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Datasheet

Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s fleabane)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 26 September 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Erigeron karvinskianus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Karwinsky’s fleabane
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Erigeron karvinskianus is a widely grown herbaceous ornamental, belonging to the Asteraceae (or Compositae; commonly known as the daisy family) that was described based on a type from Mexico. It is native to Me...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s or daisy fleabane); habit, growing on an old wall. Combrit, France, 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionErigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s or daisy fleabane); habit, growing on an old wall. Combrit, France, 2012.
Copyright©Fabien Barthelat-2012
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s or daisy fleabane); habit, growing on an old wall. Combrit, France, 2012.
HabitErigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s or daisy fleabane); habit, growing on an old wall. Combrit, France, 2012.©Fabien Barthelat-2012
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s or daisy fleabane); habit. Dense mats in the alpine, dry ericaceous scrub on the volcanic slopes of Mt Karthala, after intentional bushfires in 2002.  N’gazidja, Grande Comoros, 2002.
TitleHabit
CaptionErigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s or daisy fleabane); habit. Dense mats in the alpine, dry ericaceous scrub on the volcanic slopes of Mt Karthala, after intentional bushfires in 2002. N’gazidja, Grande Comoros, 2002.
Copyright©Fabien Barthelat-2002
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s or daisy fleabane); habit. Dense mats in the alpine, dry ericaceous scrub on the volcanic slopes of Mt Karthala, after intentional bushfires in 2002.  N’gazidja, Grande Comoros, 2002.
HabitErigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s or daisy fleabane); habit. Dense mats in the alpine, dry ericaceous scrub on the volcanic slopes of Mt Karthala, after intentional bushfires in 2002. N’gazidja, Grande Comoros, 2002.©Fabien Barthelat-2002
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s or daisy fleabane); flowers. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2010
TitleFlowers
CaptionErigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s or daisy fleabane); flowers. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2010
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2010. CC-BY-3.0
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s or daisy fleabane); flowers. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2010
FlowersErigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s or daisy fleabane); flowers. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2010©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2010. CC-BY-3.0
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s or daisy fleabane); profusion of flowers. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2010
TitleProfusion of flowers
CaptionErigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s or daisy fleabane); profusion of flowers. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2010
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2010. CC-BY-3.0
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s or daisy fleabane); profusion of flowers. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2010
Profusion of flowersErigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s or daisy fleabane); profusion of flowers. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2010©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2010. CC-BY-3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Erigeron karvinskianus DC.

Preferred Common Name

  • Karwinsky’s fleabane

Other Scientific Names

  • Erigeron deamii B. L. Rob. (1910)
  • Erigeron gaudichaudii DC.
  • Erigeron heterophyllus Kunth and Bouché, non Muhl. ex Willd
  • Erigeron karvinskianum DC.
  • Erigeron karvinskianus var. mucronatus (DC.) Aschers
  • Erigeron karvinskianus var. mucronatus (DC.) Hieron
  • Erigeron leucanthemifolius S. Schauer
  • Erigeron mucronatum
  • Erigeron mucronatus DC. (1836)
  • Erigeron pacayensis Greenm.
  • Erigeron trilobum
  • Erigeron trilobus Sond. (1856)
  • Erigeron tripartitus S. F. Blake
  • Felicia erigeroides sensu auct., non DC.
  • Vittadinia triloba ex J. Rudolph, non DC.

International Common Names

  • English: Australian daisy; Australian fleabane; babies' tears; bony-tip fleabane; coastal daisy; daisy fleabane; dancing daisy; Dartmouth daisy; fleabane; Karwinski's fleabane; Latin American fleabane; Mexican daisy; Mexican fleabane; profusion fleabane; Santa Barbara daisy; seaside daisy; Spanish daisy; spindrift fleabane; wall daisy
  • Spanish: Margarita cimarrona
  • French: Marguerite naine; Pâquerette des murailles; Vergerette de Karvinski; Vergerette mucronée
  • Chinese: jia le bi fei peng
  • Portuguese: Floricos; Intrometidas; Margacinha; Margaridas; Teresinhas; Teresita; Vitadinia das floristas

Local Common Names

  • Czech Republic: Turan Karwinského
  • Germany: Karwinskis Berufkraut; Mauer-Gänseblümchen; Mexikanisches Berufkraut; Spanisches Gänseblümchen
  • Guatemala: Mansanilla de monte; Margarita; Margarita silvestre; sombrita
  • Italy: Cespica karvinskiana
  • Jamaica: rock side daisy
  • Mauritius: Marguerite marron; Petit lastron
  • Mexico: boladillo; marimonia; Parpado de los ojos; Rosario momol
  • Netherlands: Muurfijnstraal
  • Réunion: Marguerite folle; Mère de famille nombreuse; Pâquerette
  • Sweden: Murbinka

Summary of Invasiveness

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Erigeron karvinskianus is a widely grown herbaceous ornamental, belonging to the Asteraceae (or Compositae; commonly known as the daisy family) that was described based on a type from Mexico. It is native to Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala but occurs widely as a weed in subtropical and temperate regions of the world. It is now known from North, South, and Central America, the West Indies, Southern and Western Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean Islands, India and oceanic regions of Asia, Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific islands (Nesom and Pruski, 2011).

