Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Castilla elastica
(Mexican rubber tree)

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Datasheet

Castilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Castilla elastica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Mexican rubber tree
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. elastica is a deciduous latex-producing tree native to southern Mexico, Central America and parts of South America (Sa...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Castilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree); habit, with foliage. Inset, leaves and fruits.
TitleHabit
CaptionCastilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree); habit, with foliage. Inset, leaves and fruits.
Copyright©2009 Moorea Biocode/CalPhotos, University of California, Berkeley - CC BY-NC-SA 3.0
Castilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree); habit, with foliage. Inset, leaves and fruits.
HabitCastilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree); habit, with foliage. Inset, leaves and fruits.©2009 Moorea Biocode/CalPhotos, University of California, Berkeley - CC BY-NC-SA 3.0
Castilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree); sprig of leaves.
TitleLeaves
CaptionCastilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree); sprig of leaves.
Copyright©2009 Moorea Biocode/CalPhotos, University of California, Berkeley - CC BY-NC-SA 3.0
Castilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree); sprig of leaves.
LeavesCastilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree); sprig of leaves.©2009 Moorea Biocode/CalPhotos, University of California, Berkeley - CC BY-NC-SA 3.0
Castilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree); uprooted sapling.
TitleSapling
CaptionCastilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree); uprooted sapling.
Copyright©2009 Moorea Biocode/CalPhotos, University of California, Berkeley - CC BY-NC-SA 3.0
Castilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree); uprooted sapling.
SaplingCastilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree); uprooted sapling.©2009 Moorea Biocode/CalPhotos, University of California, Berkeley - CC BY-NC-SA 3.0
Castilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree); seeds.
TitleSeeds
CaptionCastilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree); seeds.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/Original photographer, Steve Hurst
Castilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree); seeds.
SeedsCastilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree); seeds.Public Domain - Released by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/Original photographer, Steve Hurst

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Castilla elastica Cerv.

Preferred Common Name

  • Mexican rubber tree

Other Scientific Names

  • Castilloa elastica Cerv.

International Common Names

  • English: castilloa-rubber; Central American rubbertree; Mexican rubber tree; Panama gum; Panama rubber tree; uletree
  • Spanish: árbol del ule; arbor de hule; caucho; caucho negro; hule; ule

Local Common Names

  • Bolivia: caucho
  • Brazil: puluvao
  • Cuba: arbor de hule; caucho
  • Germany: castilloa; Hulebaum; Kautschukbaum
  • Honduras: arbor de hule
  • Mexico: palo de hule
  • Samoa: pulu mamoe

EPPO code

  • CSIEL (Castilla elastica)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. elastica is a deciduous latex-producing tree native to southern Mexico, Central America and parts of South America (Sakai, 2001). Owing to its importance as a source of latex and the invention of vulcanisation in 1839, C. elastica was introduced outside its native range to provide material for the growing rubber industry (Wright, 1912). The species is regarded as invasive in Samoa, American Samoa, French Polynesia, the Cook Islands, Queensland, Christmas Islands, Singapore, Cuba, Vanuatu, Mayotte and Tanzania, where it poses significant threats to native forest ecosystems (Richard, 2007; Dawson et al., 2009; PIER, 2013). It has prolific seed production and high germination, produces fruits which are attractive to many forest dwelling frugivores such as primates, squirrels and birds that are capable of dispersing seeds over long distances and is listed as a weed threatening forest ecosystems.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Urticales
  •                         Family: Moraceae
  •                             Genus: Castilla
  •                                 Species: Castilla elastica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Currently, there are three recognised species in the genus Castilla; Castilla elastica, Castilla ulei and Castilla tunu (The Plant List, 2013). The genus Castilla, which is native only to Neotropical countries, was first proposed and described in 1793 by Spanish botanist Vicente Cervantes. The generic name (Castilla) was given after the pharmacist and economic explorer Juan del Castillo and the specific name (elastica) refers to the extraordinary properties of the gum contained in its latex (Pittier, 1910). Several studies have recognised the existence of two common subspecies; Castillaelastica subsp. elastica (Berg, 1989) and Castillaelastica subsp. costaricana (Liebm.) (Berg, 1972).

