Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Hirschfeldia incana
(shortpod mustard)

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Datasheet

Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hirschfeldia incana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • shortpod mustard
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Hirschfeldia incana, commonly known as shortpod mustard, is an early successional annual to perennial herb. Native to West and Central Asia, parts of Europe, and North Africa, and it has become naturalized in O...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); habit. Australia. May 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); habit. Australia. May 2014.
Copyright©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); habit. Australia. May 2014.
HabitHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); habit. Australia. May 2014.©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); flowers. Australia. July 2014.
TitleFlowers
CaptionHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); flowers. Australia. July 2014.
Copyright©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); flowers. Australia. July 2014.
FlowersHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); flowers. Australia. July 2014.©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); close-up of flowers. Australia. May 2014.
TitleFlowers
CaptionHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); close-up of flowers. Australia. May 2014.
Copyright©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); close-up of flowers. Australia. May 2014.
FlowersHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); close-up of flowers. Australia. May 2014.©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); fruits. Australia. May 2014.
TitleFruitS
CaptionHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); fruits. Australia. May 2014.
Copyright©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); fruits. Australia. May 2014.
FruitSHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); fruits. Australia. May 2014.©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); Cclose-up of fruits. Australia. May 2014.
TitleFruits
CaptionHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); Cclose-up of fruits. Australia. May 2014.
Copyright©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); Cclose-up of fruits. Australia. May 2014.
FruitsHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); Cclose-up of fruits. Australia. May 2014.©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); habit. Uprooted plant, showing upper surface of leaf. Australia. May 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); habit. Uprooted plant, showing upper surface of leaf. Australia. May 2014.
Copyright©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); habit. Uprooted plant, showing upper surface of leaf. Australia. May 2014.
HabitHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); habit. Uprooted plant, showing upper surface of leaf. Australia. May 2014.©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); habit. Uprooted plant, showing lower surface of leaf. Australia. May 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); habit. Uprooted plant, showing lower surface of leaf. Australia. May 2014.
Copyright©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); habit. Uprooted plant, showing lower surface of leaf. Australia. May 2014.
HabitHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); habit. Uprooted plant, showing lower surface of leaf. Australia. May 2014.©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); habit. Uprooted plant, showing root system. Australia. May 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); habit. Uprooted plant, showing root system. Australia. May 2014.
Copyright©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); habit. Uprooted plant, showing root system. Australia. May 2014.
HabitHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); habit. Uprooted plant, showing root system. Australia. May 2014.©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); seeds. A groove, delineating the position of the radicle, is barely visible on some seeds. USA.
TitleSeeds
CaptionHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); seeds. A groove, delineating the position of the radicle, is barely visible on some seeds. USA.
Copyright©D. Walters & C. Southwick/Table Grape Weed Disseminule ID/USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); seeds. A groove, delineating the position of the radicle, is barely visible on some seeds. USA.
SeedsHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard); seeds. A groove, delineating the position of the radicle, is barely visible on some seeds. USA.©D. Walters & C. Southwick/Table Grape Weed Disseminule ID/USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lagr.-Foss.

Preferred Common Name

  • shortpod mustard

Other Scientific Names

  • Brassica adpressa (Moench) Boiss.
  • Brassica geniculata (Desf.) Ball
  • Brassica geniculata (Desf.) Benth.
  • Brassica heterophylla (Lag.) Boiss. ex Nyman
  • Brassica incana (L.) Maly
  • Brassica incana (L.) Meigen
  • Brassica nervosa Ball
  • Brassica nigra var. incana (L.) Dosch & J.Scriba
  • Brassica sylvestris subsp. incana (Meigen) Onno
  • Cordylocarpus pubescens Sm.
  • Crucifera hirschfeldia E.H.L.Krause
  • Erucaria hyrcanica DC.
  • Erucaria persica Gorter ex Ledeb.
  • Erucastrum heterophyllum (Lag.) Nyman
  • Erucastrum incanum (L.) W.D.J.Koch
  • Erucastrum incanum var. geniculatum (Desf.) Coss.
  • Hirschfeldia adpressa Moench
  • Hirschfeldia adpressa var. consobrina Batt.
  • Hirschfeldia geniculata (Desf.) Pomel
  • Hirschfeldia heterophylla (Lag.) Amo
  • Hirschfeldia incana subsp. adpressa Maire
  • Hirschfeldia incana subsp. consobrinare (Batt.) Mai
  • Hirschfeldia incana subsp. geniculata (Desf.) Tzvelev
  • Hirschfeldia incana subsp. incrassata Gomez-Campo
  • Hirschfeldia incana subsp. leptocarpa Tzvelev
  • Hirschfeldia incana var. geniculata (Desf.) Bonnet & Barratte
  • Raphanus incanus (L.) Crantz
  • Rapistrum macedonicum Formánek
  • Sinapis adpressa (Moench) Schloss. & Vuk.
  • Sinapis geniculata Desf.
  • Sinapis heterophylla Lag.
  • Sinapis incana L.
  • Sinapis taurica M.Bieb.
  • Sisymbrium incanum (L.) Prantl
  • Strangalis adpressa (Moench) Dulac

