Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Kalanchoe delagoensis
(chandelier plant)

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Datasheet

Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Kalanchoe delagoensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • chandelier plant
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • K. delagoensis is an aggressive weed with a high invasive potential. It is present in pastures, grasslands, open woodlands and disturbed land in subtropical, tropical and warmer temperate regions. In Australia,...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant); fresh and dead flowers. Makawao, Maui. February, 2007.
TitleFlowers
CaptionKalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant); fresh and dead flowers. Makawao, Maui. February, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant); fresh and dead flowers. Makawao, Maui. February, 2007.
FlowersKalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant); fresh and dead flowers. Makawao, Maui. February, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant); habit. Kanaio, Maui. March, 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionKalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant); habit. Kanaio, Maui. March, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant); habit. Kanaio, Maui. March, 2007.
HabitKalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant); habit. Kanaio, Maui. March, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Kalanchoe delagoensis Eckl. & Zeyh., 1836

Preferred Common Name

  • chandelier plant

Other Scientific Names

  • Bryophyllum delagoense (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Schinz
  • Bryophyllum tubiflorum Harvey
  • Bryophyllum verticillatum (Scott-Elliot) A.Berger
  • Geaya purpurea Costantin & Poiss.
  • Kalanchoe tuberosa H. Perrier
  • Kalanchoe tubiflora (Harvey) Raym.-Hamet
  • Kalanchoe verticillata Scott-Elliot

International Common Names

  • English: finger plant; friendly neighbour; mother-of-millions
  • Spanish: gusanillo; malá; pinito de japón; siempreviva
  • French: bichique

Summary of Invasiveness

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K. delagoensis is an aggressive weed with a high invasive potential. It is present in pastures, grasslands, open woodlands and disturbed land in subtropical, tropical and warmer temperate regions. In Australia, it is a serious pest because it is highly poisonous to cattle (Mckenzie et al., 1987; Queensland Government, 2011). Batianoff et al. (2002) ranked it as the third most serious invasive naturalized plant in southeast Queensland.

The species is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012), and as with many other Kalanchoe species, it reproduces both sexually by seeds and asexually by plantlets (Moran, 2009). This succulent species is well adapted to water-stressed environments and has become invasive in many dry and arid habitats in the United States (i.e., Texas, Florida, and Hawaii), West Indies, Africa, and Europe (for details see distribution table; DAISIE, 2012; González-Torres et al., 2012; PIER 2013).

 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rosales
  •                         Family: Crassulaceae
  •                             Genus: Kalanchoe
  •                                 Species: Kalanchoe delagoensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Crassulaceae includes about 34 genera and 1370 species distributed mostly in arid and dry regions in Mexico, Africa (Cape region), South America and Australia (Stevens, 2012). Plants within this family can be recognized by their succulent herbaceous or soft-stemmed habit, and by their flowers, which have the same number of sepals, petals and carpels (Stevens, 2012). Recent studies circumscribe the family Crassulaceae into three sub-families: Crassuloideae, Kalanchoideae and Sempervivoideae (Mort et al., 2001; Stevens, 2012).

The sub-family Kalanchoideae includes the genera Adromischus, Bryophyllum, Kalanchoe and Tylecodon (Mort et al., 2001; Stevens, 2012). Classification within this family is difficult, mainly because many of the species hybridize in both the wild and in cultivation. Some authors consider all Bryophyllum and Kitchingia species within a broadly circumscribed Kalanchoe (Boiteau and Allorge-Boiteau, 1995; Rauh, 1995) while others consider all three as distinct genera when considering a larger set of morphological characters and evidence of polyphyly within Kalanchoe sensu lato (Lauzac-Marchal, 1974; Toelken, 1985; Wickens, 1987; Forster, 1997; Staples et al., 2002). Genetic studies (Gehrig et al., 1997, 2001) and examination of the relative extent of utilization of CAM (Kluge et al., 1991; Kluge et al., 1993) support the differentiation of Bryophyllum and Kalanchoe.

