Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Emilia fosbergii
(Florida tassel-flower)

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Datasheet

Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Emilia fosbergii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Florida tassel-flower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • E. fosbergii is a cosmopolitan annual herb included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). It is fast-...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); inflorescences.
TitleInflorescences
CaptionEmilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); inflorescences.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); inflorescences.
InflorescencesEmilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); inflorescences.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); inflorescences.
TitleInflorescences
CaptionEmilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); inflorescences.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); inflorescences.
InflorescencesEmilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); inflorescences.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); close-up of inflorescence.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionEmilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); close-up of inflorescence.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); close-up of inflorescence.
InflorescenceEmilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower, Cupid's-shaving-brush); close-up of inflorescence.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Emilia fosbergii Nicolson

Preferred Common Name

  • Florida tassel-flower

Other Scientific Names

  • Emilia javanica (Burm. f.) C.B. Rob.
  • Emilia sagittata DC.
  • Emilia sonchifolia var. rosea Bello

International Common Names

  • English: Cupid's-shaving-brush; Flora's paintbrush; purple emilia; red sow thistle
  • Spanish: clavelito; lamparita; pincel de amor; pincel de poeta; pincelillo
  • Chinese: ying rong hua

Local Common Names

  • Colombia: clavelillo
  • Dominican Republic: pincelito
  • Lesser Antilles: Cupid's paintbrush; rabbit meat; red tassel
  • Puerto Rico: clavelito colorado; clavlitos del cafetal
  • Venezuela: hierba socialista

Summary of Invasiveness

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E. fosbergii is a cosmopolitan annual herb included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). It is fast-growing, with the capacity to grow as a weed and colonize disturbed areas, waste ground, gardens, abandoned farmland, coastal forests, forest edges, pastures, roadsides, rocky areas, and riverbanks (Wagner et al., 1999; Vibrans, 2011; Pruski 2014). It produces large amounts of wind-dispersed seeds (>5000 seeds per plant; Mejía et al., 1994) which is a feature facilitating the likelihood of spreading and colonizing new habitats. Currently, E. fosbergii is listed as invasive in Mexico, Central America, West Indies, and on several islands in the Pacific Ocean (see Distribution Table for details).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Emilia
  •                                 Species: Emilia fosbergii

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Asteraceae is one of the most species-rich families of flowering plants. The family includes 1620 genera and about 23,600 species (Stevens, 2012). Species within the Asteraceae are very variable in their growth form and habitat, but may be recognized by their “capitulate” and involucrate inflorescences in which numerous small flowers open first on the outside and are infrequently subtended by bracts. The anthers in this family are usually fused and form a tube through which the style extends before the two stigmatic lobes separate and become recurved. The rather small, single-seeded fruits usually have a plumose “pappus” and are frequently dispersed by wind (Stevens, 2012).

The genus Emilia comprises approximately 100 species distributed mainly in tropical regions of the Old World (Pruski, 2014). E. fosbergii is a cosmopolitan species spread throughout the tropical and humid subtropical regions, with wide distribution in tropical and subtropical America (Pruski, 2014).

Description

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E. fosbergii is an annual, erect or ascending herb, branched, 20 to 50 cm (up to 100 cm) tall. Stems glabrous to sparsely pilose or sometimes prominently villous-pilose near the axils of the middle cauline leaves. Leaves alternate, broadly ovate to oblanceolate, often tapering to a prominently winged petiole and therefore appearing pandurate, the base sessile to auriculate, the margin weakly serrate to dentate or sometimes lobed, the teeth callose-tipped, overall 5-10 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, about 2 times longer than wide, the uppermost leaves reduced to linear serrate clasping bracts. Inflorescence of one to several headed, loose, corymbiform cymes arising terminally or laterally in the axils of the upper cauline leaves. Heads turbinate or sometimes weakly urceolate or becoming weakly campanulate in age, robust, 2-3 times longer than wide, the florets prominently exserted approximately 2 mm beyond the involucre; involucral bracts 8-13, linear, (7-) 9-12 mm long; receptacle flat to convex, the carpopodia forming prominent tubercles after achenes have been shed; florets 15-30, varying greatly in size with the robustness of the plant, the corollas pink to light purple or red but not orange. Achene reddish brown to light tan, columnar, approximately 5 mm long with a row of strigose-hirsute pubescence on each of the 5 prominent ribs; pappus of abundant, white, capillary hairs (Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014).