It can grow in almost any open habitat, and reproduces and spreads rapidly to form dense mats, smothering native plants. It produces huge amounts of anemochorous seeds that travel long distances, and tolerates a broad range of environmental conditions. There is no information on its natural enemies.

It is considered as one of the major invasive plants in Hawaii and Réunion, according to the IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (Global Invasive Species Database, 2008). It is also considered as a High Risk weed by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk assessment with a score of 11 (PIER, 2012). It is listed as one of the 300 major invasive plants in tropical islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa (Meyer et al., 2006). It is treated as invasive, with laws against its introduction, in several countries, for example Portugal, New Zealand (where it is listed as one of the 120 major invasive plants) and New Caledonia.

However it is still very easily available in dedicated shops, in the mail-order trade and on the Internet, and commonly found in cultivation in its whole current range and elsewhere.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Erigeron
  •                                 Species: Erigeron karvinskianus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Erigeron karvinskianus DC. belongs to the genus Erigeron L. (Compositae: Astereae: Conyzinae), which (along with Pulicaria L. and Conyza L.) includes many of the fleabanes of common parlance. The genus contains between 200 and 400 species. The highest concentrations of Erigeron species are in North America and Eurasia, but the range extends into South America, through the Andes, and the West Indies (Bremer, 1994; Nesom and Robinson, 2006; Hind, 2012).

E. karvinskianus was described in 1836 as Erigeron karvinskianum by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (Candolle, 1836). It was named after the collector, the German naturalist Wilhelm Friedrich Freiherr von Karwinsky (or Karwinski) von Karwin; de Candolle Latinized his name when assigning it to the plant (Hind, 2012). Many synonyms have been applied; of these, Erigeron mucronatus is still sometimes used.

E. karvinskianus belongs to the section Karvinskia G.L. Nesom. (Nesom 1989), which includes the type species E. karvinskianus, and several others from Mexico and Central America. It has been confused with some of these species, but they were resurrected as separate valid species by Nesom and Pruski (2011).

This widely cultivated and escaped species is very variable. Although the variety ‘mucronatus’ (DC.) Aschers., also found as ‘mucronatus’ (DC.) Hieron., is not recognized, several cultivars have been listed such as ‘Bluetenmeer’, ‘Profusion’, ‘Stallone’, ‘Spindrift’, or 'Sea of Blossom'.

Description

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The following description is from Hind (2012), Nash (1976), and eFloras (2012b).

Herbaceous, short-lived perennial, (10-)30-75(-100) cm tall, caespitose, usually forming dense clumps, erect, ascending, or the clumps sometimes pendent from banks.

Rootstock tap-rooted, with a woody caudex, simple or few branched.

Stems numerous, slender, c. 1 mm diameter, often woody below, simple below and usually branched in inflorescence, procumbent (and rooting at node adventitiously) to ascending, erect in flower, lacking basal rosette at anthesis, purple-tinged, slender, angled, sparsely pilose, with short, ascending or appressed hairs or glabrate.

Leaves alternate or in axillary fascicles, pleasant-smelling when crushed, basal and lower usually withered at anthesis, sessile or short-petiolate, petioles to 3 mm, proximal leaves cuneate, 3-5-lobed, lobe apices obtuse and mucronate, distal leaves narrowly elliptical, 5-30(-50) mm long by 3-15(-20) mm wide, base cuneate, sparsely pilose on both surfaces, eglandular, glabrescent, three-veined from base, margins entire or sometimes with two teeth, teeth ca. 5 mm long, apices entire, acute with callous tip.

Inflorescences on leafy branches usually bearing 1-2 (seldom 3-4, rarely 5) capitula, pedicels naked, (3-)5-10 cm long.

Capitula radiate, heterogamous, variable in size, 15-22 mm diam., across extended rays; involucre cup-shaped or hemispherical, truncate or even indented at base; phyllaries 3-4-seriate, 50-80, subequal (except for 15-20 outer which are shorter), linear-subulate to lanceolate, 2.5-3.5(-4) mm long, 0.3-0.6 mm wide, midrib brown, margins green, narrow, scarious and laciniate, apices long-attenuate; inner phyllaries (subtending achenes) 35-45; receptacle 2.5-3.5 mm wide, after anthesis convex, surrounded by reflexed phyllaries, glabrous.

