Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ehrharta calycina
(perennial veldtgrass)

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Datasheet

Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldtgrass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ehrharta calycina
  • Preferred Common Name
  • perennial veldtgrass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Ehrharta calycina, or perennial veldt grass, is native to southern Africa and has been introduced to several countries around the world. It commonly invades disturbed ecosystems but is also able to penetrate in...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldt grass); spike from Puu Kole, Hawaii. July 23, 2004.
TitleFlower spike
CaptionEhrharta calycina (perennial veldt grass); spike from Puu Kole, Hawaii. July 23, 2004.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldt grass); spike from Puu Kole, Hawaii. July 23, 2004.
Flower spikeEhrharta calycina (perennial veldt grass); spike from Puu Kole, Hawaii. July 23, 2004.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldt grass); spike from Puu Kole, Hawaii. July 23, 2004.
TitleFlower spike
CaptionEhrharta calycina (perennial veldt grass); spike from Puu Kole, Hawaii. July 23, 2004.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldt grass); spike from Puu Kole, Hawaii. July 23, 2004.
Flower spikeEhrharta calycina (perennial veldt grass); spike from Puu Kole, Hawaii. July 23, 2004.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldtgrass); seeds.
TitleSeeds
CaptionEhrharta calycina (perennial veldtgrass); seeds.
Copyright©Steve Hurst/USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldtgrass); seeds.
SeedsEhrharta calycina (perennial veldtgrass); seeds.©Steve Hurst/USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ehrharta calycina Sm., 1790

Preferred Common Name

  • perennial veldtgrass

Other Scientific Names

  • Aira capensis L.f.
  • Ehrharta ascendens Schrad.
  • Ehrharta auriculata Steud.
  • Ehrharta geniculata (Thunb.) Thunb.
  • Melica festucoides Licht ex Trin.
  • Trochera calycina Sm. P. Beauv.

International Common Names

  • English: African veldt grass; perennial veldt grass; purple veldt grass; veldt grass
  • French: ehrharta

Local Common Names

  • Italy: ehrharta
  • South Africa: polgras; pypgras; rooisaadgras

Summary of Invasiveness

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Ehrharta calycina, or perennial veldt grass, is native to southern Africa and has been introduced to several countries around the world. It commonly invades disturbed ecosystems but is also able to penetrate into closed vegetation, such as heathland, woodland and forests, after natural disturbances have occurred. It represents a major threat to native Banksia woodlands on sandy soils in Western Australia. In California, it spreads into native shrub communities and its invasion causes a rapid shift towards species-poor grassland. It is also considered as a major threat to sand dunes and their vegetation on California's central coast. Once established, it inhibits or prevents germination and establishment of native forbs and woody species. Large stretches of the species increase fire frequencies, because stems and leaves dry out during the summer months, providing excellent fuel. Fire promotes spread of this grass by reducing regrowth or establishment of native species and drastically increasing cover of E. calycina.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Ehrharta
  •                                 Species: Ehrharta calycina

Description

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E. calycina is a tussock-forming grass 30-75 cm in height with flat, green to reddish-purple leaf blades 7-20 cm in length and 2-7 mm in width. A single tussock may consist of numerous stems. The inflorescence is a 10-15 cm long contracted to open panicle, with spikelets almost sessile or shortly stalked and 5-8 mm long. Glumes are 5-7 mm long, becoming purplish. A single spikelet contains three florets; the lower two are sterile and have no palea, and the upper is fertile with palea. Lemmas of sterile florets are membranous, short-awned or pointed and soft-hairy. Lemmas of fertile florets have hairy veins but no awns (Bossard et al., 2000).