Many species within the Crassulaceae family are very popular for horticulture because their bizarre and intriguing appearance. The genus Kalanchoe includes about 145 species native to the Old World, especially southern Africa, Arabia, and South East Asia. Some species of Kalanchoe are characterized by the capability to produce plantlets in notches at the margin of the leaf blade

The species K. delagoensis is also named as Bryophyllum delagoense, but currently most Bryophyllum species are included in Kalanchoe. The names Bryophyllum tubiflorum and Kalanchoe tubiflora are widely used in horticultural as well as botanical works to refer to K. delagoensis (Moran, 2009). The Plant List (2013) has Bryophyllum delagoense as the preferred name, while USDA-ARS (2013) uses K. delagoensis, and only lists Bryophyllum as a non-preferred name for all species.

While many botanists have adopted the APG III system of classification for the orders and families of flowering plants which places the Crassulaceae family in the order Saxifragales, the CAB Thesaurus continues to use the Cronquist system which places it under Rosales.

Description

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Succulent herbs, monocarpic, pale green mottled with violet-brown, glaucous. Stems are simple, 5-20 dm × 0.5-1 cm. Leaves mostly opposite or whorled in sets of three, evenly spaced, simple; petiole and blade indistinguishable, reddish green to gray-green with reddish brown spots, narrowly oblong, subcylindric, grooved adaxially, 3-15 cm × 3-6 mm, margins entire except for 3-9 conic teeth at apex, apex blunt, surfaces not glaucous; plantlets borne between teeth, spurs spoon-shaped. Inflorescence of dense, corymbiform cymes, 0.5-2 dm diameter; branches to 3 cm long. Pedicels 5-30 mm. Flowers pendent; calyx pale green, not inflated, 8-16 mm long, with triangular lobes that are longer than tube and acuminate at apex; corolla orange to scarlet, 25-40 mm long, not contracted basally, lobes obovate, 6-12 mm long, with rounded or apiculate apex. Fruits dry, indehiscent, papery follicles, ca. 10 mm long, with numerous minute (ca. 1 mm long) brown-coloured seeds (Moran, 2009; BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011).

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Succulent
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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K. delagoensis is native to Madagascar. It has been introduced in many regions as an ornamental and has escaped from cultivated areas. Currently, K. delagoensis can be found naturalized in dry, arid, and semiarid habitats in Mexico, Florida, Texas, Hawaii, West Indies (i.e., Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Lesser Antilles), Spain, Portugal, Australia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and on several islands in the Pacific (see distribution table for detailed information; Acebes et al., 2001; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; DAISIE, 2012; González-Torres et al., 2012; PIER 2013).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EthiopiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017)
KenyaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveBioNET-EAFRINET (2011)
MadagascarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
MalawiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedWitt and Luke (2017)Naturalized
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)
RwandaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedWitt and Luke (2017)Naturalized
TanzaniaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveBioNET-EAFRINET (2011)
UgandaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveBioNET-EAFRINET (2011)
ZambiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedWitt and Luke (2017)Naturalized

Europe

FrancePresentIntroducedDAISIE (2012)
PortugalPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2012)Not established
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2012)
SpainPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2012)Not established
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedAcebes et al. (2001)

North America

AnguillaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
BahamasPresentIntroducedCorrell and Correll (1982)
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Guana, Tortola, Virgin Gorda
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedMorales (2010)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGonzález-Torres et al. (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentIntroducedMorales (2010)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAdams (1972)
MexicoPresentIntroducedVillaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia (2004)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)St. Croix
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWunderlin and Hansen (2008)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWagner et al. (1999)
-TexasPresentIntroducedHatch et al. (1990)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveQueensland Goverment (2011)
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedQueensland Goverment (2011)
FijiPresentIntroducedSmith (1985)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveLorence and Wagner (2008)
GuamPresentIntroducedFosberg et al. (1979)
KiribatiPresentIntroducedFosberg et al. (1979)
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedWhistler and Steele (1999)
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasiveWebb et al. (1988)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedRaulerson (2006)
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace et al. (2009)
SamoaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Space and Flynn (2002)
United States Minor Outlying Islands
-Wake IslandPresentIntroducedPIER (2012)

