Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Glyceria declinata
(small sweet grass)

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Datasheet

Glyceria declinata (small sweet grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Glyceria declinata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • small sweet grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • G. declinata is a perennial grass associated with shallow water. It is native throughout Europe and in Morocco. It has been introduced to, and is invasive in, North America, Australia and New Zealand.

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Glyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass), habitat: growing in wet pasture
TitleHabit
CaptionGlyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass), habitat: growing in wet pasture
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Glyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass), habitat: growing in wet pasture
HabitGlyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass), habitat: growing in wet pasture©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Glyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass), habitat: growing in shallow water
TitleHabit
CaptionGlyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass), habitat: growing in shallow water
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Glyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass), habitat: growing in shallow water
HabitGlyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass), habitat: growing in shallow water©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Glyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass) flower, single spikelet
TitleFlower spike
CaptionGlyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass) flower, single spikelet
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Glyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass) flower, single spikelet
Flower spikeGlyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass) flower, single spikelet©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Glyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass), ligule
TitleLigule
CaptionGlyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass), ligule
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Glyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass), ligule
LiguleGlyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass), ligule©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Glyceria declinata, parts not to scale: S, spikelet; G1, G2, glumes; L, lemma lateral and dorsal view; P, palea dorsal view; Lo, lodicule dorsal and lateral view; O, ovary, styles and stigmas; St, stamens.
TitleMorphology
CaptionGlyceria declinata, parts not to scale: S, spikelet; G1, G2, glumes; L, lemma lateral and dorsal view; P, palea dorsal view; Lo, lodicule dorsal and lateral view; O, ovary, styles and stigmas; St, stamens.
Copyright©Landcare Research New Zealand Limited - Reproduced with permission from page 218 of Edgar E & Connor HE (2010) Flora of New Zealand, Vol. 5: Grasses.
Glyceria declinata, parts not to scale: S, spikelet; G1, G2, glumes; L, lemma lateral and dorsal view; P, palea dorsal view; Lo, lodicule dorsal and lateral view; O, ovary, styles and stigmas; St, stamens.
MorphologyGlyceria declinata, parts not to scale: S, spikelet; G1, G2, glumes; L, lemma lateral and dorsal view; P, palea dorsal view; Lo, lodicule dorsal and lateral view; O, ovary, styles and stigmas; St, stamens.©Landcare Research New Zealand Limited - Reproduced with permission from page 218 of Edgar E & Connor HE (2010) Flora of New Zealand, Vol. 5: Grasses.

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Glyceria declinata

Preferred Common Name

  • small sweet grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Glyceria cookei Swallen
  • Glyceria fluitans ssp. declinata (Bréb.) O. Bolòs, Masalles & Vigo
  • Glyceria fluitans var. declinata (Bréb.) Ghisa
  • Glyceria fluitans var. pumila Andersson
  • Glyceria notata ssp. declinata (Bréb.) Weeda
  • Glyceria plicata ssp. declinata (Bréb.) Weeda
  • Glyceria plicata var. declinata (Bréb.) Druce

International Common Names

  • English: blue sweet grass

Local Common Names

  • : glycérie inclinée
  • : small manna grass
  • Finland: pikkusorsimo
  • Germany: Blaugrüner Schwaden
  • Italy: gramignone atlantico
  • Netherlands: Boskflotgers; getand vlotgras
  • USA: low glyceria; waxy mannagrass

Summary of Invasiveness

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G. declinata is a perennial grass associated with shallow water. It is native throughout Europe and in Morocco. It has been introduced to, and is invasive in, North America, Australia and New Zealand.

In California, G. declinata has invaded deep vernal pools, swales, ditches and stock ponds, and is reported to be rapidly spreading in California's Central Valley (Cal-IPC, 2012). The invasion has led to a degradation of vernal pool ecosystems, the habitat of many federal and state protected endangered and threatened species (Gerlach et al., 2009), and  has also become a problem in rice plantations in Louisiana.

In Australia, Jessop et al. (2006) described the species as occurring along creeks and in seasonally flooded areas. However, G. declinata is not considered a serious threat there and is acceptable as an impurity in seed imported into Australia subject to certain conditions (AQIS, 2012). In New Zealand, G. declinata is found in wetlands, bogs, freshwater margins, lakes and streams, but is only considered problematic in Northland where its total control is required in designated community control areas, with the long term goal of preventing deterioration of areas with significant ecological and economic values.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Glyceria
  •                                 Species: Glyceria declinata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Glyceria includes approximately 40 species, although accounts differ on the precise number. Glyceria declinata has been confused with other species of the same genus and, occasionally, hybrids may form between it and other species. For example, in California, G. declinata (introduced from Europe and known in North America as low mannagrass) was thought to be identical to the native G. occidentalis (western mannagrass) until Whipple et al. (2007) demonstrated that the two were different and that G. declinata was actively invading vernal pools in California, the extent of its spread being later confirmed by Gerlach et al. (2009).

