Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Jasminum multiflorum
(star jasmine)

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Datasheet

Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Jasminum multiflorum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • star jasmine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Jasminum multiflorum is an ornamental shrub native to India and south eastern Asia widely grown across the tropics for its white, mildly scented flowers. It has been introduced to numerous countries, having esc...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine); flowers and foliage. Haliimaile, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2003.
TitleFlowers
CaptionJasminum multiflorum (star jasmine); flowers and foliage. Haliimaile, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2003.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine); flowers and foliage. Haliimaile, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2003.
FlowersJasminum multiflorum (star jasmine); flowers and foliage. Haliimaile, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2003.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine); habit, planted as an ornamental. Haliimaile, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2003.
TitleHabit
CaptionJasminum multiflorum (star jasmine); habit, planted as an ornamental. Haliimaile, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2003.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine); habit, planted as an ornamental. Haliimaile, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2003.
HabitJasminum multiflorum (star jasmine); habit, planted as an ornamental. Haliimaile, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2003.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Jasminum multiflorum (Burm. f.) Andrews

Preferred Common Name

  • star jasmine

Other Scientific Names

  • Jasminum congestum Buch.-Ham.
  • Jasminum gracillimum Hook. f.
  • Jasminum pubescens (Retz.) Willd.
  • Mogorium multiflorum (Burm. f.) Lam.
  • Mogorium pubescens (Retz.) Lam.
  • Nyctanthes multiflora Burm. f.
  • Nyctanthes pubescens Retz.

International Common Names

  • English: downy jasmine; Indian jasmine; jasmine
  • Spanish: jazmín; jazmín de estrella; jazmín estrellado

Local Common Names

  • China: mao mo li
  • Cuba: jazmín café; jazmín de España
  • Dominican Republic: jazmín café
  • Guatemala: jazmín de novia
  • India: attahasaka; ban malati; chameli; dala kosha; daladhak; daladhaka; dalkosh; danta patraka; danta-patraka; dodda kaadu mallige; jangali chameli; karala; kasturi mallige; kasturi-mallikai; kunda; kundam; kundamu; kundo; kundphul; kuruna; maagi mallige; magarandam; maghya; makaranta-mallikai; manohara; mogra; mogro; molla; muktapuspa; palind; palinda; ran mogr; ran mogra; tapasya; vorata
  • Indonesia: gambir utan; melati bintang; melati gambir; pontjasuda
  • Jamaica: hairy jasmine
  • Lesser Antilles: jasmin des haies
  • Mexico: estrella; guirnalda
  • Myanmar: kadawn; kadawnla; sabe-hmwe-sok; tawsabe
  • Nauru: rimone
  • Nepal: beli puspa
  • Panama: jasmín del papel; jazmín de San José
  • Philippines: sampagita de china; sampagita del japón; sampagitang-sunsong
  • Puerto Rico: jazmín de papel; yerba de tres estrellas
  • Sri Lanka: pichcha
  • Thailand: malulee
  • Vietnam: lài dúng; nhài nhăn; nhài nhiều hoa

Summary of Invasiveness

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Jasminum multiflorum is an ornamental shrub native to India and south eastern Asia widely grown across the tropics for its white, mildly scented flowers. It has been introduced to numerous countries, having escaped cultivation and become established in the USA (Florida), Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Seychelles, Australia (Queensland) and perhaps other countries. It is currently listed as invasive only in Puerto Rico, although its impact is not known.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Oleales
  •                         Family: Oleaceae
  •                             Genus: Jasminum
  •                                 Species: Jasminum multiflorum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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J. multiflorum was described from India in 1768 as Nyctanthes multiflora. It is still often referred to in the literature by its synonym J. pubescens.

Jasminum, the genus of true jasmines, comprises over 200 species from the tropics and warm temperate regions of the Old World (Green, 2004). The name presumably derives from the Arabic and Persian "yâsmîn' or 'yasaman' (Green, 1965), which means "gift of gods". Jasmines have an important socio-cultural and ornamental value, especially in India and Southeast Asian countries. They have been cultivated for centuries for their attractive foliage and for their flowers' sweet fragrance, a prized characteristic of this genus.

