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Eragrostis atrovirens
(thalia lovegrass)

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Datasheet

Eragrostis atrovirens (thalia lovegrass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Eragrostis atrovirens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • thalia lovegrass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Eragrostis atrovirens is a C4 grass cultivated for pasture and hay in tropical and subtropical regions (USDA-A...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Eragrostis atrovirens (Desf.) Trin. ex Steud.

Preferred Common Name

  • thalia lovegrass

Other Scientific Names

  • Briza elegans Osbeck
  • Eragrostis atrovirens var. hesperidum Maire
  • Eragrostis biformis (Kunth) Benth.
  • Eragrostis luzoniensis Steud.
  • Eragrostis multiflora var. biformis (Kunth) A.Chev.
  • Eragrostis multinodis B.S.Sun and S.Wang
  • Eragrostis sudanica A.Chev.
  • Poa atrovirens Desf.
  • Poa biformis Kunth

International Common Names

  • English: wiry lovegrass
  • Chinese: shu fu cao

Local Common Names

  • Thailand: ya krok khiao

Summary of Invasiveness

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Eragrostis atrovirens is a C4 grass cultivated for pasture and hay in tropical and subtropical regions (USDA-ARS, 2016). It has escaped from cultivation and once naturalized it behaves as a weed in roadsides, disturbed sites, waste areas, riparian areas, and grasslands (Barkworth et al., 2004; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016). This perennial grass has the capability to tolerate drought and high saline conditions as well as seasonally waterlogged conditions. Thus, it can be found growing in floodplain grassland and swampy grassland (Flora of Pakistan, 2016). Currently, it is listed as invasive in Australia, Micronesia, Palau, Chagos Islands, Cuba, and Mexico (Villaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia, 2004; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Simon and Alonso, 2016; PIER, 2016). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Eragrostis
  •                                 Species: Eragrostis atrovirens

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Eragrostis is the largest genus in the Chloridoideae, a well-supported monophyletic subfamily of the Poaceae. The subfamily Chloridoideae includes about 130 genera and 1721 grass species that tolerate drought and high saline conditions (Stevens, 2012). The large cosmopolitan genus Eragrostis is composed of approximately 350 species (Clayton et al., 2016) with the greatest species diversity occurring in dry tropical regions. Eragrostis species are generally characterized by C4 photosynthesis, a three-nerved lemma, and paniculate inflorescences (Ingram and Doyle, 2003). The name of the genus is derived from the Greek words eros, meaning "love", and agrostis, meaning "grass". Lovegrass is the main common name for the genus.

Species within the genus Eragrostis are extremely polymorphic with three main sources of variation (Flora of Pakistan, 2016):

  1. Palea-keels: smooth palea-keels are confined to South and tropical Africa, while scaberulous keels are found throughout tropical Africa and Asia.
  2. Spikelet size: plants with few-flowered spikelets and lemmas less than 1 mm are generally separated as Eragrostis japonica sensu stricto, although similar forms from Africa with smooth palea-keels are called Eragrostis namaquensis, and those with rough keels are called Eragrostis diplachnoides.
  3. Panicle-form: three main sorts can be recognized: (a) interrupted with branches in pseudo whorls, almost exclusively Asian; (b) partly whorled but more generally open, branches branched from the base; and (c) branches solitary, bare at the base, panicle open. 

Description

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E. atrovirens is a caespitose perennial grass. Rhizomes absent. Culms loosely tufted, erect or geniculate at base, 15–100 cm tall, approximately 4 mm in diameter, 4–8-noded. Leaf sheaths glabrous but pilose along summit; ligules a ciliolate membrane, 0.2–0.3 mm; leaf blades flat or involute, 4–17 × 0.2–0.4 cm, adaxial surface scabrous, near base pilose, abaxial surface glabrous. Panicle open, 5–20(–25) × 2–15 cm; branches one to several per node. Spikelets plumbeous and purplish, narrowly oblong, 5–15(–25) × 1.5–2.5 mm, 8–40-flowered, pedicels 0.5–5(–15) mm; rachilla persistent. Glumes 1-veined, 1–2.3 mm; lower glume ovate, 1–1.3 mm, apex acute, upper glume narrowly ovate, 1.3–2.3 mm, apex acuminate. Lemmas broad ovate, 1.8–2.2 mm, apex acute, lower lemma 2–2.2 mm, deciduous with palea. Palea loosely ciliate along keel, 1.6–1.8 mm. Stamens 3; anthers 0.7–0.9 mm. Caryopsis approximately 1 mm (Barkworth et al., 2004; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016). 

