Glyceria declinata (small sweet grass)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Soil Tolerances
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Detection and Inspection
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Glyceria declinata
Preferred Common Name
- small sweet grass
Other Scientific Names
- Glyceria cookei Swallen
- Glyceria fluitans ssp. declinata (Bréb.) O. Bolòs, Masalles & Vigo
- Glyceria fluitans var. declinata (Bréb.) Ghisa
- Glyceria fluitans var. pumila Andersson
- Glyceria notata ssp. declinata (Bréb.) Weeda
- Glyceria plicata ssp. declinata (Bréb.) Weeda
- Glyceria plicata var. declinata (Bréb.) Druce
International Common Names
- English: blue sweet grass
Local Common Names
- : glycérie inclinée
- : small manna grass
- Finland: pikkusorsimo
- Germany: Blaugrüner Schwaden
- Italy: gramignone atlantico
- Netherlands: Boskflotgers; getand vlotgras
- USA: low glyceria; waxy mannagrass
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
G. declinata is a perennial grass associated with shallow water. It is native throughout Europe and in Morocco. It has been introduced to, and is invasive in, North America, Australia and New Zealand.
In California, G. declinata has invaded deep vernal pools, swales, ditches and stock ponds, and is reported to be rapidly spreading in California's Central Valley (Cal-IPC, 2012). The invasion has led to a degradation of vernal pool ecosystems, the habitat of many federal and state protected endangered and threatened species (Gerlach et al., 2009), and has also become a problem in rice plantations in Louisiana.
In Australia, Jessop et al. (2006) described the species as occurring along creeks and in seasonally flooded areas. However, G. declinata is not considered a serious threat there and is acceptable as an impurity in seed imported into Australia subject to certain conditions (AQIS, 2012). In New Zealand, G. declinata is found in wetlands, bogs, freshwater margins, lakes and streams, but is only considered problematic in Northland where its total control is required in designated community control areas, with the long term goal of preventing deterioration of areas with significant ecological and economic values.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Monocotyledonae
- Order: Cyperales
- Family: Poaceae
- Genus: Glyceria
- Species: Glyceria declinata
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The genus Glyceria includes approximately 40 species, although accounts differ on the precise number. Glyceria declinata has been confused with other species of the same genus and, occasionally, hybrids may form between it and other species. For example, in California, G. declinata (introduced from Europe and known in North America as low mannagrass) was thought to be identical to the native G. occidentalis (western mannagrass) until Whipple et al. (2007) demonstrated that the two were different and that G. declinata was actively invading vernal pools in California, the extent of its spread being later confirmed by Gerlach et al. (2009).
In Britain and New Zealand, earlier collections of G. declinata were often confused with G. fluitans (Hubbard, 1984; Edgar and Connor, 2010). Both were early introductions to New Zealand from Europe. In Britain, Hubbard (1984) reported a rare hybrid between G. declinata and G. fluitans.
DescriptionTop of page
The following is adapted from Clayton et al. (2012):
G. declinata grows to about 10-45 cm tall. It is a perennial and caespitose. Culms erect, decumbent, or prostrate; 10–45 cm long; 1–3 -noded. Leaf-sheaths tubular for much of their length; keeled; smooth; glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 4–9 mm long; acute. Leaf-blades flat, or conduplicate; 3–18 cm long; 1.5–8 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth, margins scabrous.
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; linear, or lanceolate; equilateral, or nodding; 4–30 cm long. Primary panicle branches appressed, or ascending; 1–3 -nate; simple. Panicle branches smooth. Spikelets ascending, or appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels 1.5–4 mm long.
Spikelets comprising 8–15 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed slightly; 13–25 mm long; 1.5–2 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume oblong, or ovate; 1.5–2.5 mm long; 0.6–0.8 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume oblong, or ovate; 2.5–3 mm long; 0.6–0.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex obtuse.