Ray florets female, (40-)50-80, uniseriate or biseriate, limbs 5-8 mm long, 0.5-1 mm wide, flat or scarcely coiling, white, turning pink, purplish or lavender with age, before falling, often purplish beneath, corolla tube 1-1.5 mm long with few eglandular hairs at base of limb.

Disc florets hermaphrodite, numerous, fertile, corollas yellow, 2.8-3.3 mm long, glabrous or with a few short hairs, hair apices rounded and obtuse, tube (1.5-)2-3.1 mm long, corolla lobes 0.7 mm, apices papillate to puberulous; anthers 1-1.3 mm long including apical appendages, exserted, appendages acute to acuminate, filaments often swan-necked, and attached towards base of corolla tube, filament collar flattened; style c. 2.2 mm long, style arm apices spathulate, subtruncate and densely papillate.

Achenes 1.2-1.5 mm long, ellipsoid, compressed with two marginal veins, pale to reddish-brown, body sparsely setuliferous except for denser setulae above carpopodium, setulae adpressed, of twin-hairs, apices acute, subequal; carpopodium a narrow annulus; pappus setae biseriate, capillary, outer setae few, short, barbellate, inner setae 15-27, (1.5)2-2.8(-3) mm, barbellate, whitish.

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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Native to El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico, E. karvinskianus is now widespread throughout tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world (Hind, 2012).

It is now commonly found on the west coast of the USA (Nesom, 2006), in Central America (D’Arcy, 1975; Nash, 1976; Nesom and Pruski, 2011), in the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012), throughout northern and western South America (Venezuela south to Chile), in south-east China, in Australia and in the Pacific Islands. It is especially abundant in southern and western Europe (Pignatti, 1982; Gamisans, 1998; Greuter and Raab-Straube, 2008). It is widespread in eastern and southern Africa (Lisowski, 1991; Beentje, 2002) and it is very invasive in Réunion, the Comoros, western India and the Himalayas, New Zealand and Hawai’i.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BhutanPresentIntroducedeFloras, 2012a
China
-Hong KongLocalisedIntroduced Invasive eFloras, 2012b; Wu et al., 2001; Leung et al., 2009Present but not very common
India
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Dhaundiyal et al., 2009
-AssamPresentIntroduced Invasive Dhaundiyal et al., 2009
-BiharPresentIntroduced Invasive Kumar and Ram, 2005; Dhaundiyal et al., 2009
-ChandigarhPresentIntroduced Invasive Dhaundiyal et al., 2009
-Dadra and Nagar HaveliPresentIntroduced1946 Invasive Meusel and Jäger, 1992; Rao and Sagar, 2012
-GoaPresentIntroduced1946 Invasive Meusel and Jäger, 1992; Rao and Sagar, 2012
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Dhaundiyal et al., 2009
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroduced Invasive Dhaundiyal et al., 2009
-KarnatakaPresentIntroduced1946 Invasive Meusel and Jäger, 1992; Rao and Sagar, 2012
-KeralaPresentIntroduced1946 Invasive Meusel and Jäger, 1992; Rao and Sagar, 2012
-MaharashtraPresentIntroduced1946 Invasive Meusel and Jäger, 1992; Rao and Sagar, 2012
-MeghalayaPresentIntroduced Invasive Tynsong et al., 2011
-SikkimPresentIntroduced Invasive Dhaundiyal et al., 2009
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroduced1946 Invasive Meusel and Jäger, 1992; Mohandas, 2008
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Kumar and Ram, 2005; Dhaundiyal et al., 2009
-UttarakhandPresentIntroduced Invasive Kumar and Ram, 2005; Dhaundiyal et al., 2009
-West BengalPresentIntroduced Invasive Bantawa and Mondal, 2008One of the most dominant herbs in a study area in the eastern Himalaya
Indonesia
-JavaPresentIntroducedMeusel and Jäger, 1992Between 900 and 2200 m
JapanWidespreadIntroduced1949 Invasive Mito and Uesugi, 2004
-HonshuWidespreadIntroduced Invasive NIES, National Institute for Environmental StudiesFirst recorded in 1949 in Kyoto Pref. Recorded in 1952 at Kanazawa, Ishikawa Pref.
-KyushuWidespreadIntroduced Invasive NIES, National Institute for Environmental Studies
-ShikokuWidespreadIntroduced Invasive NIES, National Institute for Environmental Studies
MyanmarPresentIntroducedKress et al., 2003Noted from Mandalay
NepalPresentIntroducedeFloras, 2012a
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedD'Arcy, 1975
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced1926 Invasive Dassanayake and Fosberg, 1980; Meusel and Jäger, 1992; Kumudini Senaratna, 2001; Bushana, 2010900-2200 m