International Common Names

  • English: buchanweed; greek mustard; hairy brassica; hoary mustard; Mediterranean mustard
  • Spanish: desajo; falso yuyo; jaramago; jaramago blanco; jébena; jébenes; mostazo negro; nabiza; rabaneles; rabaniza; rabaniza amarilla; rabaniza amarilla; relinchón; roqueta bastarda; tambarilla
  • French: faux rapistre blanchâtre; hirschfeldie grisâtre; moutarde des champs; raveluche; roquette bâtarde
  • Portuguese: ineixas; rincham branco; rinchâo branco

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: mostacilla pilosa; mostacillo; mostaza
  • Austria: rempe
  • Azerbaijan: boz belekün
  • Denmark: bastardsennep
  • Estonia: hall läunasinep
  • Finland: hilmiö
  • France: sené
  • Germany: bastardsenf; graukohl; grausenf
  • Italy: senape canuta
  • Latvia: pilkoji hirsfeldija; sirma briežvere
  • Lithuania: sirma briezzvere
  • Spain: citró; ravenissa groga; ravenissa incana
  • Sweden: gråsenap

Summary of Invasiveness

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Hirschfeldia incana, commonly known as shortpod mustard, is an early successional annual to perennial herb. Native to West and Central Asia, parts of Europe, and North Africa, and it has become naturalized in Oceania and temperate zones of Eurasia. It is found in habitat openings caused by natural disturbances, such as roadsides and pastures. It has been reported to accumulate heavy metals and possibly interfere with fire regimes. Seeds are produced in large numbers and are likely to survive in the soil for several years. A weed of economic importance, it infests small grain crops and spreads as a contaminant of fodder, and sometimes seed. H. incana is considered as moderately invasive by the California Invasive Plant Council (DiTommaso et al., 2013) and has been reported as invasive in Hawaii (PIER, 2013).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Capparidales
  •                         Family: Brassicaceae
  •                             Genus: Hirschfeldia
  •                                 Species: Hirschfeldia incana

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Hirschfeldia is a monotypic genus in the Brassicaceae (The Plant List, 2013) closely related to Brassica (Warnick et al., 2009). The genus has been subject to constant discussion and some of its former species have been allocated to other genera and renamed (Siemens, 2011). Hirschfeldia is named after the German garden theoretician Christian Cay Lorenz Hirschfeld (1742-1792).

Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lagr.-Foss. was first described in 1847 by Adrian Rose Arnaud Lagrèze-Fossat (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015). The Latin epiphet incana means hoary, alluding to the greyish colour of this species’ hairs.

There are five reported subspecies: adpressa Maire; consobrinare (Batt.) Mai; geniculata (Desf.) Tzvelev; incrassata Gomez-Campo; and leptocarpa Tzvelev. This reflects the large intra-specific variation, not unsurprising given its broad native range, from Scandanavia to North Africa, and the Atlantic to Central Asia.