Fertile lemma oblong; 4–5 mm long; membranous; much thinner above; without keel; 7 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous. Lemma apex dentate; 3–5 -fid; obtuse. Palea 1.1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels winged; narrowly winged. Palea apex dentate; 2 -fid. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Lodicules 2; united; oblong; fleshy; truncate. Anthers 3; 1–1.5 mm long; yellow, or purple.
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; 1.5–2.3 mm long. Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis.
Plant TypeTop of page Aquatic
Grass / sedge
DistributionTop of page
Most Glyceria spp. grow in generally wet areas in many parts of the world. Species are found in Europe, Africa, temperate and tropical Asia, Australasia, the Pacific, North and South America (Clayton et al., 2012). G. declinata is native throughout Europe and in Morocco, and has been introduced to North Ameria, Australia and New Zealand.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Austria||Present, Widespread||Native||USDA-ARS (2012)|
|Belgium||Present, Widespread||Native||USDA-ARS (2012)|
|Denmark||Present, Widespread||Native||USDA-ARS (2012)|
|Finland||Present||Native||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Lahtonen and (1996)|
|France||Present, Widespread||Native||Tsvelev (2006)|
|Germany||Present, Widespread||Native||USDA-ARS (2012)|
|Ireland||Present, Widespread||Native||USDA-ARS (2012)|
|Netherlands||Present, Widespread||Native||USDA-ARS (2012)|
|Norway||Present||Native||Grøstad and Halvorsen (2000)|
|-Madeira||Present||Native||Valdes and Scholz (2009)|
|Spain||Present, Widespread||Native||USDA-ARS (2012)|
|Sweden||Present, Widespread||Native||NOBANIS (2012)|
|United Kingdom||Present, Widespread||Native||CABI (Undated b)|
|Canada||Present||CABI (Undated a)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-British Columbia||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS (2012)|
|United States||Present||CABI (Undated a)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Arizona||Present||Introduced||Barkworth and Anderton (2007)|
|-California||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive||Leppig (2012)|
|-New York||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS (2012)|
|-Oregon||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive||Bushman et al. (2007)|
|-Texas||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive||Allen et al. (2009)|
|-Washington||Present||Introduced||Weinmann et al. (2002)|
|Australia||Present||CABI (Undated a)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-New South Wales||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Atlas of Living Australia (2012)|
|-South Australia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Atlas of Living Australia (2012)|
|-Tasmania||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Atlas of Living Australia (2012)|
|-Victoria||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Atlas of Living Australia (2012)|
|-Western Australia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Atlas of Living Australia (2012)|
|New Zealand||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Edgar and Connor (2010)|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
In Australia, although a specimen was lodged in the National Herbarium of New South Wales in 1903, recorded details were sketchy (CHAH, 2012). The next herbarium record was for a collection from Augusta-Margaret River (Western Australia) in 1932.
IntroductionsTop of page
HabitatTop of page
Gerlach (2006) states that in areas with a temperate climate, G. declinata is considered a coloniser of mud flats, banks along slow moving rivers and streams, and along the shores of lakes and ponds. It generally grows in the less inundated areas between the more flood-tolerant G. fluitans and upland vegetation.
Hubbard (1984) described the habitat of G. declinata in Britain as ‘on muddy or dried-up margins and in the shallow water of ponds, ditches and streams’. Gerlach (2006) reported that in areas of Spain and Portugal with a Mediterranean climate G. declinata is often a dominant native species of vernal pools, and that it occurs as a weed of rice fields in Spain and Portugal, where it appears to behave as an annual species. In California, the species is reported as invasive in deep vernal pools, swales, ditches and stock ponds (Cal-IPC, 2012). In Australia, too, the species occurs in wet and seasonally inundated places (Simon and Alfonso, 2012). In New Zealand, Edgar and Connor (2010) describe its habitat as ‘in damp ground in swamps, on stream margins, along drains and in damp pasture’.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Swamps||Present, no further details|
|Mud flats||Present, no further details|
|Lakes||Present, no further details|
|Rivers / streams||Principal habitat||Natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
G. declinata is a diploid with a chromosome count of 2n=20 (Borrill, 1957b). G. declinata is highly self-fertile and the viability of the seed produced compared favourably with that of the open-pollinated seed from the original parents. Borrill (1957b) concluded that the species can be regarded as ‘largely inbreeding’. When he tried crossing (in both directions) the diploid G. declinata with the tetraploids G. fluitans or G. plicata, these were completely unsuccessful as no signs of seed development were seen. However, Hubbard (1984) notes the presence of a very rare hybrid between G.declinata and G. fluitans in Hertfordshire, England, UK.