Description

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C. elastica is an androdioecious tree that can grow up to 30 m tall with a diameter at breast height of up to 60 cm. In a cosexual plant, staminate and pistillate flowers occur in different inflorescences. Also, the staminate inflorescences in male and in cosexual plants differ (Sakai, 2001). The plant produces abundant milky sap when slashed and yields latex, which used to be used in the rubber industry. C. elastica has spreading or drooping branches, the young ones woolly-hairy. The leaves are coarse, densely hairy on both sides, short-stemmed, arranged in two rows, the blade oblong, broadest in the upper half, 20-45 cm by 7-15 cm, base heart-shaped and tip pointed, with approximately 18 pairs of prominent veins. Inconspicuous female flowers in short-stemmed heads at leaf axils develop into fruit about 4 cm in diameter, consisting of a cluster of many red individuals about 2 cm long, with more or less sweet, edible pulp (PIER, 2013).

Inflorescences in clusters of 2-4 in catenate series of the upper leaf-axils, occasionally solitary. Staminate heads conduplicate-reniform, about 1.5 cm long and 2 cm broad, the peduncle about 1 cm long. Fruiting heads thickly discoid, 4-5 cm in diameter, about 1.5 cm thick, sessile or subsessile, the component flowers half or more coherent, developing an orange or reddish pulp at maturity (PIER, 2013).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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C. elastica is a deciduous latex-producing tree native to southern Mexico, Central America and parts of South America.

Much of the known distribution of C. elastica where introduced or exotic is restricted to where the species has become invasive or present and poses an invasive risk. Therefore, it has probably been introduced and become established in many tropical Asia, Oceania and African countries where it is not known to be present (Richard, 2007; Dawson et al., 2008; FAO, 2011; PIER, 2013). For example, according to Wright (1912), C. elastica was introduced to Sri Lanka, the Caribbean islands, Uganda and parts of West Africa but its current status in these countries is unknown. Thus, the true distribution is very likely to be greater than that listed in the Distribution Table, especially in tropical countries with wet climates.

The species is regarded problematic and declared invasive in Samoa, American Samoa, French Polynesia, Queensland, Christmas Islands, Singapore, Vanuatu and Tanzania, where it poses significant threats to native forest ecosystems (Richard, 2007; Dawson et al., 2009; PIER, 2013).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013
IndiaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
IndonesiaPresentGBIF, 2013
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedWright, 1912
SingaporePresentIntroduced Invasive Wright, 1912; PIER, 2013
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedWright, 1912

Africa

ComorosPresentGBIF, 2013
CongoPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
GuineaPresentGBIF, 2013
MayottePresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
TanzaniaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Greenway, 1934; Richard, 2007; Dawson et al., 2008; Edward et al., 2009; Tropical Biology Association, 2013
UgandaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015

North America

MexicoWidespreadNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2011
USA
-HawaiiLast reported1800sIntroducedWright, 1912No records after its introduction in late 19th century

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentUSDA-ARS, 2015
Costa RicaWidespreadNativePIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2015
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentGBIF, 2013
El SalvadorWidespreadNativePIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2015
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedISSG, 2013
GuatemalaPresentPIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2015
HondurasPresentPIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2015
JamaicaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
MartiniquePresentGBIF, 2013
NicaraguaPresentISSG, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2015
PanamaPresentNativePittier, 1910; Cokeley et al., 2000; GBIF, 2013
Puerto RicoPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2013
Trinidad and TobagoPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
United States Virgin IslandsPresentGBIF, 2013

South America

BoliviaPresentVallve, 2010It was threatened by harvesting from 1850-1920
BrazilPresentGBIF, 2013
ColombiaWidespreadNativePIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2015
EcuadorWidespreadNativePIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2015
SurinamePresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
VenezuelaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Wright, 1912; PIER, 2013
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013
FijiPresentIntroduced1890-1912 Not invasive Wright, 1912
French PolynesiaPresent Invasive PIER, 2013
New CaledoniaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive ISSG, 2013
SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, 2013; PIER, 2013
VanuatuPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013