Jasminum has been divided into five sections based on leaf arrangement, number of leaflets and flower colour: sect. Jasminum (with opposite, pinnately-compound leaves), sect. Trifoliolata (with opposite, trifoliolate leaves and white flowers), sect. Primulina (with opposite, trifoliolate leaves and yellow flowers), sect. Alternifolia (with alternate, simple or compound leaves), and sect. Unifoliolata (with opposite, simple leaves) (De Juana, 2015). J. multiflorum belongs to sect. Unifoliolata, the largest of all, with more than 100 species. This sectional classification is very often used, especially in identification keys of the species.

Molecular studies have shown that Jasminum is paraphyletic with respect to Menodora (Wallander and Albert, 2000), a predominantly New World genus from which it is distinguished by its fleshy fruits (which are dry in Menodora). As a result, a new genus, Chrysojasminum, has been recently established for the species of Jasminum formerly grouped under section Alternifolia (Banfi, 2014).

Description

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Evergreen scrambling shrub or weak climber up to 6 m in length. Branches spreading and slender, tomentose. Leaves opposite, simple; petioles 6-12 mm long, tomentose; blades ovate, 3-7 x 2-3.5 cm, the apex acute to acuminate, the base subtruncate to cordiform, the margins entire, upper surface puberulous, lower surface tomentose, especially on the veins. Flowers clustered in terminal umbellate cymes on side shoots, sessile, unscented to slightly fragrant; bracts foliaceous, pubescent; calyx infundibuliform, with 5-8 linear-filiform lobes, ca. 1 cm long, green, tomentose; corola hypocrateriform, with 6-9 oblong lobes, white drying brownish, the tube slender, 15-20 mm long, the limb 2.5-3 cm in diameter, the lobes as long as the tube; stamens 2, included in the tube, the anthers 4-5 mm long; ovary superior, 4-lobate, style slender, included, stigma bilobed. Fruit an ellipsoid berry, c. 1 cm long, black when ripe, 2-seeded, rarely produced in cultivation (Roy et al., 1992; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; González Gutiérrez, 2008).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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J. multiflorum is native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia (Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam). It has been introduced outside its native range mainly due to cultivation as an ornamental shrub, being now present in many tropical and subtropical countries. While it has been reported as naturalized in several countries, the species is only considered invasive in Puerto Rico.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

GhanaPresentIntroducedAsase (2015)Herbarium specimens
LiberiaPresentIntroducedNHN (2016)Cultivated (herbarium specimen)
MadagascarPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
MozambiquePresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Cultivated; Original citation: Hyde et al. (2016a)
NigeriaPresentIntroducedAigbokhan (2014)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedNaturalizedMuséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (2016); Friedmann (2011)Naturalized (herbarium specimen)
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedDeighton (1936)
South AfricaPresentIntroducedSANBI (2016)Herbarium specimen
ZambiaPresentIntroducedBingham et al. (2016)Cultivated
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Cultivated; Original citation: Hyde et al. (2016b)