South America

BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedForzza RC et al. (2012)
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedForzza RC et al. (2012)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedForzza RC et al. (2012)
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedForzza RC et al. (2012)
EcuadorPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveCharles Darwin Foundation (2008)

Risk of Introduction

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K. delagoensis has been widely introduced as an ornamental and has since escaped from cultivation and become an aggressive weed in dry, arid, and semiarid habitats. Because this species reproduces sexually by seeds and asexually by plantlets, the likelihood of invading new habitats remains high.

K. delagoensis is more invasive in Australia than in southern Africa despite being introduced much earlier in Africa. Witt and Nongogo (2011) speculate that this is because of a reduction in intensity and frequency of fires in Australia, and that fire may inhibit invasion potential in southern Africa.

Habitat

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K. delagoensis is well adapted to water-stressed environments because of its succulent features.  This species can be found growing at low elevations (0-1000 m) in pastures, grasslands, waste areas, roadsides and disturbed forests in dry, arid and semiarid habitats with warm temperatures (Moran, 2009; BioNet-EAFRINET, 2011). It is often found along stream banks and exposed rocks near water courses, as it can be spread by water.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Deserts Present, no further details Natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Arid regions Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number in K. delagoensis is 2n = 68 (Moran, 2009).

Physiology and Phenology

K. delagoensis is a long-lived perennial. It reproduces by seed and by producing large numbers of tiny plantlets at the end of the fleshy leaves. Seeds can germinate for some years after production. 

Environmental Requirements

K. delagoensis grows in warm climates in dry, arid and semiarid environments. As a succulent plant, this species can survive prolonged periods of drought with little or no water. K. delagoensis is commonly found on rocky sites or on poor soils, in grasslands, dry forests, and disturbed areas. It does not tolerate frosty conditions and typically dies if subjected to temperatures below freezing (Moran, 2009; BioNet-EAFRINET, 2011).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 35

Rainfall Regime

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Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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K. delagoensis reproduces sexually by seeds and asexually by plantlets that are produced at the tips of its leaves. Leaves and plant segments can also re-sprout or root and generate new plants. This species is commonly spread in garden waste. Seeds are minute and can be easily dispersed by wind and water. Leaves and plantlets may also be dislodged and spread by animals, vehicles, garden and/or agricultural machinery (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2011). Plants often establish on roadsides, along fence lines and around old rubbish dumps, and can spread from these areas, especially in flood (Queensland Government, 2011).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds and plantlets Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011
Garden waste disposalSeeds, plantlets, leaves, plant fragments Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011
Internet salesSeeds and plants sold online Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011
Nursery tradePlants and seedlings commercialized as ornamentals Yes Yes Moran, 2009
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Moran, 2009

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Land vehiclesSeeds, plantlets, plant fragments Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011
Machinery and equipmentSeeds, plantlets, plant fragments Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011
MailFrom online sales Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds, plantlets, plant fragments Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011
WaterSeeds Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011
WindSeeds Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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K. delagoensis is very poisonous to livestock and humans. Cattle deaths from ingestion of this species are quite common in Queensland, Australia (Mckenzie et al., 1987; Queensland Government, 2011). When invading grasslands and rangelands it replaces grasses and legumes, and can significantly reduce productivity of these areas. In Queensland it flowers in the drier months of the year when feed is scarce, and hence can be consumed in lethal amounts by cattle.

Poisoned cattle must be treated within 24 hours of consuming the plant. Treatment is expensive as it must be given by a veterinarian, or under their direction, because of the drugs and materials used (Queensland Government, 2011).