History of Introduction and Spread

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During the last quarter of the 1800s, C. elastica and several other rubber-producing plant species (Hevea brasiliensis, Manihot glaziovii, Funtumia elastica and Ficus elastica) from Central America were introduced to various botanic gardens in tropical Asia, Oceania and Africa. According to Wright (1912), almost all the plants from Central America passed through Kew Botanic Gardens before being dispatched to other botanic gardens or nurseries in British colonies. C. elastica was first sent to India in 1875; to Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Java, and West Indies (Caribbean) in 1876; to Singapore, Mauritius, and West Africa in 1877; and to Fiji in 1882. The plant was also introduced to Samoa, American Samoa, Vanuatu, French Polynesia and Queensland between 1877 and 1911 from Central America but via Kew Botanic Gardens (Wright, 1912).

In Tanzania, C. elastica was introduced through the Amani Botanic Garden (Richard, 2007; Dawson at al., 2008) which was officially established in 1902. Unlike H. brasiliensis which was also introduced through Amani, C. elastica was not scaled to large plantations but planted in trial plots within the botanic garden; Greenway (1934), reported several established mature Castilla trees in their original plots in Amani Botanic Garden. The subsequent spreading of C. elastica in the moist lowland forest of Amani has been principally facilitated by anthropogenic disturbance (Richard, 2007). Logging in Amani was intensified after World War II and this rendered open large patches of forest, which are now occupied by exotic species, including C. elastica. The species was dispersed by birds, monkeys and squirrels to the adjacent disturbed rainforest (Richard, 2007; Dawson et al., 2009) where it has dominated the stand.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
American Samoa Central America 1877-1909 Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause) Yes Wright (1912) Plants were taken from Central America and distributed to Oceania through Kew Botanic Gardens
Caribbean Central America 1876 Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause)Wright (1912)
Fiji Central America 1882  Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause)Wright (1912)
French Polynesia Central America 1877-1909 Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause) Yes Wright (1912) Plants were taken from Central America and distributed to Oceania through Kew Botanic Gardens
India Central America 1875 Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause)Wright (1912)
Java Central America 1876 Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause)Wright (1912)
Mauritius Central America 1877 Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause)Wright (1912)
Queensland Central America 1877-1911 Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause) Yes Wright (1912) Plants were taken from Central America and distributed to Oceania through Kew Botanic Gardens
Samoa Central America 1877-1909 Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause) Yes Wright (1912) Plants were taken from Central America and distributed to Oceania through Kew Botanic Gardens
Singapore Central America 1877 Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause) Yes Vallve (2010); Wright (1912) Plants were smuggled and introduced to Asia by Englishmen
Sri Lanka Central America 1876 Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause)Wright (1912)
Tanzania Central America 1902-1930 Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause) Yes Dawson et al. (2008); Greenway (1934); Richard (2007) Expanding its population outside the botanical garden
Vanuatu Central America 1877-1909 Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause) Yes Wright (1912) Plants were taken from Central America and distributed to Oceania through Kew Botanic Gardens
West Africa Central America 1877 Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause)Wright (1912)

Risk of Introduction

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Since C. elastica is no longer preferred as a source of rubber due to difficulties in tapping the latex, the species has a very low risk of human-assisted introduction to other countries. However, for continuous forest blocks like the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania, the likelihood of C. elastica spreading to other forests within and nearby the Mountain block are high if anthropogenic disturbances continue. Furthermore, frugivores which are capable of long distance dispersal of C. elastica, coupled with ongoing forest disturbances can facilitate the invasion of C. elastica in lowland areas of the Mountain blocks. Due to the ecological characteristics of C. elastica, its capacity to invade undisturbed closed forest habitats is limited.

Habitat

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C. elastica can be found principally in natural and managed forests, plantations and orchards as well as disturbed areas. It is often found in moist forests at low elevations and in its native habitat it will become established in undisturbed rainforest, thus posing a threat to intact native forests (PIER, 2013). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

C. elastica begins flowering at 10 years of age. Normally, the tree flowers after short rains and it usually takes about two to three months for the fruits to mature. The fruit of C. elastica has an attractive pulp which surrounds hard seeds. The seeds are not easily consumed by frugivores.