Description

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The following is from Webb et al. (1988):

Annual to perennial herb. Hairs stiff, simple, recurved. Stem more or less stout, often much-branched, densely hairy below, becoming glabrous above, 30-70-(100) cm tall. Leaves all densely hairy, petiolate. Rosette leaves crowded, 4-10-(30) × 1.5-3-(6) cm; terminal leaflet ovate to oblong, rarely ± triangular, often with 1-2 rounded lobes at base; lateral lobes oblong to triangular, more or less auriculate at base; margins irregularly bluntly serrate to crenate. Few stem leaves, smaller than rosette lvs and with fewer leaflets, bluntly serrate, the uppermost simple, narrow-oblanceolate. Racemes many, obliquely spreading, 30-50 cm tall. Pedicels erect, swollen and narrowly clavate at fruiting, 4-8 mm long. Sepals 2-3 × 0.5-1 mm, oblanceolate. Petals pale yellow, often with dark veins; claw narrow, ca. one third as long as limb. Silique (seed pod) glabrous, erect, 6-10 × 1-2 mm; valves 4-6 mm long, 3-veined when immature but veins obscure when mature; beak swollen, 2-4 mm long, (0)-1-(2)-seeded. Seeds ca. 1 mm long, (1)-3-5 per locule.

Plant Type

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Biennial
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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H. incana is native to West Asia, Central Asia, North Africa, and has been reported as both native and introduced in parts of Europe (USDA-ARS, 2016). It has been introduced to South Africa, North America, the central Pacific, South America and East Asia. It is also reported to be introduced to Oceania, including Australia and New Zealand (USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016).

There is some disagreement surrounding the native or introduced status of H. incana in Europe, however USDA-ARS (2016) cite H. incana as native to Mediterranean Europe and Black Sea coasts (e.g. Crimea).

According to GBIF (2015), H. incana is native to Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Norway and the UK, whereas USDA-ARS (2016) report the status of the species in these countries as introduced.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentNativeGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016
AzerbaijanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
Georgia (Republic of)Present2004NativeGBIF, 2015
IranPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
IraqPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
IsraelPresentNativeGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HonshuPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
JordanPresentNativeGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016
KyrgyzstanPresent2013NativeGBIF, 2015
LebanonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
Saudi ArabiaPresentNativeGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016
SyriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
TurkeyPresentNativeGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016
YemenPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
LibyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
MoroccoPresentNativeGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016
South AfricaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
TunisiaPresentNativeGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016

North America

MexicoPresent1981IntroducedGBIF, 2015
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaPresent1980IntroducedGBIF, 2015
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Brooks, 2004; DiTommaso et al., 2013; GBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-FloridaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2016
-NevadaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-OregonPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-TexasPresent2015IntroducedGBIF, 2015

South America

ArgentinaPresent1939Introduced Invasive Marzocca et al., 1976; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016Agricultural weed of secondary importance
BoliviaPresent1983IntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
ChilePresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016
ColombiaPresent1997IntroducedGBIF, 2015
UruguayPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
AndorraPresentGBIF, 2015
BelarusPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
BelgiumPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
CroatiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
CyprusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
DenmarkPresent1972GBIF, 2015
EstoniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
FinlandPresent1937NativeGBIF, 2015
FrancePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
GermanyPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
GreecePresentGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016
IrelandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
ItalyPresentNativeGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016
LatviaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
NorwayPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
PolandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
PortugalPresentNativeGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016
-AzoresPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
Russian FederationPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016Dagestan
-Russia (Europe)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
SerbiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
SloveniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
SpainPresentNativeGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016
SwedenPresent1898NativeGBIF, 2015
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
UKPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
UkrainePresentNativeGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016
-New South WalesPresent1903IntroducedGBIF, 2015
-QueenslandPresent1990IntroducedGBIF, 2015
-South AustraliaPresent1880IntroducedGBIF, 2015
-TasmaniaPresent1975IntroducedGBIF, 2015
-VictoriaPresent1912IntroducedGBIF, 2015
-Western AustraliaPresent1988IntroducedGBIF, 2015
New ZealandPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016

History of Introduction and Spread

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H. incana was first collected in North America in 1895 in the San Bernardino region of California and by 1936 it was described as a serious agricultural pest (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 1993). Although the year of its introduction is not known, H. incana has been established in South Australia since 1880 (South East Natural Resources Management Board, 2009).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia 1880 Crop production (pathway cause) Yes South East Natural Resources Management Board (2009) Actual year and reason for introduction are uncertain
USA 1895 Crop production (pathway cause) Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1993) Actual year and reason for introduction are uncertain

Risk of Introduction

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There is a risk of further accidental introductions of H. incana through contamination of agricultural products (see Means of Movement and Dispersal section).