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativePasha and Uddin (2013)
BhutanPresentNativeChhetri (1996)
ChinaPresentIntroducedChang et al. (1996)Widely cultivated in Southern China
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedHerbarium PE (2016)Herbarium specimens
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedMuséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (2016)Herbarium specimen
Hong KongPresentIntroducedHerbarium PE (2016)Cultivated (herbarium specimens)
IndiaPresentNativeGreen (2003)Native, but also extensively cultivated
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroducedPandey and Diwakar (2008)
-BiharPresentNativeGreen (2003)
-Himachal PradeshPresentNativeGreen (2003)
-KarnatakaPresentNativeGreen (2003)
-KeralaPresentNativeGreen (2003)
-Madhya PradeshPresentNativeRoy et al. (1992)Commonly planted in gardens
-MaharashtraPresentNativeGreen (2003)
-RajasthanPresentNativeGreen (2003)
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeGreen (2003)
-Uttar PradeshPresentNativeGreen (2003)
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedNHN (2016)Based on regional distribution
-JavaPresentIntroducedNHN (2016)Herbarium specimen
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentIntroducedSantika (2016)Bali, cultivated
-Maluku IslandsPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Herbarium specimen
-SulawesiPresentIntroducedNHN (2016)Herbarium specimen
IsraelPresentIntroducedNovoselsky and Freidberg (2013)Cultivated
LaosPresentNativeNewman et al. (2007)Champasak, Xiangkhoang
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated a)Based on regional distribution
-SabahPresentIntroducedKiew (1994)North Borneo, cultivated
-SarawakPresentIntroducedKiew (1994)North Borneo, cultivated
MyanmarPresentNativeKress et al. (2003)Chin, Kachin, Shan, Yangon
NepalPresentNativeGreen (2003)
PakistanPresentNativeFlora of Pakistan (2016)
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedPelser et al. (2011)Occasionally cultivated, not spontaneous
QatarPresentIntroducedSergeev (2016)Doha, cultivated
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)Cultivated
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedGreen (1988)Cultivated
TaiwanPresentIntroducedResearch Center for Biodiversity (2016)Cultivated
ThailandPresentNativeSinnott et al. (2000)
VietnamPresentNativeVietnam Plant Data Center (2016)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedHoward (1989)
BarbadosPresentIntroducedHoward (1989)
BelizePresentIntroducedGreen (2015)
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-Sint EustatiusPresentIntroducedHoward (1989)
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Tortola
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedGreen (2015)
CubaPresentIntroducedGonzález Gutiérrez (2008)Cultivated and persistent, but not naturalized
DominicaPresentIntroducedHoward (1989)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedNaturalizedLiogier (1989)Naturalized
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedGreen (2015)
GrenadaPresentIntroducedHoward (1989)
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedFournet (2002)Cultivated, not established
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedGreen (2015)
HaitiPresentIntroducedLiogier (1989)Rare
HondurasPresentIntroducedGreen (2015)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedAdams (1972)Common in cultivation and occasionally naturalized
MartiniquePresentIntroducedFournet (2002)Cultivated, not established
MexicoPresentIntroducedGreen (2015)
MontserratPresentIntroducedHoward (1989)
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedHoward (1989)Saba
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedGreen (2015)
PanamaPresentIntroducedGreen (2015)Cultivated
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1876InvasiveRojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez (2015); Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedHoward (1989)
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedHoward (1989)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedHoward (1989)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedBaksh-Comeau et al. (2016)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (2016)St. Croix, St. John
United StatesPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated a)Based on regional distribution
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWunderlin et al. (2016)Duval, Lake, Seminole, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Sarasota, Hardee, Highlands, Martin, Lee
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedParker and Parsons (2012); Bishop Museum (2016)Naturalized

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedBishop Museum (2016)Tau, Tutuila, cultivated (herbarium specimens)
AustraliaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated a)Based on regional distribution
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedAtlas of Living Australia (2016)Naturalized
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedAtlas of Living Australia (2016)Cultivated
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack (2007)
FijiPresentIntroducedSmith (1988)Viti Levu, Ovalau, cultivated
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedWagner and Lorence (2016); Grant et al. (1974); Fosberg and Sachet (1987); Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (2016)Marquesas islands: Hiva Oa, Ua Huka, Ua Pou, cultivated
GuamPresentIntroducedFosberg et al. (1979)
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedFosberg et al. (1979)Kwajalein
NauruPresentIntroducedThaman et al. (1994)Recent introduction, rare
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Cultivated; Original citation: Hequet and Le Corre (2010)
NiuePresentIntroducedSykes (1970)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedFosberg et al. (1979)Saipan, Rota
PalauPresentIntroducedFosberg et al. (1979)Koror

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedStåhl (2014)Cultivated
BrazilPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated a)Based on regional distribution
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedReflora (2016)Cultivated (herbarium specimens)
-ParaPresentIntroducedReflora (2016)Herbarium specimen
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedReflora (2016)Cultivated (herbarium specimens)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedIdárraga (2011)Cultivated
French GuianaPresentIntroducedDelnatte and Meyer (2012)Cultivated
GuyanaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Herbarium specimen
PeruPresentIntroducedBrako and Zarucchi (1993)
SurinamePresentIntroducedvan Andel et al. (2012)
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); Hoyos (1985)Cultivated (herbarium specimen)

