Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ipomoea ochracea
(fence morning-glory)

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Datasheet

Ipomoea ochracea (fence morning-glory)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ipomoea ochracea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • fence morning-glory
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • I. ochracea is a vine species included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). It is listed as invasive...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ipomoea ochracea (yellow or fence morning-glory); flowers. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii. April, 2008.
TitleFlowers
CaptionIpomoea ochracea (yellow or fence morning-glory); flowers. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii. April, 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ipomoea ochracea (yellow or fence morning-glory); flowers. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii. April, 2008.
FlowersIpomoea ochracea (yellow or fence morning-glory); flowers. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii. April, 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ipomoea ochracea (yellow or fence morning-glory); habit. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii. September, 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionIpomoea ochracea (yellow or fence morning-glory); habit. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii. September, 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ipomoea ochracea (yellow or fence morning-glory); habit. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii. September, 2005.
HabitIpomoea ochracea (yellow or fence morning-glory); habit. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii. September, 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ipomoea ochracea (yellow or fence morning-glory); leaves. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii. November, 2006.
TitleLleaves
CaptionIpomoea ochracea (yellow or fence morning-glory); leaves. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii. November, 2006.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ipomoea ochracea (yellow or fence morning-glory); leaves. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii. November, 2006.
LleavesIpomoea ochracea (yellow or fence morning-glory); leaves. Makawao, Maui, Hawaii. November, 2006.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ipomoea ochracea (yellow or fence morning-glory); seeds. PKW Base LZ, Maui, February, 2009.
TitleSeeds
CaptionIpomoea ochracea (yellow or fence morning-glory); seeds. PKW Base LZ, Maui, February, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ipomoea ochracea (yellow or fence morning-glory); seeds. PKW Base LZ, Maui, February, 2009.
SeedsIpomoea ochracea (yellow or fence morning-glory); seeds. PKW Base LZ, Maui, February, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ipomoea ochracea (Lindl.) G. Don

Preferred Common Name

  • fence morning-glory

Other Scientific Names

  • Ipomoea curtisii House
  • Ipomoea ochracea var. curtissii (House) Stearn

International Common Names

  • English: African morning glory; yellow morning-glory

Summary of Invasiveness

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I. ochracea is a vine species included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). It is listed as invasive in Hawaii, New Caledonia, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands where it is also considered a weed mainly in ruderal and disturbed sites (Wagner et al., 1999; Acevedo and Strong, 2012; Randall, 2012). I. ochracea was introduced as an ornamental species from Africa into new habitats throughout the tropics. It has escaped from cultivation and has successfully colonized natural areas in coastal and riparian forests, thickets, grassland, river edges, river banks and disturbed sites (Goncalves, 1987; MacKee, 1994; Wagner et al., 1999).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Convolvulaceae
  •                             Genus: Ipomoea
  •                                 Species: Ipomoea ochracea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Convolvulaceae includes about 57 genera and 1625 species (Stevens, 2012). Ipomoea is one of the dominant genera within this family with approximately 650 species, mainly distributed in tropical and warm temperate regions of the world and known as “morning glories” (Miller et al., 1999). Most of the species within this genus are twining climbing plants and include annual and perennial herbs, lianas, shrubs and small trees (Miller et al., 1999).

Description

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I. ochracea is a slightly woody vine, twining, attaining 5 m in length, with scarce watery latex. Stems are cylindrical, slender, and pubescent. Leaves are alternate; blades simple, 3-10 × 2.5-7.5 cm, ovate, chartaceous, glabrous except for some hairs on the veins, the apex acuminate and usually mucronate, the margins entire or sinuate; upper and lower surface with the veins slightly prominent, the lower surface usually glaucous; petioles 2-6 cm long, pubescent. Flowers solitary or in double dichasia, axillary; peduncles slightly longer than the petioles; bracts ovate, approximately 1.6 mm long. Calyx green, not accrescent, of 5 subequal sepals, 5-7 mm long, chartaceous, ovate or oblong-ovate, glabrous, punctate; corolla pale yellow, with the base of the tube purple inside, infundibuliform, 3-4 cm long, the limb with 5 shallow, rounded lobes; stamens and stigmas white, not exserted. Capsule ovoid, glabrous, with a thin pericarp, 1.3-1.6 cm long, stramineous, with the sepals persistent, not accrescent at the base; 4 seeds per fruit, 4-5 mm long, black, dull, glabrous (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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I. ochracea is native to tropical Africa (Goncalves, 1987), but is now naturalized in Australia, India, Hawaii, New Caledonia, Madeira, Panama, Jamaica, St. Lucia, Puerto Rico, Cuba, the US Virgin Islands, and Venezuela (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Shimpale et al., 2012; DAISIE, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedShimpale et al., 2012