Habitat

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As an early successional plant, H. incana can dominate disturbed habitats such as roadsides, areas of urban development, agricultural fields, pastures, orchards, ditch banks, vineyards, and dry washes. Although its dominance may decline in later successional stages, it may persist indefinitely in riparian areas with repeated natural disturbance (Brooks, 2004).

In Mexico, to date, it has been strongly associated to railways, but there is evidence that H. incana is extending to other habitats (Perdomo Roldán, 2009). In the USA, it has been reported to grow in desert areas (Rollins, 1993). In Hawaii, USA, it is found in dry, disturbed areas and along roadsides in high elevation Sophora dry forest (PIER, 2013).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

This species has a somatic chromosome number of 2n = 14 (n = 7) (Siemens, 2011).

Reproductive Biology

Due to protogyny, H. incana is self-incompatible (Al-Shehbaz, 1977). However, some plants have the ability to self-fertilize (Lee et al., 2004). H. incana is also pollinated by bees (Roubik, 1995). This species reproduces only by seed, although plants can resprout from the base when damaged (DiTommaso et al., 2013).

Gene flow occurs between H. incana and oilseed rape (Brassica napus), and other commercial brassicas (Liu et al., 2013). Darmency & Fleury (2000) investigated the mating system in H. incana and hybridization to oilseed rape. They found that the average rate of spontaneous hybridization between H. incana and oilseed rape (Brassica napus)was 0.6 hybrids per plant over 3 years of field experiments. They concluded that intogression of B. napus genes into H. incana is not likely to be a 'significant phenomenon'.

Physiology and Phenology

This species is a biennial or short-lived perennial, occasionally a winter annual (DiTommaso et al., 2013).

Cotyledons of H. incana are cordate at the apex (French National Institute for Agricultural Research, 2000). This species blooms early in spring and continues to blossom until autumn.

Marushia et al. (2012) investigated phenology, growth and fecundity as determinants of distribution of H. incana and related taxa. It was concluded that during sustained drought these species can still produce seeds and sustain populations with low reproduction rates.

Gresta et al. (2010) reported high germination percentages for H. incana at 30 days after harvest (DAH) both in light and darkness. Rapid germination was reported at 25-30°C in light conditions and 20-25°C in darkness.

Associations

Plants of H. incana often grow alone, rather than in the dense colonies that seem to be the rule for the other mustards. Dense infestations occasionally occur in cultivated or otherwise disturbed areas (Cunningham, 2011).

In Jordan, habitats dominated by H. incana were characterized as the preferred forage habitats of the Sirian Serin (Serinus syriacus), a globally threatened bird species with a distribution range limited to Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Israel (Khoury, 1998). The cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae), which is a pest of economically-important Brasicaceae, breeds on H. incana (Heie et al., 1996).

Environmental Requirements

H. incana is suitable for light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. This species tolerates acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or fully exposed to sun. It prefers well-drained, dry or moist soil (Plants for a Future, 2012). This species thrives under warm conditions (Chronopoulos et al., 2005).

This species thrives in a habitat rich in nitrogen (Chronopoulos et al., 2005). In Europe, this species grows on fertile and alkaline soils rich in organic matter and of different textures (Schulze-Motel, 1986). In Argentina, it is associated with railways and rich soils (Marzocca, 1976).

It grows at altitudes between 100 and 1600 m (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 1993).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Tolerated Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
60-65 60-65

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Rhopalus tigrinus Predator Inflorescence not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Immature specimens of the scentless plant bug (Rhopalus tigrinus) feed on the reproductive structures of H. incana (Wheeler and Hoebeke, 1999).

H. incana has also been reported as a host for Albugo candida caused by white blister (Kavak et al., 2007).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Most of the seed of H. incana disperses by falling close to the parent plant (DiTommaso et al., 2013) and dead plants scatter seed as they are blown about by the wind (South East Natural Resources Management Board, 2009).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

H. incana is probably dispersed by rodents (Brooks, 2004). It is also probable that seeds are dispersed through the guts of livestock after being consumed (Quinn et al., 2008).