History of Introduction and Spread

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The oldest herbarium specimens from the New World were collected as early as 1839 in Martinique (Steinheil s.n., P) and in 1855 in Manaus, Brazil (Spruce s.n., K, P). In Puerto Rico, J. multiflorum was presumably introduced in 1876 (Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015) and, by 1886, it was reported as "quasi spontaneum" (Sintenis 5422, NHN, US). In Jamaica, a collection record from 1909 (Harris 10823, NY, P) reported the species as already "naturalized in the vicinity of gardens". J. multiflorum was noted as "probably the [jasmine] most planted in Florida" by 1949 (Dickey, 1949). It was reported as naturalized in Highlands County by 1974 (Hardin, 1974). In Hawaii, specimens from cultivated plants date back to 1909 (Faurie 548, P; Rock 2530, BISH). The species was found naturalized in the main island in 2010, "in an invaded area near the perimeter of county park" (Parker and Parsons, 2012).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Puerto Rico 1876 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez (2015)

Risk of Introduction

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J. multiflorum is already widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. Fruit production in this species is very rare and there is no indication of seeds sold or traded on the internet. However, potted plants (vegetatively propagated) can be acquired from nurseries, online retailers (Amazon, 2016; ebay, 2016) and from gardening websites (e.g. Top Tropicals, 2016), increasing the risk of introduction to new countries.

Habitat

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In its native range, J. multiflorum grows in forests of elevations up to 1200 m (Flora of Pakistan, 2016). It has been reported as naturally occurring along river margins (McKee 6011, P).

When naturalized, it is often found in open, disturbed sites of forests and scrubs, pastures, abandoned gardens, waste lands, vacant lots and roadsides (Hardin, 1974; and herbarium specimens at MO, NY and P). In Bolivia, it has been reported at elevations up to 3500 m (Ståhl, 2014).

Hosts/Species Affected

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A herbarium specimen from Seychelles (Procter 4026, P) reports this species growing among rocks in a coconut plantation.

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The base chromosome number of J. multiflorum is n = 13. In addition to diploid (2n = 26), autotriploid plants (2n = 39) have been reported (Datta, 1960; George and Geethamma, 1992). Compared to diploids, triploids produce much larger quantities (about 83%) of non-viable pollen due to irregularities during meiosis (Datta, 1960). Low pollen fertility (23%) has also been reported by Karmakar and Srivastava (1987), although in this case the plants studied were diploid. The authors also found several abnormalities during meiosis, including the formation of univalents, laggard chromosomes, multiple pole formation and abnormal cytokinesis. These meiotic abnormalities are likely responsible for the sterility in this species.

Several varieties of J. multiflorum have been developed (e.g. 'Arka Arpan', 'Kakada' and 'Pubescens'). 'Arka Arpan' is one of the preferred varieties for its pinkish floral buds and aromatic flowers (Panda, 2005). Genetic diversity studies using RAPD markers showed low genetic differentiation between some of these varieties (Mukundan et al., 2007).

Reproductive Biology
The flowers of J. multiflorum produce a mild, sweet fragrance. They emit at least 30 volatile compounds, of which methyl benzoate, benzyl acetate, nerolidol, indole, jasmone and α-farnesene are the most abundant (Bera et al., 2015). They last one or two days and are pollinated by moths (Learn2grow, 2016). The hypocrateriform corolla of the flowers provides a suitable flat platform on which these insects can land (Green, 2004).

As in many extensively cultivated jasmines, sexual reproduction in this species is almost absent, particularly outside its native range. Some diploid plants from India, however, have been reported to produce abundant fruits and seeds (Datta, 1960). In contrast, triploid forms (also from India) appear to be sterile. In these plants, the whole flower cluster dries up and drops or, if fruits are produced, these are shed before ripening. Sections of the ovary of triploids showed that ovules begin to shrivel on the second day after flower opening (Datta, 1960).

Physiology and Phenology

J. multiflorum is a perennial plant that blooms nearly all year round, especially if grown under favourable conditions (USDA-NRCS, 2016). In its native range, the species flowers and fruits from fall to spring (Roy et al., 1992; Flora of Pakistan, 2016; Learn2grow, 2016). According to Panda (2005), the longevity of cultivated jasmines is about 12 years.

