016). The rhizomes and roots contain allopathic oils that may contribute to its weediness (Komai and Tang, 1989). While its potential to form dense mats is a concern, it prefers growing in full sun and seems unlikely to invade undisturbed areas (MPI, 2016). Impacts, if any, would probably be restricted to disturbed, moist or wet areas such as wetlands, marshes or swampy forest clearings (MPI, 2016).

Social Impact

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Kyllinga nemoralis is not recorded as toxic. Its palatability to mammalian browsers is unknown but a related species, K. polyphylla is relatively unpalatable (Swarbrick, 1997; Randall, 2002).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses

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Social Benefit

Kyllinga nemoralis is used in traditional folk medicine to treat many diseases and disorders. Leaves of the plant are used as anti-venom, relief of malarial chills, pruritus of the skin, thirst attributable to fever and diabetes. The paste of rhizomes mixed with milk is used internally for worm infection and the rhizome alone is used to treat hepatopathy, splenopathy, fever, tumour and diabetes (Sindhu et al., 2014). A decoction of the aromatic rhizomes of this species is used as a diuretic, refrigerant, demulcent, tonic and as a remedy for fevers and to relieve thirst. The rhizomes yield an essential oil used for the same purposes as the decoction (Warrier et al., 1995). The whole plant is used in remedies for treating sprains and contusions (Vardhana, 2008). It is used in the treatment of diabetes (Pullaiah and Naidu, 2003). In Chinese traditional medicine it is used for common colds, bronchitis, malaria, arthritis and injuries. It is used to treat diarrhoea in Malaysia, stomach and intestinal problems in India, dysentery in China and for joint pain and rheumatic problems in Polynesia (Leonard, 2012).

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Hand weeding is challenging as it can propogate by rhizome fragments which may be difficult to remove completely (MPI, 2016).

Biological Control

Competition from vigorous, healthy pasture grasses may suppress it (MPI, 2016).

Chemical Control

May be difficult to control as related species are known to have some tolerance to herbicides. However, sedges are generally susceptible to 2,2-DPA (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). It is not susceptible to pre-emergent applications of alachlor + chloramben or fluometuron and atrazine + metolachlor (Melifonwu and Orkwor, 1990).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2005. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 52, 415 pp.

Amlan Das, Sarasi Das, Parimalendu Haldar, 2002. Effect of food plants on the growth rate and survivability of Hieroglyphus banian (Fabricius) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea), a major paddy pest in India. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 37(1), 207-212. doi: 10.1303/aez.2002.207

Cook CDK, 1996. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of India, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Daniel P, Umamaheswari P, 2001. The Flora of the Gulf of Mannar, Southern India, Calcutta, India: Botanical Survey of India.

Flora of Australia, 2016. Flora of Australia. Canberra, Australia: Australian Biological Resources Study.https://profiles.ala.org.au/opus/foa

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Holm, L., Pancho, J. V., Herberger, J. P., Plucknett, D. L., 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds, New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons.xlix + 391 pp.

Kawabata, O., Nishimoto, R. K., Tang, C. S., 1994. Interference of two kyllinga species (Kyllinga nemoralis and Kyllinga brevifolia) on bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) growth. Weed Technology, 8(1), 83-86.

Komai K, Tang CS, 1989. Chemical constituents and inhibitory activities of essential oils from Cyperus brevifolius and C. kyllingia. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 15(8), 2171-2176.

Kumar, B, 2013. Kyllinga nemoralis. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013:e.T177219A7392726 : IUCN.http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T177219A7392726.en

Leonard DB, 2012. Medicine at your feet: Healing Plants of the Hawaiian Kindom. Vol. 1, Roast Duck Productions.264 pp.

Mack, R. N., Simberloff, D., Lonsdale, W. M., Evans, H., Clout, M., Bazzaz, F. A., 2000. Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecological Applications, 10(3), 689-710. doi: 10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[0689:BICEGC]2.0.CO;2

Melifonwu, A. A., Orkwor, G. C., 1990. Chemical weed control in ginger (Zingiber officinale) production from minisetts. Nigerian Journal of Weed Science, 3, 43-50.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

MPI, 2016. Coir weed risk assessment. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry for Primary Industries.http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/regs/imports/plants/coco-peat

Parsons WT, Cuthbertson EG, 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia, Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pullaiah T, Naidu KC, 2003. Antidiabetic plants in India and herbal based antidiabetic research, New Delhi, India: Daya Books.

Randall, R. P., 2002. A global compendium of weeds, [ed. by Randall, R. P. ]. Meredith, Australia: R.G. and F.J. Richardson.xxx + 905 pp.

Rejmánek, M., Richardson, D. M., 1996. What attributes make some plant species more invasive?. Ecology, 77(6), 1655-1661. doi: 10.2307/2265768

Rodiyati, A., Arisoesilaningsih, E., Isagi, Y., Nakagoshi, N., 2005. Responses of Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk. and Cyperus kyllingia Endl. to varying soil water availability. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 53(3), 259-269. doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2004.03.018

Sindhu, T., Rajamanikandan, S., Srinivasan, P., 2014. In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanol extract of Kyllinga nemoralis. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 76(2), 170-173. http://www.ijpsonline.com/article.asp?issn=0250-474X;year=2014;volume=76;issue=2;spage=170;epage=174;aulast=Sindhu

Smith, A. C., 1979. Flora vitiensis nova, Kauai, Hawaii, Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden.495 pp.

Sullivan CJ, 2007. Distribution and habitat features of the sedge Kyllinga nemoralis on the Polynesian island of Mo’orea. Student Research Papers, Fall 2007. California, USA: University of California, Berkeley.http://escholarship.org/uc/item/06z8z147

Swarbrick JT, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. Noumea, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission.124 pp.

Sykes, W. R., West, C. J., 1996. New records and other information on the vascular flora of the Kermadec Islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 34(4), 447-462.

Vardhana R, 2008. Direct uses of Medicinal Plants and Their Identification, New Delhi, India: Sarup and Sons.

Warrier PK, Nambiar VPK, Ramankutty C, 1995. Indian medicinal plants: a compendium of 500 species, Chennai, India: Zion press.

Whistler WA, 1995. Wayside plants of the Islands, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Isle Botanica.202 pp.

World Flora Online, 2020. World Flora Online. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.http://www.worldfloraonline.org

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2005. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 52, 415 pp.

Alves M, Hefler SM, Trevisan R, Silva Filho PJS, Ribeiro ARO, 2015. Kyllinga nemoralis. (Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB35091

CABI Data Mining, 2011. Invasive Species Databases.,

CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

James T K, Champion P D, Bullians M, Rahman A, 2011. Weed biosecurity breach through coco peat imports. In: 23rd Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. Volume 1: weed management in a changing world, Cairns, Queensland, Australia, 26-29 September 2011 [23rd Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. Volume 1: weed management in a changing world, Cairns, Queensland, Australia, 26-29 September 2011.], Cairns, Australia: Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society. 210-216.

Kiran G G R, Rao A S, 2013. Survey of weed flora in transplanted rice in Krishna agroclimatic zone of Andhra Pradesh, India. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 19 (1), 45-51. http://www.wssp.org.pk/4-19-1-45-51.pdf

Kumar B, 2013. Kyllinga nemoralis. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013:e.T177219A7392726, IUCN. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T177219A7392726.en

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Sykes W R, West C J, 1996. New records and other information on the vascular flora of the Kermadec Islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany. 34 (4), 447-462.

Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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13/01/2017 Original text by:

Eduardo Ventosa-Febles, Consultant, Puerto Rico

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