Accidental Introduction

The presence of muscilage (adhesive substance) on the seed of H. incana facilitates dispersal on vehicles (Brooks, 2004). Moreover, propagules from plants growing in agricultural fields might be dispersed together with hay (Brooks, 2004). The main means of spread of H. incana is as a contaminant of fodder, and sometimes in oilseeds or vegetable seed (South East Natural Resources Management Board, 2009).

 

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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Due to its potential as a seed contaminant, H. incana is reported to be considered amongst the world’s most economically important weeds (Wiersema and León, 1999). This species is one of the crucifer weeds that competes with broadacre crops and pasture (South East Natural Resources Management Board, 2009).

In Argentina, this species has been reported as an agricultural weed of secondary importance in small grain crops such as canola (oilseed rape) and alfalfa (Marzocca, 1976) and also infests wheat and barley (Heap, 2015).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

According to Brooks (2004), H. incana possibly interferes with fire regimes by increasing fuel loads. However interference only occurs where alien annual grasses have already altered the fire regime, thus the additional effect of this species may be marginal. Moreover, this species may reduce fecundity of co-existing species. Due to its maturation early in the phenologic year, it possibly usurps soil water before other native annual plants reach peak development (Brooks, 2004).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

H. incana is a tertiary genetic relative of rapeseed (Brassica napus), cabagge/kale (B. oleracea), and black mustard (B. nigra) (FitzJohn et al., 2007), and thus hold some potential as a crop wild relative for future breeding programmes.

Social Benefit

The young plant is gathered in spring and boiled in water and eaten with oil and lemon juice in parts of Mediterranean (Facciola, 1990; Siemens, 2011). According to Moerman (1998), seeds can be ground into powder then mixed with water and eaten. According to Siemens (2011), in the times of Dioscorides H. incana was used as a pot plant. H. incana has also been used as a vegetable in Italy, specifically the whorls and shoots of the plant (Biscotti & Pieroni, 2015).

Environmental Services

It has been reported that H. incana exhibits high accumulation of lead (Auguy et al., 2013), arsenic (Gisbert et al., 2008), copper (Chen et al., 2015), and thallium (Madejón, 2005). H. incana could be potentially employed in phytoremediation projects of soils contaminated with industrial residues (Siemens, 2011). Moreover, it could be considered as a good experimental model to identify genes involved in the tolerance and accumulation of heavy metals in plants.

Uses List

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General

  • Research model

Genetic importance

  • Gene source

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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H. incana can be confused with black mustard (Brassica nigra) because both have fruits appressed to the rachis. The former is distinguished from the latter by its distinctly shorter fruit, seeded and often swollen beak, and smaller petals (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2015).

This species can also be confounded with hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale) but the leaves and inflorescences of the latter are not as ramified (Perdomo Roldán et al., 2009).

According to French National Institute for Agricultural Research (2000), H. incana can be confused with annual bastardcabbage (Rapistrum rugosum), though the latter has very characteristic fruits, which are globose and larger than those of H. incana.

Prevention and Control

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Control

Cultural control and sanitary measures

Although neither method has been tested for the management of H. incana, grazing or prescribed burning are not expected to be effective for the control of this species (DiTommaso et al., 2013).

Physical/mechanical control

DiTommaso et al. (2013) recommend manually removing this species before seeds develop (particularly during the seeding stage) as an effective population control method. Periodical manual removal will eventually exhaust the seedbank (DiTomasso et al., 2013).

Biological control

DiTommaso et al. (2013) state that no biological control programme has been developed for the control of this species.

Chemical control

According to Di Tommaso et al. (2013), several of the herbicides used on other annual and perennial members of the Brasicaceae are less effective on H. incana. Nonetheless, a few herbicides provide effective control of this species (Rodríguez, 2005). Glyphosate-based aromatic amino acid inhibitors provide nonselective suppression and have no soil activity. These should be applied shortly after emergence and are more efficient with the addition of ammonium sulfate (DiTommaso et al., 2013). Chlorsulfuron, applied in pre- and post-emergence treatments shows mixed selectivity, but is generally safe on grasses. However, it seems to be less effective in arid environments and has fairly long soil residual activity (DiTommaso et al., 2013). Sulfometuron combined with non-ionic surfactant can be applied to small plants during preemergence or early postemergence (DiTommaso et al., 2013), however, its effectivity is not specified.