Environmental Requirements

J. multiflorum grows best in full sun, but can also do well in partial shade. It tolerates most soils, as long as they are moderately fertile and well-drained (Learn2grow, 2016). It is a moderately drought-tolerant and slightly salt-tolerant species (Black, 1997). It can withstand sporadic low winter temperatures. In Florida, plants are severely damaged by temperatures of -3.8°C or lower, but they "come back quickly from the roots and bloom again in the fall" (Dickey, 1949).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
34 38 3500

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -10
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 14 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 23 38
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 4 21

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amorbia emigratella Herbivore Leaves not specific
Aonidiella aurantii Herbivore Leaves/Stems not specific
Athelia rolfsii Pathogen Stems not specific
Chaconia butleri Pathogen Leaves to genus
Chaetothyrium guaraniticum Pathogen Leaves not specific
Corythauma ayyari Herbivore Leaves not specific
Dialeurodes kirkaldyi Herbivore Leaves not specific
Hemiberlesia lataniae Herbivore Stems not specific
Hemiberlesia palmae Herbivore Leaves/Stems not specific
Howardia biclavis Herbivore Stems not specific
Ischnaspis longirostris Herbivore Leaves not specific
Lasiodiplodia theobromae Pathogen Leaves not specific
Meliola gemellipoda Pathogen Leaves to genus
Meloidogyne Parasite Roots not specific
Paratachardina pseudolobata Herbivore Stems not specific
Pestalotiopsis Pathogen
Phomopsis pavgii Pathogen Leaves to genus
Phyllosticta jasmini Pathogen Leaves to genus
Phytophthora nicotianae Pathogen Roots not specific
Pleospora njegusensis Pathogen Stems not specific
Pseudocercospora butleri Pathogen Leaves to genus
Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Herbivore Leaves not specific
Rhamphothrips pandens Herbivore Leaves not specific
Scirtothrips dorsalis Herbivore Leaves not specific
Sclerotium coffeicola Pathogen Leaves/Stems not specific
Spoladea recurvalis Herbivore Leaves not specific
Tomato mosaic virus Pathogen Leaves not specific
Uromyces comedens Pathogen Leaves to species

Notes on Natural Enemies

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J. multiflorum is susceptible to a number of phytophagous insects, including the whitefly Dialeurodes kirkaldyi (Russell, 1964), the lace-bug Corythauma ayyari (Novoselsky and Freidberg, 2013), the black thread scale Ischnaspis longirostris (Plant Pest Control Division, 1968), the mining scale Howardia biclavis (Plant Pest Control Division, 1965), the palm scale Hemiberlesia palmae (Hunt, 1959), the latania scale Hemiberlesia lataniae, the red scale Aonidiella aurantii, the Jack Beardsley mealybug Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi (García Morales et al., 2016), the lobate lac scale Paratachardina pseudolobata (Cheng and Bhandari, 2015), the Mexican leaf-roller Amorbia emigratella (Hunt, 1957), the Hawaiian beet webworm Spoladea recurvalis (Yadav and Pareek, 1985) and the thrips Rhamphothrips pandens (Sakimura, 1983) and Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hodges et al., 2005).

The following fungal pathogens have also been reported on this species: Uromyces comedens, Phyllosticta jasmini, Pseudocercospora butleri (as its synonyms Pseudocercospora jasminicola and Cercospora jasmini), Meliola gemellipoda, Chaconia butleri, Phomopsis pavgii, Sclerotium coffeicola, Sclerotium rolfsii [Athelia rolfsii], Chaetothyrium guaraniticum, Pleospora njegusensis, Lasiodiplodia theobromae (as its synonym Botryodiplodia theobromae), Fusarium spp., Ophiobolus spp. and Pestalotiopsis spp. (Farr and Rossman, 2016).

Non-fungal pathogens and parasites include the tomato mosaic virus (Kamenova et al., 2006), the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. and the oomycetes Phytophthora nicotianae (as its synonym Phytophthora parasitica) (Raabe et al., 1981).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

The fleshy berries of Jasminum are dispersed by birds (Green, 2004), which is likely the main dispersal mode in natural populations of J. multiflorum. However, cultivated plants very rarely produce fruits and instead propagate by layering and by means of root suckers that can extend many metres away from the main plant. For horticultural purposes, plants are propagated from woody stem cuttings (Learn2grow, 2016).