Plant Type

Top of page Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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E. atrovirens is native to tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, tropical and temperate Asia, and Malesia (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and New Guinea) (Clayton et al., 2016; PROTA, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). It has been introduced in Australia, tropical and temperate America, the West Indies, and several islands in the Indian and Pacific Ocean (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Simon and Alonso, 2016; PIER, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
AngolaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
BeninPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
BotswanaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
Burkina FasoPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
BurundiPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
Cabo VerdePresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
CameroonPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
Central African RepublicPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
ChadPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
Congo, Republic of thePresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
EthiopiaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
GabonPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
GambiaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
GhanaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
GuineaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
Guinea-BissauPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
KenyaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
LiberiaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
LibyaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
MadagascarPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
MaliPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
MauritaniaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
MoroccoPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
MozambiquePresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
NamibiaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
NigerPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
NigeriaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
SenegalPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
Sierra LeonePresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
SudanPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
TanzaniaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
TogoPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
UgandaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
ZambiaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
ZimbabwePresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)

Asia

BhutanPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasiveWhistler (1996)Diego Garcia Is.
ChinaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-FujianPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-GuizhouPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-HunanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-SichuanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
IndiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-AssamPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-Himachal PradeshPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-Madhya PradeshPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-ManipurPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
IndonesiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-JavaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-Maluku IslandsPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-SulawesiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-SumatraPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
LaosPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
MalaysiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-SabahPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-SarawakPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
MyanmarPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
NepalPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
PakistanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
PhilippinesPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
SingaporePresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
Sri LankaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
ThailandPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
VietnamPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2016)
GermanyPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
SpainPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
United KingdomPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)

North America

BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
BelizePresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveVillaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia (2004)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
United StatesPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2016)
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2016)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2016)
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2016)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2016)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedSimon and Alonso (2016)Occurs near Bamaga on the tip of Cape York Penin. and also Beerwah N of Brisbane
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHerrera et al. (2010)
GuamPresentIntroducedRaulerson (2006)
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace et al. (2009)
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
PeruPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)

History of Introduction and Spread

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E. atrovirens has been introduced to be used as a pasture grass.

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of E.atrovirens is moderate to high. Although this species is sporadically cultivated for pasture and hay, it is not a very popular forage. In general, the success of this grass species can be attributed to its broad habitat adaptation which enables it to grow as a weed and persist even under unfavourable conditions. 

Habitat

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In Africa, E. atrovirens grows on floodplain grassland, and swampy grassland, often in shallow water, at elevations up to 1,600 metres (Burkil, 2004). In China, it grows along roadsides and river banks (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016). In Thailand, it occurs commonly in mixed deciduous forest, often in swampy grassland (Chaisongkram et al., 2013). In the USA, E.atrovirens grows along railways and roadsides, on beaches and in ditches, often in wet sandy soils (Barkworth et al., 2004). In Mexico, it grows as a weed in grasslands and dry deciduous forests and along riverbanks. In Queensland, Australia it can be found growing as a roadside weed and on stream banks (Simon and Alonso, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for E.atrovirens varies from 2n = 20, 2n = 40 to 2n = 60 (Bir and Sahni, 1988; Barkworth et al., 2004; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016).

Physiology and Phenology

E. atrovirens is a perennial C4 grass. It competes aggressively particularly in disturbed sites and on sandy soils (Barkworth et al., 2004; Flora of Pakistan, 2016).

In China, E. atrovirens produces flowers and fruits throughout the summer and autumn (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016). In Mexico it has been recorded flowering and fruiting throughout the year. In Australia it produces flowers and fruits from May to August (Simon and Alonso, 2016).