In Britain and New Zealand, earlier collections of G. declinata were often confused with G. fluitans (Hubbard, 1984; Edgar and Connor, 2010). Both were early introductions to New Zealand from Europe. In Britain, Hubbard (1984) reported a rare hybrid between G. declinata and G. fluitans.

Description

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The following is adapted from Clayton et al. (2012):

Habit

G. declinata grows to about 10-45 cm tall. It is a perennial and caespitose. Culms erect, decumbent, or prostrate; 10–45 cm long; 1–3 -noded. Leaf-sheaths tubular for much of their length; keeled; smooth; glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 4–9 mm long; acute. Leaf-blades flat, or conduplicate; 3–18 cm long; 1.5–8 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth, margins scabrous.

Inflorescence

Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; linear, or lanceolate; equilateral, or nodding; 4–30 cm long. Primary panicle branches appressed, or ascending; 1–3 -nate; simple. Panicle branches smooth. Spikelets ascending, or appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels 1.5–4 mm long.

Fertile spikelets

Spikelets comprising 8–15 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed slightly; 13–25 mm long; 1.5–2 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.

Glumes

Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume oblong, or ovate; 1.5–2.5 mm long; 0.6–0.8 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume oblong, or ovate; 2.5–3 mm long; 0.6–0.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex obtuse.

Florets

Fertile lemma oblong; 4–5 mm long; membranous; much thinner above; without keel; 7 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous. Lemma apex dentate; 3–5 -fid; obtuse. Palea 1.1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels winged; narrowly winged. Palea apex dentate; 2 -fid. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.

Flower

Lodicules 2; united; oblong; fleshy; truncate. Anthers 3; 1–1.5 mm long; yellow, or purple.

Fruit

Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; 1.5–2.3 mm long. Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis.

Plant Type

Top of page Aquatic
Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Africa

MoroccoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedBarkworth and Anderton, 2007
-CaliforniaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Leppig, 2012
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012
-NevadaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012
-New YorkPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2012
-OregonLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Bushman et al., 2007
-TexasLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Allen et al., 2009
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedWeinmann et al., 2002

Europe

AustriaWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
BelarusPresentNativeTsvelev, 2006
BelgiumWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
Czech RepublicPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentNativeWalters, 1959
DenmarkWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
FinlandPresentNativeLahtonen and, 1996
FranceWidespreadNativeTsvelev, 2006
GermanyWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
HungaryPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
IrelandWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
ItalyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
LatviaPresentNativeTsvelev, 2006
LithuaniaPresentNativeTsvelev, 2006
NetherlandsWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
NorwayPresentNativeGrøstad and Halvorsen, 2000
PolandPresentNativeWalters, 1959
PortugalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-AzoresPresentDAISIE, 2012
-MadeiraPresentNativeValdes and Scholz, 2009
RomaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
Russian FederationPresentNativeWalters, 1959
SlovakiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
SpainWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
SwedenWidespreadNativeNOBANIS, 2012
SwitzerlandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
UKWidespreadNative
UkrainePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive Atlas of Living Australia, 2012
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Atlas of Living Australia, 2012
-TasmaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Atlas of Living Australia, 2012
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced Invasive Atlas of Living Australia, 2012
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Atlas of Living Australia, 2012
New ZealandWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Edgar and Connor, 2010

History of Introduction and Spread

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According to Gerlach (2006), G. declinata was first identified in California in 1953, although Gerlach et al. (2009) mentioned the first herbarium record in California as being from 1946. 

In Australia, although a specimen was lodged in the National Herbarium of New South Wales in 1903, recorded details were sketchy (CHAH, 2012). The next herbarium record was for a collection from Augusta-Margaret River (Western Australia) in 1932.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia 1932 No No CHAH and (2012)
California 1946 Yes No Gerlach et al. (2009)

Habitat

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Gerlach (2006) states that in areas with a temperate climate, G. declinata is considered a coloniser of mud flats, banks along slow moving rivers and streams, and along the shores of lakes and ponds. It generally grows in the less inundated areas between the more flood-tolerant G. fluitans and upland vegetation.