Environmental Impact

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K. delagoensis is an aggressive weed in pastures, grasslands, and dry and arid forests. It produces high amounts of seeds and plantlets which can grow forming dense monospecific thickets displacing and inhibiting the recruitment of native vegetation (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2011; Queensland Government, 2011). In Kenya, it grows prolifically in parts of Nairobi National Park, and is considered to have a negative effect on biodiversity (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2011). It is poisonous to livestock and so almost certainly also poisonous to wildlife.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Hybridization
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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K. delagoensis is very similar to Bryophyllum x houghtonii (hybrid mother-of-millions) and Bryophyllum daigremontianum (mother-of-thousands). K. delagoensis can be distinguished by relatively small cylindrical (terete) leaves (usually less than 10 cm long and only 2-6 mm wide) that are always simple and have a few apical notches. Bryophyllum x houghtonii has small boat-shaped or folded leaves that have numerous marginal notches, while B. daigremontianum has relatively large boat-shaped or folded leaves (often more than 10 cm long and 25 mm wide) (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2011).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

The best form of invasive species control is prevention. Scattered infestations and small areas where waste is dumped should be regularly checked and cleaned up to prevent establishment.

Cultural Control

Witt and Nongogo (2011) speculated that low frequency and intensity of fire in Australia compared with Africa contributes to the invasiveness of K. delagoensis in Australia. The BioNet-EAFRINET (2011) factsheet on the species suggests that controlled burning may be the most effective and economical control method for larger infestations, and encourages grass competition with the weed.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Small infestations of K. delagoensis may be removed by hand pulling. Because this species forms seed banks, follow-up treatments are recommended until control is completed (Queensland Government, 2011).  

Biological Control

Witt and Rajaonarison (2004) surveyed insects in the native range of this species in Madagascar, and identified Osphilia tenuipes, Rhembastus sp. and Eurytoma sp. as potential biological control agents. In Australia, the South African citrus thrip (Scirtothrips aurantii) has been used as a biological control agent of Kalanchoe species. Thrips damage the outer tissue of Kalanchoe plants and also lay their eggs under the outer tissue (Queensland Government, 2011). Garms et al. (2013) suggest that due to polyphagy of the thrips under laboratory conditions, caution is needed before promoting use for biological control. However, Rafter and Walter (2013) demonstrated that in the field the realized host range of S. aurantii in Australia is restricted to Crassulaceae.

Chemical Control

K. delagoensis is susceptible to a variety of herbicides. Optimum time for treatment may be when the plants are flowering (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2011). Herbicides registered for control in Queensland are: 2,4-D (70 ml/10 L water or 7L / 1000L per ha); picloram + triclopyr; fluroxypyr ( 600 ml /100 L water); and picloram + triclopyr + aminopyralid. Follow-up treatments are recommended until control is completed (Queensland Government, 2011).

References

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Acebes JR, Arco Mdel, García-Gallo A, León MC, Pérez PL, Rodríguez O, Wildpret Torre Wde la, Martín VE, Marrero MC, Rodríguez ML, 2001. Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta. (Pteridophyta y Spermatophyta.) In: Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) [ed. by Izquierdo, I. \Martín, J. L. \Zurita, N. \Arechavaleta, M.]., Spain: Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación Territorial, Gobierno de Canarias, 96-143

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams CD, 1972. Flowering Plants of Jamaica. University of the West Indies, 267

Batianoff GN, Butler DW, 2002. Assessment of invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Plant Protection Quarterly, 17(1):27-34

BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011. Keys and Fact Sheets for East Africa Invasive Plants: Bryophyllum delagoense (Mother-of-millions). Keys and Fact Sheets for East Africa Invasive Plants: Bryophyllum delagoense (Mother-of-millions). http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/Bryophyllum_delagoense_%28Mother-of-millions%29.htm

Boiteau P, Allorge-Boiteau L, 1995. Kalanchoe (Crassulacees) de Madagascar. Systematique, Ecophysiologie et Phytochimie. Paris, France: Karthala

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation

Correll DS, Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Vaduz, Germany: J. Cramer, 1692 pp

DAISIE, 2012. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. DAISIE (online). www.europe-aliens.org