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
BotswanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
CameroonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
Cape VerdePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
Central African RepublicPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
CongoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
EthiopiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
GhanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
Guinea-BissauPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
KenyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
MalawiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
MozambiquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
NigeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
SenegalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
Sierra LeonePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
SudanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
TanzaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
TogoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
UgandaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
ZambiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
ZimbabwePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1999

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
PanamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedGraveson, 2012Very rare
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012St. Croix, St. John

South America

VenezuelaPresentIntroducedLópez and Ramírez, 2004; Hokche et al., 2008

Europe

PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive MacKee, 1994

History of Introduction and Spread

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I. ochracea was introduced as an ornamental species from Africa into new habitats throughout the tropics (Goncalves, 1987; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). However, the date of introduction of this species for most regions is unknown. In Puerto Rico, it was first reported in 1965 by A.H. Liogier for areas in the southern portion of the island (Liogier, 1965). In 2012, I. ochracea was reported for the first time in India, specifically for the area of the Western Ghats (Shimpale et al., 2012).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of I. ochracea is moderate to high. This species behaves as a weed in open and disturbed habitats. Under favourable conditions such as full sun, plenty of moisture and fertile soil, it can grow very rapidly, smothering native vegetation. I. ochracea also has the potential to grow as a climbing plant, which allows it to compete effectively with native trees and shrubs on the edges of forests and along riparian zones (Goncalves, 1987; MacKee, 1994; Wagner et al., 1999).

Habitat

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Within its native distribution range, I. ochracea has been reported growing in riparian woodland, thickets, grassland, river edges and river banks, on sandy soil and in wet places from 500 to 1525 m (Goncalves, 1987). In Hawaii, it is naturalized in disturbed mesic sites (Wagner et al., 1999), while in New Caledonia it is locally abundant along roadsides (MacKee, 1994).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for I. ochracea is 2n = 30 (Wagner et al., 1999). 

Reproductive Biology and Phenology

In Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, I. ochracea has been collected in flower and fruit from December to February (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005). Flowers within the genus Ipomoea are bisexual and actinomorphic and probably pollinated by insects (Galetto and Bernardello, 2004).

 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapePlanted as ornamental Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005
Internet salesSeeds sold online (http://davesgarden.com) Yes Yes
Nursery tradePlanted as ornamental Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005
Ornamental purposesWidely cultivated throughout the tropics Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailSeeds sold online (http://davesgarden.com) Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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I. ochracea commonly invades riparian and coastal forests, thickets, grassland, river edges and river banks, smothering native vegetation. It is a climbing plant which competes effectively with native trees and shrubs on the edges of forests and along riparian zones. It also invades forest margins, where it grows over larger trees, smothering trees, seedlings and understorey vegetation (Goncalves, 1987; MacKee, 1994; Wagner et al., 1999).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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I. ochracea has been widely cultivated as an ornamental (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005).

 

Uses List

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Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Galetto L; Bernardello G, 2004. Floral nectaries, nectar production dynamics and chemical composition in six Ipomoea species (Convolvulaceae) in relation to pollinators. Annals of Botany, 94(2):269-280.

Goncalves ML, 1987. Convolvulaceae. In: Flora Zambesiaca [ed. by Launert, E.]. Suffolk, UK: St. Edmundsbury Press Ltd, 9-129.

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hokche O; Berry PE; Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, 860 pp.

Liogier A, 1965. Nomenclatural changes and additions to Britton and Wilson's Flora of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Rhodora, 67:315-361.

López M; Ramírez N, 2004. [English title not available]. (Composición florística y abundancia de las especies en un remanente de bosque deciduo secundario.) Acta Biologica Venezuelica, 24:29-71.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

Miller RE; Rausher MD; Manos PS, 1999. Phylogenetic systematics of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) based on ITS and Waxy sequences. Systematic Botany, 24(2):209-227.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Shimpale VB; Kshirsagar PR; Pawar NV, 2012. Ipomoea ochracea (Convolvulaceae): A new record for India. Rheedea, 22:99-102.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Volume 2. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press. [Bishop Museum Special Publication 97.]

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)http://www.hear.org/Pier/index.html

Contributors

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24/02/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

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