Borrill (1957a; 1957b) studied the breeding systems and fertility relationships of G. declinata and two other British species of Glyceria. He found that all five of the populations of G. declinata studied flowered in the first season (flowers emerged between 20 July and 1 August), presumably after planting the previous autumn.
In the Central Valley of California the spikelets mature from late April through May and shatter at maturity, coating the ground below with seed (Gerlach, 2006).
Borrill (1957b), in three British species of Glyceria, observed that anthesis occurs in the morning, the terminal spikelets being the first to mature followed by the next spikelet down, and so on. Within each spikelet the florets mature strictly from base to apex. In G. declinata the first sign of anthesis is the slight separation of palea and lemma on a basal floret, followed by the opening of up to six florets in the same spikelet. The lemma and palea diverge widely as the filaments elongate and the short feathery stigmas protrude slightly. Dehiscence of the small anthers is by two longitudinal slits; after shedding pollen the anthers curl up and become shorter. The stigmas appear to be fully receptive when the pollen grains are shed. Pollinated or not, the florets remain open for up to 10 minutes.
Physiology and Phenology
Borrill (1957a) studied the variations in morphology of five populations of G. declinata sourced from different locations but grown from seed under uniform conditions. Plant bulk (dry weight, number of culms and shoots) formed the main feature of the differences between populations; floral differences were less pronounced. By contrast, different races of G. fluitans were more variable, and differed from each other in spikelet, leaf and culm length.
Gerlach (2006) reported that ‘while G. declinata is described as a perennial species, all observations from the Central Valley of California indicate that it is either an annual genotype or growing as a facultative annual.’
Soil TolerancesTop of page
- seasonally waterlogged
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
Seeds become attached to waterfowl and grazing animals (Hubbard, 1942, cited in Gerlach et al., 2009), and waterfowl are strongly attracted to maturing plants, stripping the seed from the culms with their bills, and probably function as primary long distance seed dispersal vectors (Gerlach, 2006). Seed dispersal by waterfowl has probably increased dramatically as non-migratory populations of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) has risen dramatically in California during the last 20 years. Humans and wildlife also disperse the seed over shorter distances as seed readily adheres to wet clothes and boots.
G. declinata may have been accidentally introduced into Louisiana as a contaminant of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seed, which is used to maintain levee integrity over winter (Braverman, 1996).
Pathway CausesTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
While G. declinata has been collected from rice fields in Butte County, California, for 20 years, it has recently become problematic enough to be considered a winter and spring weed as its dense populations make it more difficult to cultivate the fields for planting (Gerlach, 2006). It also causes problems in rice in Louisiana (Braverman, 1996). G. declinata growing alongside railway tracks in Germany is one of the species that can, if it catches fire during very dry years, disrupt train services and damage nearby property (Hetzel and Goldammer, 2004).
Hubbard (1984) described the species as grazed by cattle along with other aquatic grasses.
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Its population dynamics in the vernal pools of California’s Central Valley are considered erratic, but it often establishes dense stands of large plants which shade-out endemic species and eliminate the bare ground that they require for germination and establishment (Gerlach, 2006). It produces an enormous amount of fine root mass on or just under the surface of the soil as well as a large leaf mass. These biomass changes probably affect nutrient cycling in the vernal pools and negatively impact vernal pool hydrology through increased transpiration. These Californian vernal poolsare some of the most important natural resources in California and contain both federal and state listed endangered plant and animal species (Gerlach, 2006). Dense G. declinata invasions appear to eliminate or significantly reduce populations of all native annual plant species, such as endangered Orcuttia viscida (Sacramento orcutt grass) from the vernal pools (Gerlach, 2006). G. declinata was rated a weed of ‘moderate’ impact by the Californian Invasive Plants Council (Cal-IPC, 2012).