Associations

In the USA, E.atrovirens grows in association with Pinus, Taxodium, and Sabal (Barkworth et al., 2004). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 14 35

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5001200mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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E. atrovirens spreads by seeds. Seeds can be dispersed by wind, water, as a contaminant and adhered to livestock and motor vehicles (Barkworth et al., 2004; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; Flora of Pakistan, 2016; PROTA, 2016). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceGrows along railways and roadsides Yes Yes Barkworth et al., 2004
ForageUse for pasture and hay Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Habitat restoration and improvementPlanted for soil stabilization Yes Yes PROTA, 2016

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds spread readily into disturbed areas from cultivated areas Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
WindSeeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes PIER, 2016

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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E. atrovirens grows as a weed in disturbed sites, grasslands, riparian areas, and along roadsides (Barkworth et al., 2004; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016). Once naturalized, this species has the capability to outcompete native vegetation and alter successional patterns (Barkworth et al., 2004; Flora of Pakistan, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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E. atrovirens is used as a pasture, forage, and hay grass. In Africa, it is harvested from the wild as a local source of thatch (Burkil, 2004). 

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Soil conservation

Materials

  • Fibre

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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There are two other Eragrostis species that look similar to E.atrovirens. These species can be distinguished by the following characters (Flora of Pakistan, 2016):

  • Eragrostis gangetica (Roxb.) Steud. is similar to Eragrostis atrovirens but is an annual with only 2 stamens.
  • Eragrostis nigra Nees ex Steud. is also similar, having a loose open panicle, slate-grey to almost black florets and lemmas 1.5-2.2 mm long.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

E. atrovirens is susceptible to 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) herbicide (Uddin et al., 2012).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Barkworth ME, Capels KM, Long S, Piep MB, 2004. Eragrostis. Flora of North America, volume 25. http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/

Bir SS, Sahni M, 1988. Cytomorphological studies on members of genus Eragrostis from Punjab Plain (north India). Journal of Cytology and Genetics, 23:118-131.

Burkil HM, 2004. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Chaisongkram W, Chantaranothai P, Hodkinson TR, 2013. A taxonomic revision of the genus Eragrostis in Thailand. ScienceAsia, 39:111-123.

Clayton WD, Govaerts R, Harman KT, Williamson H, Vorontsova M, 2016. World Checklist of Poaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

DAISIE, 2016. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2016. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Tropicos website. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Herrera K, Lorence DH, Flynn T, Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 146 pp.

Ingram AL, Doyle JJ, 2003. The origin and evolution of Eragrostis tef (Poaceae) and related polyploids: evidence from nuclear waxy and plastid rps16. American Journal of Botany, 90(1):116-122.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

PIER, 2016. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Raulerson L, 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution, 37. 1-69.

Simon BH, Alonso Y, 2016. AusGrass2. Grasses of Australia, Online resources. http://ausgrass2.myspecies.info

Space JC, Lorence DH, LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. Hilo, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, 227. http://www.sprep.org/att/irc/ecopies/countries/palau/48.pdf

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Uddin K, Juraimi SA, Ismail RM, 2012. Weed management in tropical turfgrass areas: A review. Archives of Biological Sciences, 64(2):597-603.

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Plant Germplasm System. Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Villaseñor JL, Espinosa-Garcia FJ, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions, 10(2):113-123.

Whistler WA, 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Isle Botanica (online), 49 pp. http://www.zianet.com/tedmorris/dg/2005NRMP-Appendixe-botanicalsurvey.pdf

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Clayton WD, Govaerts R, Harman KT, Williamson H, Vorontsova M, 2016. World Checklist of Poaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

DAISIE, 2016. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Herrera K, Lorence DH, Flynn T, Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses., Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden. 146 pp.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Raulerson L, 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. In: University of Guam Herbarium Contribution, 37 1-69.

Simon BH, Alonso Y, 2016. AusGrass2. In: Grasses of Australia, http://ausgrass2.myspecies.info

Space JC, Lorence DH, LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species., Hilo, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service. 227. http://www.sprep.org/att/irc/ecopies/countries/palau/48.pdf

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Villaseñor J L, Espinosa-Garcia F J, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions. 10 (2), 113-123. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00059.x

Whistler WA, 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory., Isle Botanica. 49 pp. http://www.zianet.com/tedmorris/dg/2005NRMP-Appendixe-botanicalsurvey.pdf

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Grass Manual of North America http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/
The Online World Grass Florahttp://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/index.htm

Contributors

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19/05/16 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

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