Plant Type

Top of page Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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E. calycina is native to southern Africa (South Africa, Namibia and Lesotho), and has been introduced to several countries around the world: the USA (Texas, California and Hawaii), Tunisia, Uruguay, Spain, Portugal, India, Australia and New Zealand. In California, it is mostly confined to places near the coast in the southern part of the state; it is reported from 17 counties (Calflora, 2013). In Australia, it is found in Western Australia, with most records in the Perth area (Western Australian Herbarium, 2012), and also in four other states (Blood, 2001).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013

Africa

LesothoPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2013
NamibiaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2013
South AfricaPresentNative Not invasive Goldblatt and Manning, 2000; Germishuizen and Meyer, 2003; USDA-ARS, 20132-2500 m altitude; in Cape Province, Free State and KwaZulu-Natal
TunisiaPresentIntroducedValdés et al., 2009

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Hickman, 1993
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedWagner et al., 1999
-TexasPresentIntroducedJones et al., 1997

South America

UruguayLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Rosengurtt et al., 1970

Europe

PortugalPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedGBIF, 2013One record from 1983
SpainPresentIntroducedValdés et al., 2009

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Blood, 2001
-South AustraliaLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Blood, 2001
-TasmaniaLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Curtis and Morris, 1994; Blood, 2001
-VictoriaLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Blood, 2001
-Western AustraliaLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Blood, 2001
New ZealandPresentIntroducedEdgar and Connor, 2000; Blood, 2001

History of Introduction and Spread

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The earliest records of E. calycina in Australia date back to 1899 (Rod Randall, Government of Western Australia, Dept of Agriculture and Food, Forrestfield, Western Australia, Australia, personal communication, 2013). The grass was introduced as a pasture species and a soil binder (Alexander et al., 1921), but probably arrived earlier as a contaminant from South Africa in feed or fodder (Randall, personal communication, 2013).

In California, E. calycina was imported as seed from Australia and first reported in 1929 (Love, 1948a). It was promoted for forage improvement and erosion control during the 1950s and 1960s (Bossard et al., 2000), and extensively sown to stabilize sand dunes at Air Force Bases (Bossard et al., 2000).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
California Australia 1929 Forage (pathway cause) Yes No Frey (2005)
New Zealand 1956 Yes No Edgar et al. (1991)

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of accidental introduction is high; see the ‘Means of Movement and Dispersal’ section for information on how the species is dispersed. Seeds are easily dispersed by wind and by human activities. Any disturbances leading to bare soil will promote spread of the species if plants are nearby. Deliberate introductions to new countries and its subsequent use in agriculture pose a significant risk as it readily becomes naturalized and may spread beyond the points of introduction.

Habitat

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E. calycina grows in a wide range of habitats, usually on deep sandy soils. In California, it is found in sand dunes, dune scrub, coastal sage scrub, coastal grasslands, maritime chaparral, and oak woodlands (Hickman, 1993; Bossard et al., 2000). In Australia, it grows in disturbed sites such as road sides, in heathland, in Banksia woodlands (Fisher et al., 2006) and in blue gum woodlands (Vidler, 2003).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Littoral
Coastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal dunes Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Chromosome counts include 2n=12 and 2n=24 according to Spies et al. (1989) and Spies et al. (2002). Love (1948b) reported chromosome counts of 2n=24, 2n=25, 2n=26, 2n=27 and 2n=28, using a strain that was sent to him from Australia.

Reproductive Biology

E. calycina reproduces mainly by seed. Occasionally it is rhizomatous and may spread by rhizome pieces. Seeds are abundantly produced and primarily dispersed by wind (Bossard et al., 2000; Wittkuhn 2010). They do not self-bury and generally lie on the surface or in the top 1-2 cm of the soil (Smith et al., 1999).

Physiology and Phenology

In California, seeds of E. calycina germinate following winter rains. It grows and flowers throughout the rainy season (December to April), and into early summer in coastal areas with fog drip (Bossard et al. 2000). Most fruits mature between March and June in California. Root growth is rapid and extensive after rains. According to Bossard et al. (2000) flowering may occur for up to 25 weeks. In Australia, the species flowers from March to April or August to September (Western Australian Herbarium, 2012).