Distribution

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The origin of E. fosbergii is uncertain, but most authors agree that it is native to the Old World (USDA-ARS, 2014). It has been suggested that it may have originated in Asia and Africa, but it is now widely distributed in warm regions of the world, principally throughout the New World (Wagner et al., 1999; Gargiullo et al., 2008; Flann, 2009; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Pruski, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

JapanPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Bonin Islands
TaiwanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised

North America

MexicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Villaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia, 2004Weed
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1999
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
BelizePresentIntroducedBalick et al., 2000
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Guana
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Chacón and Saborío, 2012
DominicaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Kairo et al., 2003
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced Invasive Davidse et al., 2014
GrenadaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised
PanamaPresentIntroducedCorrea et al., 2004Naturalised. Canal, Chiriqui, Boquete, Cocle, Cerro Azul
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedGraveson, 2012Naturalised, very common
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Widespread
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2014
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced Invasive I3N-Argentina, 2013Misiones, Iguazu, M. Belgano
BoliviaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised, lowlands
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-AlagoasPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-AmapaPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-BahiaPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-CearaPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-Espirito SantoPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedBorges, 2014
-GoiasPresentIntroduced
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-ParaPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-ParanaPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-PiauiPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-RondoniaPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-RoraimaPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-SergipePresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
-TocantinsPresentIntroducedBorges, 2014
ColombiaPresentIntroducedIdárraga-Piedrahita et al., 2011
EcuadorPresentIntroducedJørgensen and León-Yànez, 1999Guayas, Los Rios
French GuianaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
GuyanaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
ParaguayPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al., 2008Naturalised. Alto Parna, Amambay, Caaguazu, Canindeyu, Canindeyu, Central Cordillera, Guaira
PeruPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2014
SurinamePresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedWhistler, 1988
AustraliaPresentIntroducedThompson, 2006
FijiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florence et al., 2013
GuamPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1979
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Whistler and Steele, 1999
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedRaulerson, 2006

History of Introduction and Spread

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E. fosbergii was probably introduced and established in the New World in the latter part of the nineteenth century, probably intially in the USA and the West Indies and subsequently from Mexico to northern South America (Smith 1991; Wagner et al., 1999; Borges 2014; Pruski 2014). It was apparently introduced into islands in the Pacific Ocean in the early part of the twentieth century (Smith, 1991).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of E. fosbergii is high. The species produces large numbers of small wind-dispersed seeds and has the potential to grow as a weed in ruderal areas, gardens, and pasture lands. Consequently, this species has the potential to spread much further than it has to date.

Habitat

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E. fosbergii is a common weed in open and disturbed areas, cultivated land, pastures, coastal forests, forest edges, along roadsides and riverbanks, and in rocky areas in moist and seasonally dry areas (Gargiullo et al., 2008; Vibrans, 2011; Graveson, 2012). In Hawaii, where this species is listed as invasive, it is common in low elevation, dry, urban and disturbed habitats (Wagner et al., 1999). It can also be cultivated as a garden ornamental (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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E. fosbergii has been listed as a weed in rice plantations in Colombia and coffee plantations in Costa Rica. It is also listed as a weed in cassava and sugarcane plantations in Central and South America (Echegoyen-Ramos et al., 1996, Murillo et al., 2006; Vibrans, 2011).

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

E. fosbergii is a tetraploid species (Moraes and Guerra, 2010) with a chromosome number of 2n = 20 (Guerra and Nogueira, 1990). 

Longevity, Phenology and Reproduction      

E. fosbergii is a fast-growing annual herb (Flann, 2009; Pruski et al., 2014). It is wind-pollinated and under favourable environmental conditions (warm and humid) it produces flowers and seeds for many months (Vibrans, 2011). In Panama, it has been collected in flower from August to December (Correa et al., 2004).        

Environmental Requirements

E. fosbergii grows as a weed, so it prefers areas with full sunlight and moderate to high water availability. This species prefers sandy-loam soils but can be found growing on a range of soils in wet to seasonally dry regions (Gargiullo et al., 2008; Vibrans, 2011).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Meloidogyne incognita Parasite Whole plant not specific
Pratylenchus Parasite Whole plant not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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E. fosbergii is reported as a host of the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus spp. The whitefly species Bemisia tabaci, Aleurocanthus woglumi, Aleurotrachelus sp., Aleurothrixus sp., Aleuroplatus sp., and Trialeurodes have also been reported for this species (Alan et al., 1995). In Jamaica, the lethal yellowing (16Sr IV) group of phytoplasmas was recently reported affecting E. fosbergii (Brown et al., 2008).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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E. fosbergii spreads by seeds. Each plant has the potential to produce >5000 wind-dispersed seeds (Mejía et al., 1994). Seeds may be secondarily dispersed as a contaminant in crop seeds, pasture seeds, soils, and in agricultural machinery (Vibrans, 2011).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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E. fosbergii is a weed with economic impacts mainly in agriculture, pasture and garden activities. This species is listed as a weed in crops including rice, cassava, coffee, and sugarcane (Echegoyen-Ramos et al., 1996, Murillo et al., 2006; Vibrans, 2011).

Environmental Impact

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E. fosbergii has the potential to negatively impact natural and seminatural habitats in coastal areas, forest edges and natural grasslands (Wagner et al., 1999; Kairo et al., 2003; Villaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia, 2004; Vibrans, 2011; Chacon and Saborio, 2012; PIER, 2014; Pruski, 2014).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Scaevola coriacea (dwarf naupaka)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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E. fosbergii is occasionally cultivated as a garden ornamental (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). In Central America (Costa Rica and Nicaragua) it is used medicinally to treat high blood pressure (Gargiullo et al., 2008).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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E. fosbergii can be vegetatively similar to Emilia sonchifolia and Emilia coccinea, but these species can be distinguished based on leaves and corolla features as described in the following key (Pruski, 2014): 

  • E. sonchifolia: Proximal leaves lyrate-pinnatifid; involucres narrow-cylindrical, corollas included to only slightly exserted; corollas usually pink or lavender, lobes 0.5-0.8 mm; disk floret styles indistinctly appendiculate, appendages to 0.1 mm, no longer than broad, convex.
     