Intentional Introduction

J. multiflorum has been intentionally introduced in many tropical and subtropical countries as an ornamental shrub.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zooscultivated in botanical gardens Yes Yes Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016
Escape from confinement or garden escapeescaped from cultivation and naturalized in several countries Yes Hammer, 2000; Parker and Parsons, 2012
Hedges and windbreaksoften used for ornamental hedges Yes Learn2grow, 2016
Horticulturewidely used in horticulture and traded for this purpose Yes Yes Learn2grow, 2016
Internet salesplants sold in gardening websites and online retailers Yes Yes ebay, 2016; Top Tropicals, 2016
Ornamental purposesextensively cultivated as an ornamental shrub Yes Yes Green, 2003; Parker and Parsons, 2012

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Mailplants sold online Yes Yes eBay, 2016; Top Tropicals, 2016

Environmental Impact

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J. multiflorum is a fast-growing, adaptable robust shrub that can twine or climb into the surrounding vegetation for support (Dickey, 1949; Useful Tropical Plants, 2016). However, the actual impact on ecosystems where this species has established is not known.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact mechanisms
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

J. multiflorum is one of the most common jasmines in cultivation. It can be grown as a shrub for hedges and foundation plantings, or as a vigorous vine to cover up fences, trellises and walls (Learn2grow, 2016). Potted plants are sold in nurseries (e.g. Clark's Nursery, 2016), by online retailers (Amazon, 2016; ebay, 2016) and on gardening websites (e.g. Glasshouse Works, 2016; Top Tropicals, 2016).

The scented flowers, although not as fragrant as those of other jasmines, are a source of jasmine essential oils, which are highly valued in the cosmetic industry (Ahmad et al., 1998; Panda, 2005).

Social Benefit

Similarly to several other jasmines, J. multiflorum is an important plant in Indian culture. In some states, the flowers are an essential component of marriage ceremonies. They are used to make bouquets and garlands, which are exchanged between the bride and groom as a symbol of acceptance and union (Flowers of India, 2016).

Jasmine oils have many pharmacological properties including being a relaxant, antidepressant, analgesic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, cardioprotective, nematicide and lactifuge (Singh, 2016). In Ayurvedic and Sidha medicine, J. multiflorum is used to treat a wide range of illnesses (Quattrocchi, 2012). The pounded leaves mixed with water are used as a remedy for stomach disorders. The leaves are also used as poultice for difficult ulcers or in the form of paste to treat headaches, rheumatic pain, skin sores, allergy, itches and inflammation (Singh et al., 2015). The roots are used as an emetic, emmenagogue and as antidote for snake bites. The bark boiled in water is used to treat burns (Quattrocchi, 2012). The flowers have been used to suppress milk production in women. A study showed that lactating mice exposed to contact with or to the smell of jasmine flowers exhibited a reduction of lactation that involved the involution of the mammary glands (Abraham et al., 1979).

J. multiflorum has also been utilized in other Southeast Asian countries to treat fever, diarrhoea, gastric ulcers, urinary disorders, malaria and jaundice (Wiart, 2012). In Sri Lanka, the flowers are used to treat colicky pain in cattle (Ediriweera et al., 2010). In the Surinamese Winti religion, flowers are used in herbal baths "to fortify one's soul" (van Andel et al., 2012).

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Ritual uses
  • Sociocultural value

Materials

  • Essential oils

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Cut flower
  • garden plant
  • Potted plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

J. multiflorum can be distinguished from other jasmines with simple, opposite leaves, by its pubescent, ovate to cordiform leaves without domatia, the compact inflorescence with leaf-like bracts and the filiform, tomentose calyx lobes.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Control

Chemical control

In Florida, successful control of other Jasminum species has been obtained by using a triclopyr-based herbicide as a basal stem treatment on young plants, and as a cut stump treatment on mature, old growth, woody stems (Hammer, 2000).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Top of page

More research is needed to study the environmental impacts of J. multiflorum in Puerto Rico and in other countries where this species has naturalized.

References

Top of page

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Distribution References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

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Asase A, 2015. University of Ghana - Ghana Herbarium. Version 8.2. Ghana Biodiversity Information Facility (GhaBIF). Ocurrence dataset accessed via GBIF.org., http://www.gbif.org/occurrence/621104938

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Dr. Giuseppe Mazza’s website (journalist – Scientific photographer)http://www.photomazza.com/
Useful Tropical Plantshttp://tropical.theferns.info/

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17/12/16 Original text by: 

Fabiola Areces-Berazain, Herbarium UPRRP, University of Puerto Rico-Río Piedras, San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA 

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