Environmental Requirements

C. elastica requires well drained, moist soils and a pH between 5.5 and 7. It also grows well in areas with an annual rainfall of above 1500 mm (PIER, 2013). In its native range it appears to tolerate tropical environments.  

In Queensland, Australia, C. elastica appears to tolerate and flourish in low temperatures. However, in Tanzania the species is limited by both elevation and temperature. The temperature in the areas of Tanzania where C. elastica is becoming dominant is never below 12°C.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
23.5 23.5

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 25
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 20.6 30.1
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 10.2 17

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration03number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall15004000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector Transmission

Frugivores eat the fruits of C. elastica but cannot consume the hard seeds, which are excreted and dispersed locally (Richard, 2007).

Intentional Introduction

In the late 1800s seedlings were deliberately introduced to various botanical gardens in Tropical Asia, Oceania and Africa (Pittier, 1910; Wright, 1912; Greenway, 1936; Dawson et al., 2008). Its importance in rubber production also led to its introduction to non-native regions. C. elastica is still intentionally introduced as an agro-forestry and ornamental tree.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosIntroductions mainly by transporting seedlings. Less than 200 seedlings were introduced to Tanzania Yes Dawson et al., 2008; Greenway, 1934; Pittier, 1910; Wright, 1912
Digestion and excretionFrugivores eat fruits but cannot consume the seeds so dispersal is through excretion Yes Richard, 2007
DisturbancePrefers disturbed areas. Therefore forest disturbances increase the possibility of invasion Yes Cokeley et al., 2000; Dawson et al., 2008
ForestryIn its native and introduced range, established plantations provide reliable sources of propagules Yes Space and Flynn, 2002

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plantsSeeds and seedlings Yes Wright, 1912

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Biodiversity

Due to its ability to recruit many seedlings in disturbed forest, C. elastica has the potential to displace slow growing native species which are sensitive to competition. In forest edges in the lowlands of the Amani Nature Reserve, C. elastica dominates 20% of tree density (Richard, 2007). Although there is limited baseline information on the density of native tree species before the area was invaded by C. elastica, anecdotal evidence suggests that species such as Milicia excelsa, Synsepalum msolo, Khaya anthotheca and Leptonychia usambarensis were abundant in the area. Progressively, C. elastica has increased in density (over 80 stems/ha) and spread about 300 m to the interior of the forest (Richard, 2007).

Social Impact

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Although there is lack of quantitative data, the formation of almost monospecific stands of C. elastica in protected forests, such as the Amani Nature Reserve, has reduced its aesthetic value.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - shading
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

In both native and introduced ranges, C. elastica continues to be of economic importance to local people as a source of rubber for domestic use.

Social Benefit

Although monospecific stands of C. elastica can negatively impact nature reserves, they have provided suitable areas for studying the activities of forest dwelling animals, such as primates which eat the fruits.

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Materials

  • Rubber/latex

Detection and Inspection

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Individuals of C. elastica can easily be observed along forest edges, which is its preferred habitat.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Seedlings of C. elastica can easily be confused with the seedlings of a native tree of the East Usambara forests, Antiaris toxicaria, as both have hairy broad leaves of similar size. The two species are within the same family (Moraceae) and in most cases co-occur. Leaves in both species are alternately arranged on their branches but the two species can be distinguished by examination of the base of the blade. C. elastica has distinct lobed bases which differ to the sandpaper appearance of A. toxicaria leaves. The difference between the species is clearer in juveniles and mature trees as the leaves of C. elastica are much larger than those of A.toxicaria. C. elastica also tend to have white hairs rather than brown hairs like A. toxicaria.

Prevention and Control

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Chemical Control

Seedlings and young trees may be controlled by spraying a combination of Garlon and diesel oil (PIER, 2013).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Further research is needed to address the status of this species in introduced areas, its impacts on forestry and the existence of natural enemies which may be used to control invasions. Other uses for the plant, apart from the provision of latex, also need to be investigated.