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Orcuttia pilosa (hairy Orcutt grass)||NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species||California||Competition - strangling||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009|
|Orcuttia viscida (Sacramento Orcutt grass)||NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species||California||Competition - strangling||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008|
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Has high reproductive potential
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of natural benthic communities
- Reduced amenity values
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - smothering
- Competition - strangling
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Distinguishing between G. declinata and other species morphologically is not always easy. Hubbard (1984) described G. declinata as 'distinguished from other British species of Glyceria by the 3-toothed or 3-5-lobed tips of the lemmas and by the sharply 2-toothed tips of the paleas'. In the USA, in distinguishing G. declinata from the similar native species G. occidentalis, Whipple et al. (2007) described G. declinata as ‘usually shorter and more decumbent than G. occidentalis, its panicle branches tend to be shorter, straighter, and have fewer spikelets than those of G. occidentalis, and its lemmas have two or more equal lobes on either side of the tip rather than inconspicuous, unequal lobes.’
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures
Excluding humans and domestic animals from populations of G. declinata ‘from the beginning of spikelet shattering until all seed has been dropped’ may help prevent the spread of the species (Gerlach, 2006). For vernal pools in California, the same author recommends exclusion of humans and domestic animals until the pools are completely dry, and that ‘all equipment used in both natural and created vernal pools is absolutely free of adhering seed or soil’ (Gerlach, 2006).
To prevent the spread of G. declinata by waterfowl, Gerlach (2006) suggests that artificial ponds which attract waterfowl should be destroyed or otherwise made unattractive to waterfowl, for example by changing water sources. Additionally, ‘Glyceria species are generally regarded as species with high soil and water fertility requirements so precautions should be taken to prevent the addition of nutrients in any form’ (Gerlach, 2006).
In vernal pools in California, Gerlach (2006) recommends hand weeding prior to spikelet shattering as effective for small populations ‘in high value vernal pools’, although it must be carried out annually ‘until the seed bank is completely exhausted’. 'Surrounding vernal pools and swales should also be weeded to prevent the rapid reintroduction of seed' (Gerlach, 2006).
Braverman (1996) tested herbicides for the control of G. declinata in rice in Louisiana and found that glyphosate, clethodim, sethoxydim or sulfosate all gave over 90% control. He also found that a range of post-emergent treatments increased rice yields substantially.
Hinds-Cook et al. (2007) tested herbicides for the control of Glyceria spp. (species not specified) in grass seed (Italian ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum, seedling perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, or seedling tall fescue, Schedenorus arundinacea) production fields in Oregon, where Glyceria spp. have developed resistance to ethofumesate. They found that the HPPD enzyme-inhibitors mesotrione, pyrasulfotole-bromoxynil and topramezone all gave good control of Glyceria spp.
Intergrated Pest Management
Gerlach (2006), in considering control in California’s vernal pools, warned that control methods will require persistence and may be a ‘complex regulatory problem’ when pools contain vulnerable or sensitive species.