In Argentina, H. incana was first reported to have evolved resistance to Group B/2 herbicides in 2013 (Heap, 2015).

References

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Al-Shehbaz IA, 1977. Protogyny in the Cruciferae. Systematic Botany, 2:327-333.

Auguy F; Fahr M; Moulin P; Brugel A; Laplaze L; El-Mzibri M; Filali-Maltouf A; Doumas P; Smouni A, 2013. Lead tolerance and accumulation in Hirschfeldia incana, a Mediterranean Brassicaceae from metalliferous mine spoils. PLoS ONE, 8(5):e61932.

Biscotti N; Pieroni A, 2015. The hidden Mediterranean diet: wild vegetables traditionally gathered and consumed in the Gargano area, Apulia, SE Italy. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 84(3):327-338.

Brooks M, 2004. Hirschfeldia incana. Cal-IPC Plant Assessment Form. USA: California Invasive Plant Council. http://www.cal-ipc.org/paf/site/paf/508

Chen J; Shafi M; Li S; Wang Ying; Wu J; Ye Z; Peng D; Yan W; Liu D, 2015. Copper induced oxidative stresses, antioxidant responses and phytoremediation potential of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). Scientific Reports, 5:13554.

Chronopoulos G; Theocharopoulos M; Christodoulakis D, 2005. Phytosociological study of Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lagraze-Fossat (Cruciferae) communities in mainland Greece. Acta Botanica Croatica, 64(1):75-114.

Cunningham GM; Mulham WE; Milthorpe PL; Leigh JH, 2011. Plants of Western South Wales. Clayton, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 766 pp.

Darmency H; Fleury A, 2000. Mating system in Hirschfeldia incana and hybridization to oilseed rape. Weed Research (Oxford), 40(2):231-238.

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Facciola S, 1990. Cornucopia II: A Source Book of Edible Plants. Vista, California, USA: Kampong Publications, 713 pp.

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French National Institute for Agricultural Research, 2000. Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lagreze-Fossat. France: Unit of Weed Science and Agronomy, INRA. http://www2.dijon.inra.fr/hyppa/hyppa-a/hisin_ah.htm

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Gisbert C; Almela C; Vélez D; López-Moya JR; Haro Ade; Serrano R; Montoro R; Navarro-Aviñó J, 2008. Identification of As accumulation plant species growing on highly contaminated soils. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 10(3):183-194.

Gresta F; Cristaudo A; Onofri A; Restuccia A; Avola G, 2010. Germination response of four pasture species to temperature, light, and post-harvest period. Plant Biosystems, 144(4):849-856.

Heap I, 2015. Group B/2 Resistant Shortpod Mustard (Hirschfeldia incana). The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. http://weedscience.org/details/case.aspx?ResistID=11008

Heie OE; Fuentes-Contreras J; Niemeyer HM, 1996. New records of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidoiea) and their host plants from Northern Chile. Revista Chilena de Entomologia, 23:83-87.

Kavak H; Katircioglu Z; Bukun B, 2007. Hirschfeldia incana, a new host report for white blister caused by Albugo candida in Turkey. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 2(1):149.

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Liu YongBo; Wei Wei; Ma KePing; Li JunSheng; Liang YuYong; Darmency H, 2013. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives. Plant Science, 211:42-51.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
California Invasive Plant Councilhttp://www.cal-ipc.org
Global Biodiversity Information Facilityhttp://data.gbif.org

Organizations

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Mexico: Consejo Nacional para la Biodiversidad – Project Weeds of Mexico (CONABIO), http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/home-malezas-mexico.htm

USA: California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC), 1442-A Walnut Street, #462, Berkeley, California, CA 94709, http://www.cal-ipc.org/

Contributors

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31/12/2015 Original text by:

Diana Quiroz, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Netherlands

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