References

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BERG CC, 1972. Olmedieae, Brosimeae (Moraceae), Flora Neotropica 7. New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden Press, 229 pp.

BERGCC, 1989. Systematics and phylogeny of the Urticales. In: Evolution, systematics, and fossil history of the Hammamelidae, 2 [ed. by Crane, P. \Blackmore, S.]. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 193-220 pp.

Cokeley W; Paye G; Roberts C; Birdsall D, 2000. Fruit Dispersal of Castilla elastica in secondary forest and a developed area of the La Selva Biological Preserve, Costa Rica. Princeton, New Jersey, USA: Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation.

Dawson W; Burslem DFRP; Hulme PE, 2009. Herbivory is related to taxonomic isolation, but not to invasiveness of tropical alien plants. Diversity and Distributions, 15(1):141-147. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/121395824/HTMLSTART

Dawson W; Mndolwa AS; Burslem DFRP; Hulme PE, 2008. Assessing the risks of plant invasions arising from collections in tropical botanical gardens. Biodiversity and Conservation, 17(8):1979-1995. http://www.springerlink.com/content/7653v67635014234/?p=8183fb2c7dcf468ba31ce33f67c6bec3&pi=11

Doody KZ; Howell KM; Fanning E, 2001. Amani Nature Reserve: A biodiversity Survey. East Usambara Conservation Area Management Programme, Technical Paper 52. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Frontier Tanzania, 126 pp.

Edward E; Munishi PKT; Hulme PE, 2009. Relative roles of disturbance and propagule pressure on the invasion of humid tropical forest by Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae) in Tanzania. Biotropica, 41(2):171-176. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/btp

Englen ODvon, 1933. Rubber in Singapore. Journal of Geography, 32(4):170-172.

FAO, 2011. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Rome, Italy: FAO. http://www.fao.org/home/en/

Far North Queensland Regional Organisation of Councils (FNQROC), 2010. Regional Weed Spread Prevention Strategy 2008-2010 from the United States National Herbarium, 13. Queensland, Australia: Far North Queensland Regional Organisation of Councils (FNQROC), 247-249.

GBIF, 2013. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org/species/

Greenway PJ, 1934. Report of a botanical survey of the indigenous and exotic plants in cultivation at the East Africa Agricultural Research Station, Amani, Tanganyika Territory. 511 pp.

ISSG, 2013. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pittier H, 1910. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, United States National Museum, 13(7). Washington DC, USA: United States National Museum, 33 pp.

Richard J, 2007. Dissertation. Morogoro, Tanzania: Department of Forest Biology, Sokoine University of Agriculture.

Sakai S, 2001. Thrips pollination of androdioecious Castilla elastica (Moraceae) in a seasonal tropical forest. American Journal of Botany, 88(9):1527-1534.

Sautu A; Baskin JM; Baskin CC; Condit R, 2006. Studies on the seed biology of 100 native species of trees in a seasonal moist tropical forest, Panama, Central America. Forest Ecology and Management, 234(1/3):245-263. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781127

Space JC; Flynn T, 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service.

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

Tropical Biology Association, 2013. Usambara Invasive Plants - Amani Nature Reserve. Cambridge, UK: Tropical Biology Association. www.tropical-biology.org/research/dip/species

USDA-ARS, 2011. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2013. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vallve F, 2010. Dissertation. Washington DC, USA: Georgetown University.

Wright H, 1912. Hevea brasiliensis or Panama rubber. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Library.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Forest Invasive Species Network for Africa (FISNA)www.fao.org/forestry/fisna/?
Global Invasive Species Database (GISD)http://www.issg.org/database/
Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project (HEAR)http://www.hear.org/
Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)http://www.hear.org/pier/

Organizations

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Tanzania: Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Co-operatives MAFC, P.O. Box 9192, Dar es Salaam, www.agriculture.go.tz

Tanzania: Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism MNRT, Box 34543, Dar es Salaam, www.mnrt.go.tz

Italy: Forestry Department, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 00153, Rome, http://www.fao.org/forestry/aliens

Contributors

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03/08/2013 Original text by:

John Richard, Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI), Tanzania, East Africa

Distribution Maps

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