ReferencesTop of page
Allen CM, Lewis P, Lewis DP, 2009. Glyceria declinata (Poaceae) new to the flora of Texas. Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 3(1):393-394. http://www2.brit.org/fileadmin/Publications/JBotResInstTexas_3_1/393-394_Allen_etal_Glyceria_JBRIT3_1__50.pdf
AQIS, 2012. Glyceria species. Import Case Details - Public Listing. Canberra, Australia: Australian Quarantine and Inspection Services (AQIS). http://www.aqis.gov.au/icon32/asp/ex_casecontent.asp?intNodeId=8388941&intCommodityId=24347&Types=none&WhichQuery=Go+to+full+text&intSearch=1&LogSessionID=0
Atlas of Living Australia, 2012. Glyceria declinata Breb.: glaucous sweet-grass. Glyceria declinata: glaucous sweet-grass. Canberra, Australia: Atlas of Living Australia (online). http://bie.ala.org.au/species/Glyceria+declinata
Australia's Virtual Herbarium, accessed December from http://avh 182012, 2012. . http://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=GLYCERIA+DECLINATA#recordsView
Barkworth ME, Anderton LK, 2007. Glyceria, modified by Barkworth from Barkworth et al. Glyceria, 24. [Flora of North America]. Grass Manual on the Web, Utah State University, USA. http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/info2.asp?name=Glyceria&type=treatment
Borrill M, 1957. A biosystematic study of some Glyceria species. 3. Biometrical studies. A biosystematic study of some Glyceria species, 4:77-88 (PhD thesis). http://archive.bsbi.org.uk/Wats4p77.pdf
Borrill M, 1957. A biosystematic study of some Glyceria species. 4. Breeding systems, fertility relationships and general discussion. A biosystematic study of some Glyceria species, 4:89-100. http://archive.bsbi.uk/Wats4p89
Cal-IPC, 2012. Glyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass). Berkeley, California, USA: California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC). http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/management/plant_profiles/Glyceria_declinata.php
Clayton WD, Vorontsova MS, Harman KT, Williamson H, 2012. GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. London, UK: The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH), 2012. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. http://avh.ala.org.au
DAISIE, 2012. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. DAISIE (online). www.europe-aliens.org
Gerlach JD, 2006. Glyceria declinata. University of Georgia, USA: Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (online). [The Global Invasive Species Team.] http://www.invasive.org/gist/alert/alrtgly2.html
Gerlach JD, Bushman BS, McKay JK, Meimberg H, 2009. Taxonomic confusion permits the unchecked invasion of vernal pools in California by low mannagrass (Glyceria declinata). Invasive Plant Science and Management, 2(1):92-97. http://www.wssa.net
Grøstad T, Halvorsen R, 2000. Glyceria declinata found at two new localities in Larvik municipality, Vestfold county, SE Norway. (Buesøtgras Glyceria declinata Breb funnet pa to nye lokaliteter i Larvik kommune, Vestfold.) Blyttia, 58(2):114-116.
Hetzel G, Goldammer JG, 2004. The use of prescribed fire on embankments along railway tracks for reducing wildfire ignition in Germany. International Forest Fire News, 30:65-69. http://www.fire.uni-freiburg.de/iffn/iffn_30/13-IFFN-30-Germany-Railways.pdf
Hinds-Cook BJ, Curtis DW, Mallory-Smith CA, Hulting AG, 2007. Control of mannagrass in grasses grown for seed. [Seed Production Research at Oregon State University 2007, USA.] http://seed-ext.cropandsoil.oregonstate.edu/Pub/2007/7-Hinds-Cook,Curtis.pdf
Hubbard CE, 1942. Annual meeting in the University Department of Botany, Oxford, 30. London, UK: Journal of Ecology, 227-233.
Hubbard CE, 1984. Grasses, a guide to their structure, identification, uses and distribution in the British Isles (Third edition). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books Ltd, 476 pp.
ITIS, 2013. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution/NMNH. http://www.itis.gov/
Jessop J, Dashorst GRM, James FM, 2006. Grasses of South Australia. Kent Town, South Australia, Australia: Wakefield Press, 554 pp.