Hubbard (1984) described the habitat of G. declinata in Britain as ‘on muddy or dried-up margins and in the shallow water of ponds, ditches and streams’. Gerlach (2006) reported that in areas of Spain and Portugal with a Mediterranean climate G. declinata is often a dominant native species of vernal pools, and that it occurs as a weed of rice fields in Spain and Portugal, where it appears to behave as an annual species. In California, the species is reported as invasive in deep vernal pools, swales, ditches and stock ponds (Cal-IPC, 2012). In Australia, too, the species occurs in wet and seasonally inundated places (Simon and Alfonso, 2012). In New Zealand, Edgar and Connor (2010) describe its habitat as ‘in damp ground in swamps, on stream margins, along drains and in damp pasture’.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalSwamps Present, no further details
Wetlands Principal habitat
Littoral
Mud flats Present, no further details
Freshwater
Lakes Present, no further details
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural
Ponds Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

G. declinata is a diploid with a chromosome count of 2n=20 (Borrill, 1957b). G. declinata is highly self-fertile and the viability of the seed produced compared favourably with that of the open-pollinated seed from the original parents. Borrill (1957b) concluded that the species can be regarded as ‘largely inbreeding’. When he tried crossing (in both directions) the diploid G. declinata with the tetraploids G. fluitans or G. plicata, these were completely unsuccessful as no signs of seed development were seen. However, Hubbard (1984) notes the presence of a very rare hybrid between G.declinata and G. fluitans in Hertfordshire, England, UK.

Reproductive Biology

Borrill (1957a; 1957b) studied the breeding systems and fertility relationships of G. declinata and two other British species of Glyceria. He found that all five of the populations of G. declinata studied flowered in the first season (flowers emerged between 20 July and 1 August), presumably after planting the previous autumn. 

In the Central Valley of California the spikelets mature from late April through May and shatter at maturity, coating the ground below with seed (Gerlach, 2006).

Borrill (1957b), in three British species of Glyceria, observed that anthesis occurs in the morning, the terminal spikelets being the first to mature followed by the next spikelet down, and so on. Within each spikelet the florets mature strictly from base to apex. In G. declinata the first sign of anthesis is the slight separation of palea and lemma on a basal floret, followed by the opening of up to six florets in the same spikelet. The lemma and palea diverge widely as the filaments elongate and the short feathery stigmas protrude slightly. Dehiscence of the small anthers is by two longitudinal slits; after shedding pollen the anthers curl up and become shorter. The stigmas appear to be fully receptive when the pollen grains are shed. Pollinated or not, the florets remain open for up to 10 minutes.

Physiology and Phenology

Borrill (1957a) studied the variations in morphology of five populations of G. declinata sourced from different locations but grown from seed under uniform conditions. Plant bulk (dry weight, number of culms and shoots) formed the main feature of the differences between populations; floral differences were less pronounced. By contrast, different races of G. fluitans were more variable, and differed from each other in spikelet, leaf and culm length.

Gerlach (2006) reported that ‘while G. declinata is described as a perennial species, all observations from the Central Valley of California indicate that it is either an annual genotype or growing as a facultative annual.’

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Gerlach et al. (2009) quoted Hubbard (1942) in saying the seeds are easily dispersed by water due to their ability to float.

 Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Seeds become attached to waterfowl and grazing animals (Hubbard, 1942, cited in Gerlach et al., 2009), and waterfowl are strongly attracted to maturing plants, stripping the seed from the culms with their bills, and probably function as primary long distance seed dispersal vectors (Gerlach, 2006). Seed dispersal by waterfowl has probably increased dramatically as non-migratory populations of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) has risen dramatically in California during the last 20 years. Humans and wildlife also disperse the seed over shorter distances as seed readily adheres to wet clothes and boots.

Accidental Introduction

G. declinata may have been accidentally introduced into Louisiana as a contaminant of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seed, which is used to maintain levee integrity over winter (Braverman, 1996).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Hitchhiker Yes Yes
Interconnected waterways Yes
Seed trade Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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While G. declinata has been collected from rice fields in Butte County, California, for 20 years, it has recently become problematic enough to be considered a winter and spring weed as its dense populations make it more difficult to cultivate the fields for planting (Gerlach, 2006). It also causes problems in rice in Louisiana (Braverman, 1996). G. declinata growing alongside railway tracks in Germany is one of the species that can, if it catches fire during very dry years, disrupt train services and damage nearby property (Hetzel and Goldammer, 2004).