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroducedCJBG SAMBI, 2012
ComorosWidespreadIntroduced Invasive F Barthelat, IUCN Caribbean, Saint-Claude, Guadeloupe, personal observation; Legris, 1969; Leuschner, 1996
Congo Democratic RepublicWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Lisowski, 1991Disturbed areas, roadsides in the mountain forest, from 1650 to 2200 m altitude
KenyaPresentIntroduced Invasive Beentje, 2002From (850-) 1500-2400m altitude
MadagascarPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2012Collected between 100-1300m
MalawiPresentIntroduced Invasive Beentje, 2002
MauritiusWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Hind et al., 1993Common in wastelands and on cliffs; occasionally cultivated
MoroccoPresentIntroducedCJBG SAMBI, 2012
RéunionWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Macdonald et al., 1991; Hind et al., 1993; Leuschner, 1996; Csurhes and Edwards, 1998; Kueffer and Lavergne, 2004; Baret et al., 2006; Lavergne, 2006; Conservatoire Botanique National de Mascarin, 2010
RwandaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Lisowski, 1991Disturbed areas, roadsides in mountain forest, from 1650 to 2200 m altitude
SeychellesPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedFriedman, 2011Rare, only found in a garden in Fairview, Mahé Island
South AfricaPresentIntroducedCJBG SAMBI, 2012915-1463m altitude
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Kunkel, 1972; CJBG SAMBI, 2012In Gran Canaria, escaped from gardens and spreading quickly, especially in humid places
SwazilandPresentIntroducedCJBG SAMBI, 2012
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Beentje, 2002
UgandaPresentIntroduced Invasive Beentje, 2002
ZambiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Lisowski, 1991
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced Invasive Hyde et al., 2012On road banks and along forest edges; sometimes on walls

North America

MexicoPresentNative Not invasive Candolle, 1836; Standley, 1926; Rzedowski and McVaugh, 1966; Labat, 1995
USA
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedPruski, 2012Cultivated and escaped
-HawaiiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive D'Ovly Hughes, 1995; Lorence and Wagner, 1995; Lorence, 1996; Wagner and Lorence, 1998; Wagner et al., 1999; Motooka et al., 2003

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedPruski, 2012
DominicaPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedHoward, 1989; Fournet, 2002Uncommon on old walls, mainly in elevated areas ((150-)400-900m)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedPruski, 2012
El SalvadorPresentNative Not invasive Hind, 2012
GuadeloupePresent, few occurrencesIntroducedHoward, 1989; Fournet, 2002Uncommon on old walls, mainly in elevated areas ((150-)400-900m)
GuatemalaPresentNative Not invasive Nash, 1976; Quedensley and Bragg, 2007
HaitiPresentIntroducedPruski, 2012
HondurasPresentNative Not invasive Hind, 2012
JamaicaPresentIntroducedMeusel and Jäger, 1992; Pruski, 2012600-2200m altitude
MartiniquePresent, few occurrencesIntroducedHoward, 1989; Fournet, 2002Uncommon on old walls, mainly in elevated areas ((150-)400-900m)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedNash, 1976
PanamaPresentIntroducedD'Arcy, 1975; Meusel and Jäger, 1992; Correa A et al., 2004
Saint LuciaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Invasive Graveson, 2009; Graveson, 2012Escaped/naturalized scrambling herb on old plantation walls and adjacent trees around edge of Edmond Forest

South America

ChilePresentIntroduced Invasive Leuschner, 1996; Danton et al., 2006; Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, 2009; Atkinson and Sawyer, 2011; Pruski, 2012
ColombiaPresentIntroducedPruski, 2012Sometimes considered as native
EcuadorPresentIntroducedPruski, 2012Sometimes considered as native
PeruPresentIntroducedPruski, 2012
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedDorr et al., 2000; Pruski, 2012