  • E. coccinea: Proximal leaves not lyrate-pinnatifid; involucres broad-cylindrical to hemispherical, corollas moderately to well-exserted; corollas lobes 1.1-2.2 mm; disk floret styles obviously appendiculate, appendages 0.2-0.3 mm, caudate. Leaf margins nearly subentire; involucres campanulate, about as long as broad, corollas well-exserted; corollas bright orange to red, lobes 1.6-2.2 mm.
     
  • E. fosbergii: Proximal leaves not lyrate-pinnatifid; involucres broad-cylindrical to hemispherical, corollas moderately to well-exserted. Leaf margins usually coarsely dentate; involucres broad-cylindrical, (1-) 2× as long as broad, corollas moderately exserted; corollas usually pale red or pinkish-red, lobes 1.1-1.6 mm.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, D.C., USA: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 1192 pp. [Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98.]

Alan E, Barrantes U, Soto A, Aguero R, 1995. Elementos para el Manejo de Malezas en Agroecosistemas Tropicales ([English title not available])., Costa Rica: Editorial Tecnológica de Costa Rica, 223 pp.

Balick MJ, Nee M, Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246.

Borges RAX, 2014. Emilia. (Emilia.) Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB16104

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Brown SE, Been BO, McLaughlin WA, 2008. First report of the presence of the lethal yellowing group (16Sr IV) of phytoplasmas in the weeds Emilia fosbergii and Synedrella nodiflora in Jamaica. Plant Pathology, 57(4):770. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Chacón E, Saborío G, 2012. Red Interamericana de Información de Especies Invasoras, Costa Rica ([English title not available]). San José, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad. http://invasoras.acebio.org

Correa A, Galdames MDC, Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp.

Davidse G, Sousa-Peña M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F, 2014. Asteraceae. 5(2). In: Flora Mesoamericana [ed. by Davidse, G. \Sousa Sánchez, M. \Knapp, S. \Chiang Cabrera, F.]., Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Echegoyen -Ramos PE, Valverde-Mena BE, Garita-Cruz I, 1996. [English title not available]. (Acción conjunta del paraquat y el 2,4-D en malezas asociadas al café en Costa Rica.) Manejo Integrado de Plagas, 4:8-15.

Flann C, 2009. Global Compositae Checklist. http://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/Default.aspx

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014. Taiwan Plant Names. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=101

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Fosberg FR, Sachet MH, Oliver RL, 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica, 15:222.

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Gargiullo M, Magnuson B, Kimball L, 2008. A field guide to plants of Costa Rica. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press, 542 pp.

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Guerra MS, Nogueira MTM, 1990. The cytotaxonomy of Emilia spp. (Asteraceae: Senecioneae) occurring in Brazil. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 170:229-236.

Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, 860 pp.

I3N-Argentina, 2013. Base de Datos sobre Especies Invasoras (Database of invasive species)., Argentina: Universidad Nacional del Sur. www.inbiar.org.ar

Idárraga-Piedrahita A, Ortiz RDC, Callejas Posada R, Merello M, 2011. Flora of Antioquia. (Flora de Antioquia.) Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia:939 pp.

Jørgensen PM, León-Yànez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard, 75. i-viii, 1-1182.

Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Mejía R, Ferman RL, Galdámez EL, 1994. Caracterización Botánica de Especies Consideradas Malezas en los Cultivos Anuales y Perennes de la Estación Experimental ([English title not available]). San Salvador, El Salvador: Universidad de El Salvador.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Moraes AP, Guerra M, 2010. Cytological differentiation between the two subgenomes of the tetraploid Emilia fosbergii Nicolson and its relationship with E. sonchifolia (L.) DC. (Asteraceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 287(3/4):113-118. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=104878

Murillo E, Viña A, Pérez CA, Ruiz VH, 2006. [English title not available]. (Actividad Alelopática de las Arvenses Asociadas al Cultivo de Arroz (Oryza sativa L.) en el Tolima-Colombia.) Información Tecnológica, 17:15-24.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pruski JF, 2014. Asteraceae. Flora Mesoamericana [ed. by Davidse, G. \Sousa Sánchez, M. \Knapp, S. \Chiang Cabrera, F.]., Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. http://www.tropicos.org/docs/meso/asteraceae.pdf

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Raulerson L, 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution, 37. 1-69.

Smith AC, 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: A new flora of Fiji. Lawai, Kauai, Hawai`i. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Volume 5, 626 pp.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Thompson IR, 2006. A taxonomic treatment of tribe Senecioneae (Asteraceae) in Australia. Muelleria, 24:51-110.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Scaevola coriacea (dwarf naupaka). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 19 pp.

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Links to Websites

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Global Compositae Checklisthttp://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/Default.aspx

Contributors

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06/03/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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