Hubbard (1984) described the species as grazed by cattle along with other aquatic grasses.

Environmental Impact

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Its population dynamics in the vernal pools of California’s Central Valley are considered erratic, but it often establishes dense stands of large plants which shade-out endemic species and eliminate the bare ground that they require for germination and establishment (Gerlach, 2006). It produces an enormous amount of fine root mass on or just under the surface of the soil as well as a large leaf mass. These biomass changes probably affect nutrient cycling in the vernal pools and negatively impact vernal pool hydrology through increased transpiration. These Californian vernal poolsare some of the most important natural resources in California and contain both federal and state listed endangered plant and animal species (Gerlach, 2006). Dense G. declinata invasions appear to eliminate or significantly reduce populations of all native annual plant species, such as endangered Orcuttia viscida (Sacramento orcutt grass) from the vernal pools (Gerlach, 2006). G. declinata was rated a weed of ‘moderate’ impact by the Californian Invasive Plants Council (Cal-IPC, 2012).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Orcuttia pilosa (hairy Orcutt grass)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaCompetition - stranglingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009
Orcuttia viscida (Sacramento Orcutt grass)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaCompetition - stranglingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Detection and Inspection

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Distinguishing between G. declinata and other species morphologically is not always easy. Hubbard (1984) described G. declinata as 'distinguished from other British species of Glyceria by the 3-toothed or 3-5-lobed tips of the lemmas and by the sharply 2-toothed tips of the paleas'. In the USA, in distinguishing G. declinata from the similar native species G. occidentalis, Whipple et al. (2007) described G. declinata as ‘usually shorter and more decumbent than G. occidentalis, its panicle branches tend to be shorter, straighter, and have fewer spikelets than those of G. occidentalis, and its lemmas have two or more equal lobes on either side of the tip rather than inconspicuous, unequal lobes.’

Prevention and Control

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Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Excluding humans and domestic animals from populations of G. declinata ‘from the beginning of spikelet shattering until all seed has been dropped’ may help prevent the spread of the species (Gerlach, 2006). For vernal pools in California, the same author recommends exclusion of humans and domestic animals until the pools are completely dry, and that ‘all equipment used in both natural and created vernal pools is absolutely free of adhering seed or soil’ (Gerlach, 2006).

To prevent the spread of G. declinata by waterfowl, Gerlach (2006) suggests that artificial ponds which attract waterfowl should be destroyed or otherwise made unattractive to waterfowl, for example by changing water sources. Additionally, ‘Glyceria species are generally regarded as species with high soil and water fertility requirements so precautions should be taken to prevent the addition of nutrients in any form’ (Gerlach, 2006). 

Physical/Mechanical Control

In vernal pools in California, Gerlach (2006) recommends hand weeding prior to spikelet shattering as effective for small populations ‘in high value vernal pools’, although it must be carried out annually ‘until the seed bank is completely exhausted’. 'Surrounding vernal pools and swales should also be weeded to prevent the rapid reintroduction of seed' (Gerlach, 2006).

Chemical Control

Braverman (1996) tested herbicides for the control of G. declinata in rice in Louisiana and found that glyphosate, clethodim, sethoxydim or sulfosate all gave over 90% control. He also found that a range of post-emergent treatments increased rice yields substantially.

Hinds-Cook et al. (2007) tested herbicides for the control of Glyceria spp. (species not specified) in grass seed (Italian ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum, seedling perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, or seedling tall fescue, Schedenorus arundinacea) production fields in Oregon, where Glyceria spp. have developed resistance to ethofumesate. They found that the HPPD enzyme-inhibitors mesotrione, pyrasulfotole-bromoxynil and topramezone all gave good control of Glyceria spp.

Intergrated Pest Management

Gerlach (2006), in considering control in California’s vernal pools, warned that control methods will require persistence and may be a ‘complex regulatory problem’ when pools contain vulnerable or sensitive species.