Europe

AndorraPresentIntroducedMontserrat-Recoder and Benito-Alonso, 2000
AustriaPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012Adventive
BelgiumPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2012Alien/established
FrancePresentIntroduced1856 Invasive Sonder, 1856; Delaigue, 1987; DAISIE, 2012
-CorsicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Gamisans, 1998; DAISIE, 2012
GermanyLocalisedIntroducedArbeitsgemeinschaft Flora von Bayern, 2013; Hassler and Schmitt, 2013
IrelandPresentIntroduced Invasive O'Mahony, 2010; DAISIE, 2012
ItalyPresentIntroduced Invasive Hruska, 1987; Meusel and Jäger, 1992; DAISIE, 2012; Swierkosz, 2012
-SicilyPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2012Alien/established
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2012Alien/established
PortugalPresentIntroduced Invasive Meusel and Jäger, 1992; República Portuguesa, 1999; Marchante and Marchante, 2005; DAISIE, 2012In the northern three-quarters of the country. Considered as an invasive
-AzoresPresentIntroduced Invasive Borges et al., 2011; CJBG SAMBI, 2012; DAISIE, 2012Alien/established
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced Invasive Quartau et al., 2011; DAISIE, 2012
SpainPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2012Alien/established
-Balearic IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2012Alien/established
SwedenPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012Adventive
SwitzerlandPresentIntroduced1920 Invasive Meusel and Jäger, 1992
UKPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2012Alien/established
-Channel IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Meusel and Jäger, 1992; Taylor et al., 2001; Bonnard, 2011; DAISIE, 2012
-Northern IrelandLocalisedIntroduced Invasive National Museums Northern Ireland, 2010A garden plant now established on stone walls in a few sites, e.g. in the Ards Peninsula

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Csurhes and Edwards, 1998Introduced, invasive and cultivated
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive Harley, 2012Reproduces and spreads rapidly to form dense mats; can grow in almost any open habitat, including watercourses. Crowds out and displaces ground level plants, creating a virtual monoculture
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2012
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedMeusel and Jäger, 1992; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2012
-TasmaniaPresentIntroducedDaniels and Kirkpatrick, 2006; Baker and Salas, 2012
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced1972Meusel and Jäger, 1992
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedWestern Australian Herbarium, 2012
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn, 2002Cultivated in Rarotonga Island
FijiPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedSmith, 1991Occasionally cultivated near sea level in Fiji
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive Webb et al., 1988; Cameron, 2000; Pruski, 2012
Norfolk IslandWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Orchard, 1994Frequently naturalized as a garden escape with a tendency to weediness

History of Introduction and Spread

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E. karvinskianus is native to central America, where the first specimen was collected in Mexico between 1827 and 1832 and described in 1836. It was first recorded in France in 1856 (Sonder, 1856; Delaigue, 1987), and became weedy fairly quickly in Europe (Delaigue, 1987). It was later found in Portugal in 1878, in northern Italy in 1900, in Switzerland in 1920 and around 1925 in the Channel Islands (Meusel and Jäger, 1992).

The first collection from Australia was made in 1908 (Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2012) and the first record from Hawai’i was in 1911 (Motooka et al., 2003).

The earliest record from Sri Lanka comes from Peradeniya Botanical Garden in the central province in 1926 (Bushana, 2010). In India, it was introduced in Ooty (Ootacamund or Udhagamandalam, Tamil Nadu) in 1946 (Meusel and Jäger, 1992; Rao and Sagar, 2012).

The species is known from 1940 in New Zealand (Meusel and Jäger, 1992) and was first found in Japan in 1949 (Mito and Uesugi, 2004).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia 1908 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2012 Possibly introduced for horticulture.
France Mexico 1856 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Delaigue, 1987; Sonder, 1856 Possibly introduced for horticulture.
Hawaii 1911 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Motooka et al., 2003 Possibly introduced from Australia. Possibly introduced for horticulture.
India 1946 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Meusel and Jäger, 1992 Possibly introduced from Australia. Possibly introduced for horticulture.
Italy 1900 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Meusel and Jäger, 1992 Possibly introduced from France. Possibly introduced for horticulture.
Japan 1949 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Meusel and Jäger, 1992 Possibly introduced for horticulture.
New Zealand 1940 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Meusel and Jäger, 1992 Possibly introduced from Europe. Possibly introduced for horticulture.
Portugal 1878 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Meusel and Jäger, 1992 Possibly introduced from France. Possibly introduced for horticulture.
Sri Lanka 1926 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Meusel and Jäger, 1992 Possibly introduced from Europe. Possibly introduced for horticulture.
Switzerland 1920 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Meusel and Jäger, 1992 Possibly introduced from France. Possibly introduced for horticulture.

Risk of Introduction

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E. karvinskianus is an important ornamental species in tropical, subtropical and temperate countries. It is already established in many countries throughout the world and probably cultivated in a larger number. It is widely available in shops, in the mail-order trade and on the Internet, and is very easy to transport by mail or in luggage.

Several countries or territories have developed specific legislation to list it as an unwanted species (República Portuguesa, 1999; Gouvernement de Nouvelle-Calédonie, 2007; Ministry for Primary Industries, New Zealand, 2013).