Forster PI, 1997. Notes on the naturalised flora of Queensland, 3. Austrobaileya, 5(1):113-119; 33 ref

Forzza RC, Leitman PM, Costa AF, Carvalho Jr AA, et al. , 2012. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Fosberg FR, Sachet MH, Oliver RL, 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica, 15:222

Garms BW, Mound LA, Schellhorn NA, 2013. Polyphagy in the Australian population of South African citrus thrips (Scirtothrips aurantii Faure). Australian Journal of Entomology, 52(3):282-289. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1440-6055

Gehrig H, Gaussmann O, Marx H, Schwarzott D, Kluge M, 2001. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae) inferred from nucleotide sequences of the ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions. Plant Science, 160:827-835

Gehrig HH, Roesicke H, Kluge M, 1997. Detection of DNA polymorphisms in the genus Kalanchoe by RAPD-PCR fingerprint and its relationships to infrageneric taxonomic position and ecophysiological photosynthetic behaviour of the species. Plant Science Shannon, 125:41-51

González-Torres LR, Rankin R, Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140

Hatch SL, Gandhi KN, Brown LE, 1990. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Texas. Texas, USA: Texas Agricultural Experiment Station

Kluge M, Brulfert J, Lipp J, Ravelomanana D, Ziegler H, 1993. A comparative study by d13C -analysis of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae) species of Africa and Madagascar. Botanica Acta, 106:320-324

Kluge M, Brulfert J, Ravelomanana D, Lipp J, Ziegler H, 1991. Crassulacean acid metabolism in Kalanchoe species collected in various climatic zones of Madagascar: a survey by d13C analysis. Oecologia, 88:407-414

Lauzac-Marchal, 1974. Rehabilitation du genre Bryophyllum Salisb. (Crassulacees-Kalanchoidees). Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, Serie D, 278:2505-2508

Lorence H, Wagner DWL, 2008. Flora of the Marquesas islands. Flora of the Marquesas islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution., unpaginated

McKenzie RA, Franke FP, Dunster PJ, 1987. The toxicity to cattle and bufadienolide content of six Bryophyllum species. Australian Veterinary Journal, 64(10):298-301

Morales JF, 2010. Crassulaceae. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 119:132-136. [Manual de plantas de Costa Rica. Volume 5.]

Moran RV, 2009. Crassulaceae. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico, Vol. 8 [ed. by Flora of North America Editorial Committee]. 147-230

Mort ME, Soltis DE, Soltis PS, Francisco-Ortega J, Santos-Guerra A, 2001. Phylogenetic relationships and evolution of Crassulaceae inferred from matK sequence data. American Journal of Botany, 88(1):76-91

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Queensland Goverment, 2011. Fact Sheet Declared Class 2 Pest Plant: Mother-of-millions: Bryophyllum delagoense (syn. tubiflorum, Kalanchoe delagoensis), Bryophyllum × houghtonii (syn. daigremontianum × B. delagoense, Kalanchoe × houghtonii). http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/documents/Biosecurity_EnvironmentalPests/IPA-Mother-Millions-PP33.pdf

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Distribution References

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Smith AC, 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji., Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanic Gardens. 758 pp.

Space JC, Lorence DH, LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on invasive plant species., Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. 233 pp.

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Wagner W L, Herbst D R, Sohmer S H, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 & 2. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i Press/Bishop Museum Press. 1918 + [1] pp.

Webb CJ, Sykes WR, Garnock-Jones PJ, 1988. Flora of New Zealand. Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Dicotyledons., IV Christchurch, New Zealand: DSIR Botany Division. 1365 pp. http://floraseries.landcareresearch.co.nz/pages/Book.aspx?fileName=Flora%204.xml

Whistler WA, Steele O, 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. In: Botanical survey of the Kwajalein Atoll Islands, 111 pp.

Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants., Tampa, Florida, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Flora of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Riskhttp://www.hear.org/pier/species/urena_lobata.htm

Contributors

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04/07/13 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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