References

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Allen CM, Lewis P, Lewis DP, 2009. Glyceria declinata (Poaceae) new to the flora of Texas. Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 3(1):393-394. http://www2.brit.org/fileadmin/Publications/JBotResInstTexas_3_1/393-394_Allen_etal_Glyceria_JBRIT3_1__50.pdf

AQIS, 2012. Glyceria species. Import Case Details - Public Listing. Canberra, Australia: Australian Quarantine and Inspection Services (AQIS). http://www.aqis.gov.au/icon32/asp/ex_casecontent.asp?intNodeId=8388941&intCommodityId=24347&Types=none&WhichQuery=Go+to+full+text&intSearch=1&LogSessionID=0

Atlas of Living Australia, 2012. Glyceria declinata Breb.: glaucous sweet-grass. Glyceria declinata: glaucous sweet-grass. Canberra, Australia: Atlas of Living Australia (online). http://bie.ala.org.au/species/Glyceria+declinata

Australia's Virtual Herbarium, accessed December from http://avh 182012, 2012. . http://avh.ala.org.au/occurrences/search?taxa=GLYCERIA+DECLINATA#recordsView

Barkworth ME, Anderton LK, 2007. Glyceria, modified by Barkworth from Barkworth et al. Glyceria, 24. [Flora of North America]. Grass Manual on the Web, Utah State University, USA. http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/info2.asp?name=Glyceria&type=treatment

Borrill M, 1957. A biosystematic study of some Glyceria species. 3. Biometrical studies. A biosystematic study of some Glyceria species, 4:77-88 (PhD thesis). http://archive.bsbi.org.uk/Wats4p77.pdf

Borrill M, 1957. A biosystematic study of some Glyceria species. 4. Breeding systems, fertility relationships and general discussion. A biosystematic study of some Glyceria species, 4:89-100. http://archive.bsbi.uk/Wats4p89

Braverman MP, 1996. Control of mannagrass (Glyceria declinata) and southern watergrass (Luziola fluitans) in water-seeded rice (Oryza sativa). Weed Technology, 10(1):68-71.

Bushman BS, Halse RR, Sedegui M, 2007. Waxy mannagrass is established in two Oregon counties. Crop Management, September:CM-2007-0924-01-RS.

Cal-IPC, 2012. Glyceria declinata (waxy mannagrass). Berkeley, California, USA: California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC). http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/management/plant_profiles/Glyceria_declinata.php

Clayton WD, Vorontsova MS, Harman KT, Williamson H, 2012. GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. London, UK: The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH), 2012. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. http://avh.ala.org.au

DAISIE, 2012. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. DAISIE (online). www.europe-aliens.org

Edgar E, Connor HE, 2000. Flora of New Zealand - Vol. V: Gramineae. Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Whenua Press, lxxxii + 650 pp.

Edgar E, Connor HE, 2010. Flora of New Zealand - Vol. V: Gramineae, Ed.2 [ed. by Edgar, E.\Connor, H. E.]. Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Whenua Press, Landcare Research, xlii + 23 + 650 pp.

Gerlach JD, 2006. Glyceria declinata. University of Georgia, USA: Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (online). [The Global Invasive Species Team.] http://www.invasive.org/gist/alert/alrtgly2.html

Gerlach JD, Bushman BS, McKay JK, Meimberg H, 2009. Taxonomic confusion permits the unchecked invasion of vernal pools in California by low mannagrass (Glyceria declinata). Invasive Plant Science and Management, 2(1):92-97. http://www.wssa.net

Grøstad T, Halvorsen R, 2000. Glyceria declinata found at two new localities in Larvik municipality, Vestfold county, SE Norway. (Buesøtgras Glyceria declinata Breb funnet pa to nye lokaliteter i Larvik kommune, Vestfold.) Blyttia, 58(2):114-116.

Hetzel G, Goldammer JG, 2004. The use of prescribed fire on embankments along railway tracks for reducing wildfire ignition in Germany. International Forest Fire News, 30:65-69. http://www.fire.uni-freiburg.de/iffn/iffn_30/13-IFFN-30-Germany-Railways.pdf

Hinds-Cook BJ, Curtis DW, Mallory-Smith CA, Hulting AG, 2007. Control of mannagrass in grasses grown for seed. [Seed Production Research at Oregon State University 2007, USA.] http://seed-ext.cropandsoil.oregonstate.edu/Pub/2007/7-Hinds-Cook,Curtis.pdf

Hubbard CE, 1942. Annual meeting in the University Department of Botany, Oxford, 30. London, UK: Journal of Ecology, 227-233.

Hubbard CE, 1984. Grasses, a guide to their structure, identification, uses and distribution in the British Isles (Third edition). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books Ltd, 476 pp.

ITIS, 2013. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution/NMNH. http://www.itis.gov/

Jessop J, Dashorst GRM, James FM, 2006. Grasses of South Australia. Kent Town, South Australia, Australia: Wakefield Press, 554 pp.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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25/01/2013: Original text by:

Ian Popay, consultant, New Zealand, with the support of Landcare Research.

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