Habitat

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E. karvinskianus is native to the upper elevations of tropical America, along the Central American region of the American Cordillera, where it is found on slopes and summits from 900 to 3500 metres high (D’Arcy, 1975). It grows mostly on steep, open banks or hillsides, often on cliffs or in rock crevices, and is abundant in damp or wet thickets or open forest, often in pine-oak forest (900-3700 m), and most abundant at 1300-2800 m (Nash, 1976). It is a generalist species that tolerates a broad range of environmental conditions.

It has spread throughout the tropics. In the West Indies, it lives on old walls and rocky cliffs from (100-) 400 to 900 metres high (Fournet, 2002). In locations such as the Comoros archipelago, La Réunion Island and the Hawaiian islands, it is naturalized in dry ericaceous scrub and dry, open dwarf scrub, lava flows (where it is a pioneer species – F. Barthelat, IUCN Caribbean, Saint-Claude, Guadeloupe, personal observation) and semi-desert on slopes and summits, and sometimes on old stone walls and cliffs (Leuschner, 1996; Hind et al., 1993; Baret et al., 2006; Lorence and Wagner, 1995).

It has also become naturalized in temperate regions. In North America, it is found in moist disturbed sites, shaded rock walls, cement cracks, and on buildings, from 300 to 1000 metres in altitude (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2006). In Europe, it occurs in littoral habitats with an oceanic environment, and in moist disturbed places in the Mediterranean region, where it is also a pioneer species on stone walls (Bellinzoni et al., 2003). It is also found in mountain ecosystems from 300-2400(-3000) metres in altitude (Delaigue, 1987; Meusel and Jäger, 1992; Gamisans, 1998; Montserrat Recoder and Benito Alonso, 2000; DAISIE, 2012; Bonnard, 2011).

It is found in pine plantations in India (Dogra et al., 2009). In Japan, it lives on cliffs along riversides and in cracks in stone walls (NIES, 2012). In New Zealand it is found in a variety of habitats such as intact and disturbed bush, shrubland, tussockland, fernland, herbfields, bare land, streamsides, cliffs and bluffs, inshore and offshore islands, gumlands, consolidated sand dunes, most coastal areas, riverbeds, and places where epiphytes would usually be found (Weedbusters, 2012), and in forest coastal ecosystems (Sullivan et al., 2005). In parts of its range such as Australia (Harley, 2012), it can grow in almost any open habitat, including watercourses.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial-managed
Buildings Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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E. karvinskianus invades tropical and subtropical alpine vegetation, and oceanic environments in temperate countries, especially on islands where the endemism rate is very high. It reproduces and spreads rapidly to form dense mats in many open habitats, crowding out and displacing ground-level plants and threatening to overrun and smother the habitat.

It is not possible to list here all the species known to be threatened by it, but it looks likely that most native species in the understorey of ericaceous scrub and alpine xeric vegetation in tropical islands can be quickly driven to extinction (Lorence, 1996; Lorence, and Wagner 1995; Lorence, and Wagner, 1996; Lowry and Wood, 2000; NIES, 2012).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics:

According to Hind (2012), E. karvinskianus has the chromosome number 2n = 18, 27, 36.

Reproductive Biology:

E. karvinskianus flowers almost throughout the year in the wild in most tropical countries where it is naturalized, and tends to flower during the warmest months in temperate zones (Hind, 2012). It produces huge numbers of anemochorous seeds which can travel long distances (New Zealand’s Biosecurity System, 2008). Moreover it roots adventitiously (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2006), forming dense mats. It is considered to be largely apomictic (Solbrig, 1962) and agamospermous (Noyes, 2000).

Physiology and Phenology

E. karvinskianus is a dense mat-forming plant which is a prolific flowerer almost throughout the year in the wild in most tropical countries where it has been introduced and naturalized. In cultivation in temperate zones, it tends to flower during the warmer months, until the first frosts (Hind, 2012).

Associations

E. karvinskianus has no documented associate species, but it is attractive to bees (Malone et al., 2010).

Environmental requirements

E. karvinskianus is a generalist species that tolerates a broad range of environmental conditions.

It can tolerate any pH of soil, and sandy, loamy or chalky soil, as long as it is well-drained but does not dry out (especially during the dry season). It is also known from muddy places, as an epiphyte (Weedbusters, 2012), and on stone walls. It likes full sun, although it tolerates partial shade. It is fairly frost-tolerant, and it can survive temperatures down to -15°C (Hind, 2012).

In warm regions, it grows mainly in mountain areas ((100-)900-2800(-3700) m altitude) where it is commonly found in open vegetation. At lower altitudes, it survives in shady habitats. In temperate zones, it grows from sea level up to 3000 m.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
55 45

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -15
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 8.5 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 12 37
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -6

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration05number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall60012000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

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E. karvinskianus is generally considered pest and disease free (Hind, 2012) and no known natural enemies are documented.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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The current worldwide distribution of E. karvinskianus is mainly due to human long-distance transportation, mostly intentional during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Hind (2012) notes that it was most probably brought into cultivation soon after it was described by de Candolle in 1836.