Lahtonen T, "Pikkusorsimo" (Glyceria declinata) Suomenlinnassa Lutukka 1996-12(4):121, 1996. 'Pikkusorsimo' (Glyceria declinata) Suomenlinnassa. 'Pikkusorsimo' (Glyceria declinata). Lutukka, 12(4):121-122. http://www.luomus.fi/english/publications/lutukka/summaries/1996-4.htm
Leppig G, 2012. G. declinata Breb. low manna grass. In: Jepson Flora Project. G. declinata low manna grass. University of California, Berkeley, USA: Jepson eFlora (online). [Jepson Flora Project.] http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_cpn.pl?GLDE
Molina JA, 1996. The vegetation of the wetlands of the Iberian Peninsula (Phragmiti-Magnocaricetea). (Sobre la vegetación de los humedales de la Península Ibérica (I. Phragmiti-Magnocaricetea).) Lazaroa, 16:27-88.
NOBANIS, 2012. European Network on Invasive Alien Species. European Network on Invasive Alien Species (online). www.nobanis.org
Simon BK, Alfonso Y, 2012. AusGrass2. http://ausgrass2.myspecies.info
Tsvelev NN, 2006. Synopsis of the mannagrass genus Glyceria (Poaceae). Botanicheskii Zhurnal Moscow & Leningrad, 91(2):255-276. http://herbarium.usu.edu/translate/GlyceriaTsvelev.htm
USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/
Valdes B, Scholz H, 2009. Poaceae (pro parte majore). Euro+Med Plantbase. http://ww2.bgbm.org/euroPlusMed/PTaxonDetail.asp?UUID=1EAA1377-568A-4B1D-8C7D-FCFA69539AC5
Walters SM, 1959. Heleocharis austriaca Hayek and Glyceria declinata Breb., two plants new to the flora of Poland (Heleocharis austriaca Hayek i Glyceria declinata Breb., dwie nowe rosliny dia flory polskiei). Fragmenta et Floristica Geobotanica, 2:239-244. http://www.ib-pan.krakow.pl/pubs-pdf/Fragmenta%20Flor.%20Geobot./1959/5_b239-244.pdf
Weinmann F, Zika PF, Giblin DE, Legler B, 2002. Glyceria declinata Bréb.: low glyceria. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Washington State. Glyceria declinata Bréb.: low glyceria. Washington, USA: University of Washington Herbarium. [Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Washington State.] http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/waflora/checklist.php?Taxon=Glyceria declinata
Allen CM, Lewis P, Lewis DP, 2009. Glyceria declinata (Poaceae) new to the flora of Texas. In: Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 3 (1) 393-394. http://www2.brit.org/fileadmin/Publications/JBotResInstTexas_3_1/393-394_Allen_etal_Glyceria_JBRIT3_1__50.pdf
Atlas of Living Australia, 2012. (Glyceria declinata Breb.: glaucous sweet-grass). In: Glyceria declinata: glaucous sweet-grass, Canberra, Australia: Atlas of Living Australia. http://bie.ala.org.au/species/Glyceria+declinata
Barkworth ME, Anderton LK, 2007. Glyceria, modified by Barkworth from Barkworth et al. Glyceria, [Flora of North America]. In: Grass Manual on the Web, 24 USA: Utah State University. http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/info2.asp?name=Glyceria&type=treatment
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
DAISIE, 2012. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/
Grøstad T, Halvorsen R, 2000. Glyceria declinata found at two new localities in Larvik municipality, Vestfold county, SE Norway. (Buesøtgras Glyceria declinata Breb funnet pǻ to nye lokaliteter i Larvik kommune, Vestfold.). Blyttia. 58 (2), 114-116.
Leppig G, 2012. G. declinata Breb. low manna grass. In: Jepson Flora Project. G. declinata low manna grass, Berkeley, USA: University of California Jepson eFlora. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_cpn.pl?GLDE
NOBANIS, 2012. European Network on Invasive Alien Species., http://www.nobanis.org
Tsvelev NN, 2006. Synopsis of the mannagrass genus Glyceria (Poaceae). In: Botanicheskii Zhurnal Moscow & Leningrad, 91 (2) 255-276. http://herbarium.usu.edu/translate/GlyceriaTsvelev.htm
USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx
USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov
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ContributorsTop of page
25/01/2013: Original text by:
Ian Popay, consultant, New Zealand, with the support of Landcare Research.
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