When established in gardens, its tendency to weediness is mainly due to its huge production of anemochorous achenes and its capacity to grow fast in many habitats. Many authors have noted that it is able to spread very quickly in a large range of open disturbed habitats and also in some natural ecosystems.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoos Yes Yes Bushana, 2010
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Kunkel, 1972; National Museums Northern Ireland, 2010; Orchard, 1994
Habitat restoration and improvementIn Sri Lanka, introduced to prevent soil erosion Yes Bushana, 2010
HitchhikerIn India, probably first introduced along with seeds of ornamental plants from Australia Yes Rao and Sagar, 2012
Horticulture Yes Yes Hind, 2012
Interconnected waterways Yes
Internet salesWidely available on the internet (F Barthelat, IUCN Caribbean, Saint-Claude, Guadeloupe, pers obs) Yes Yes
Landscape improvementWidely used as an ornamental plant, especially in USA and Europe (F Barthelat, pers. obs.) Yes Yes
Ornamental purposesUsed as an ornamental worldwide (F Barthelat, IUCN Caribbean, Saint-Claude, Guadeloupe, pers obs) Yes Yes
Seed tradeWidely available on the Internet and in many dedicated shops and nurseries (F Barthelat, pers. obs) Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailWidely available by mail-order (F Barthelat, IUCN Caribbean, Saint-Claude, Guadeloupe, pers. obs.) Yes Yes
Plants or parts of plantsPerhaps first introduced unintentionally in India along with seeds of ornamental plants from Austral Yes Yes Rao and Sagar, 2012
WindSpreads quickly due to its efficient anemochorous dissemination system Yes Triolo, 2005

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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E. karvinskianus is an important ornamental plant throughout the world. It is also listed as a medicinal plant in Meghalaya, India (Tynsong et al., 2011).

Its roots may damage old walls, like those of other species that grow on walls (F. Barthelat, IUCN Caribbean, Saint-Claude, Guadeloupe, personal communication, 2013).

Environmental Impact

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E. karvinskianus overruns open areas (along trails, roadsides, or forest edges, in clearcuts, after natural windfall, after bushfire) in mountain forest and bushes and tends to occupy ericaceous vegetation in tropical islands such as Réunion (Triolo, 2005), Ngazidja in the Comoros (Leuschner, 1996), and the Hawaiian islands (Lorence and Wagner, 1995). As it blankets large open areas in these territories, it has a very negative impact on the dynamic processes of regeneration of the vegetation. In Hawaii, it forms mats on forest floors, smothering low-growing natives (Motooka et al., 2003) and overruns and smother the native cliff habitat (Lorence and Wagner, 1995). In cooler regions (e.g. Australia – Harley (2012)), it forms mats in a huge range of habitats. Although not itself very long-lived itself, it opens habitats up to invasion by other weeds (Weedbusters, 2012).

As a consequence of its impact on habitats, it clearly threatens native plants (Lorence, 1996). It replaces vulnerable species in key and isolated habitats (Weedbusters, 2012). In Japan, it threatens many native grasses (NIES, 2010). It is a particular threat on islands (which often have high numbers of endemic species) and in alpine ecosystems.

There is a concern about hybridization with other Erigeron species throughout the current distribution of E. karvinskianus. A particular example is in the Juan Fernández Islands (Chile), where Danton et al. (2006) highlighted the risk of hybridization with the native E. myosotis [as E. fernandezianus.]

It is not possible to list here all the species threatened by E. karvinskianus, but the Threatened Species table lists some of the most documented such species.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Ctenitis squamigeraCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)HawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - smotheringWood, 2012
Erigeron myosotisNo details No detailsChileHybridizationDanton et al., 2006
Hibiscadelphus woodiiCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)HawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - smotheringLorence and Wagner, 1995
Lobelia gaudichaudiiNational list(s) National list(s)HawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - smotheringOahu Army Natural Resource Program et al., 2009
Lysimachia filifolia (Wailua River yellow loosestrife)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - smotheringWood, 2012
Nototrichium divaricatumNational list(s) National list(s)HawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - smotheringLorence, 1996
Tetraplasandra flynniiNational list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - smotheringLowry and Wood, 2000

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Competition
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Rapid growth

Impact outcomes

  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species

Invasiveness

  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Tolerant of shade

Likelihood of entry/control

  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally

Uses

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The most important value of E. karvinskianus to humans is its use in gardens as an ornamental. Trade in the species is very important.

It has also been used as an erosion control plant in Sri Lanka (Bushana, 2010).

It is listed as a medicinal plant in a survey in Meghalaya, India (Tynsong et al., 2011), and is considered as an insect repellent by Staples and Herbst (2005).

It is a good bee-attractive plant (Malone et al. 2010).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Pesticide

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Ornamental

  • Seed trade

Detection and Inspection

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The seeds of E. karvinskianus are very small and it seems unrealistic to expect that small quantities could be detected at ports of entry, in luggage, mail or cargo, especially if the seeds have been transported and hidden intentionally.

On the other hand, the plant is easy to identify in the field.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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E. karvinskianus is quite variable in the size and colour of the florets and in the shape of the leaves (D’Arcy, 1975). Its flowers are nearly identical to those of the European native Bellis daisy (Bellis perennis L., Asteraceae) but its leaves are wider and in a basal rosette (Weedbusters, 2012). In Central America, several other Erigeron species are confounded with E. karvinskianus (Nesom, 1998; Nesom and Devender, 2007; Nesom and Pruski, 2011).

Apart from that, as it flowers throughout much of the year in the wild and has 3-5-lobed leaves, it is quite easy to identify in the field.

Prevention and Control

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Although E. karvinskianus is present in many countries, and can be the one of the primary alien plant species in some tropical islands, there is little information on its management.

Some countries have laws against its introduction, These include Portugal, where it has been prohibited from being kept in a confined place, used as an ornamental plant, released, sold, exchanged or transported since 1999 (República Portuguesa, 1999); New Zealand, where the National Pest Plant Accord lists it as one of the 120 major invasive plants, it is an ‘unwanted plant” and its import is prohibited (Ministry for Primary Industries, New Zealand, 2013); and New Caledonia (Gouvernement de Nouvelle-Calédonie, 2007).

It grows and spreads quickly. Although it is easy to kill, it is very difficult to keep it out. It can be eradicated only if it is detected and managed very early and in an accessible location. It does not seem realistic to eliminate it from invaded regions, but it could be managed by using the following proposed methods (Weedbusters, 2012):

  1. Spray: clopyralid.
  2. Spray: glyphosate (+ penetrant in winter) or metsulfuron (+ penetrant).
  3. Dig out small spots: Avoid any unnecessary soil disturbance; leave on site to rot down; handle plant material carefully (if seed is present, dispose of all plant material at a refuse transfer centre or burn it).

According to Motooka et al. (2002), E. karvinskianus is sensitive to the hormone-type herbicides 2,4-D, dicamba and triclopyr, and to soil-applied hexazinone and tebuthiuron.

After elimination, the site needs to be monitored in case it returns; the risk can be reduced by using low, dense plants to crowd out it (Weedbusters, 2012).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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No information was found on the seed longevity in natural conditions; a comparative study would be welcome.

Where E. karvinskianus is found with other Erigeron species, hybridization between them needs to be monitored.

More management measures for invaded natural ecosystems need to be implemented and monitored.

References

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
African Plants Databasehttp://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa/recherche.php
Alien Species in Hawaii (HEAR)http://www.hear.org/species
DAISIE Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europehttp://www.europe-aliens.org/
eFlorashttp://www.efloras.org
Flora of Zimbabwehttp://zimbabweflora.co.zw/index.php
Index de la flore vasculaire de la Réunion (Trachéophytes) : statuts, menaces et protectionshttp://flore.cbnm.org
Initiative sur les espèces exotiques envahissantes dans les collectivités françaises d'outre-merhttp://www.especes-envahissantes-outremer.fr/
IUCN-SSC-ISSG Global Invasive Species Databasehttp://www.issg.org/database/welcome
National Institute for Environmental Studieshttp://www.nies.go.jp/biodiversity/invasive/index_en.html
Pacific Invasives Learning Network (PILN)http://www.sprep.org/Pacific-Invasives-Learning-Network-PILN/piln-welcome
Plantas invasoras em Portugal, INVADERhttp://www.uc.pt/invasoras
Weedbusters.orghttp://weedbusters.co.nz/
Weeds of Blue Mountainshttp://www.weedsbluemountains.org.au/

Organizations

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USA: Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk ( PIER), 11007 E. Regal Dr. Sun Lakes, AZ 85248-7919, http://www.hear.org/pier

New Zealand: Invasive Species Specialist Group, University of Auckland, http://www.issg.org/

New Zealand: Weedbusters, http://weedbusters.co.nz/

Contributors

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Original text by: F. Barthelat, IUCN Caribbean, c/o Parc National de Guadeloupe, Habitation Beausoleil - Montéran, Saint-Claude 97120, Guadeloupe.

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