In Australia, germination occurs under a wide range of temperature and light conditions (Smith et al., 1999). No differences in germination rates were found between seeds in the dark or in full white light, nor between seeds exposed to 13° C and 28° C (Smith et al., 1999). Seeds withstood exposure to 70° or 80° C for 60 minutes without losing viability, but an exposure of 20 minutes to 90° C killed them.

Cramer et al. (2008) collected seeds from nine sites across a rainfall gradient in South Africa and grew the plants in a glasshouse. These native populations of E.calycina differed in traits such as photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, shoot moisture, relative growth rate, and a number of other traits. Photosynthesis ranged from 16-21 μmol m-2 s-1, stomatal conductance from 0.29-0.50 mol m-2 s-1, transpiration from 6.0-9.8 mmol m-2 s-1, and relative growth rate from 45-69 mg g-1 d-1.

Average leaf nitrogen content from three sites in Australia ranged from 28.9-33.9 mg g-1 (Fisher et al., 2006).

Longevity

E. calycina is perennial and occasionally rhizomatous. It has dormant buds at its base from which it can resprout after damage.

Population Size and Structure

E. calycina grows in dense tufts. In moist areas it is capable of forming a continuous turf, with plants spreading vegetatively and by seed. It has shown to accumulate persistent seedbanks (Pierce & Cowling, 1991). In Australian woodland invaded by the species, recently burned areas contained up to 75,000 seeds per square metre (Smith et al., 1999). Only about half of the soil seed bank germinates after fire, ensuring the potential for later recruitment (Smith et al., 1999). These authors found that 16-month-old seed germinated at a rate of 96%.

Environmental Requirements

E. calycina is resistant to drought and moderate frost (Western Australian Herbarium, 2012). It does not tolerate waterlogging, oxygen-poor soil conditions or high salinity levels (Western Australian Herbarium, 2012).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall250750mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Lepus californicus Herbivore not specific
Tilletia ehrhartae Pathogen Seeds to genus

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Pascoe et al. (2005) reported the smut fungus Tilletiaehrhartae on E. calycina in Australia.

Herbivory by jackrabbits (Lepuscalifornicus) is widespread in coastal California, and reduces the number of shoots and biomass of the grass compared to sites from which jackrabbits have been excluded (Cushman et al., 2011).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Seeds are dispersed primarily by wind (Wittkuhn, 2010).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Birds and mammals may disperse seeds of E. calycina if they become attached to feathers or fur (Frey, 2005).

Accidental Introduction

Seeds and pieces of tufts may be dispersed along roads and highways by agricultural machinery, mowers, and vehicles.

Intentional Introduction

E. calycina is considered as a highly palatable and drought resistant grass, adapted to light soils. It has proved useful for range reseeding and is listed in the Crop Index of the Center for New Crops & Plant Products (Crop Index, 2013).

Pathway Causes

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Pathway Vectors

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Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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E. calycina affects other species directly by crowding them out and indirectly through habitat alterations. It reaches high abundances and forms dense stands that tolerate only a few native species, resulting in a significant reduction of local plant and invertebrate diversity. Successful invasions cause a rapid shift toward grassland in California (Bossard et al., 2000).

Many Australian Banksia woodland remnants are heavily invaded by E.calycina (Fisher et al., 2006), a result of nutrient inputs and altered fire regimes by humans. In southwest Western Australia, invasion by the species initiates a grass-fire cycle, where fire promotes the grass and the grass fuel promotes fires (Baird, 1977). Regrowth and establishment of native species is prevented in areas where E.calycina has reached high abundances (Milberg and Lamont, 1995). It is a threat to blue gum woodlands dominated by Eucalyptus leucoxylon, because it displaces understorey plants such as the metallic sun orchid (Thelymitraepipactoides) (Vidler, 2003).

In southern Africa, E.calycina becomes abundant in areas cleared of Acaciasaligna (Yelenik et al., 2004), a nitrogen-fixing Australian tree that invades the species-rich fynbos -- the increased nitrogen content of the soil leads to secondary invasions by weedy natives such as E.calycina.

Increased fire frequencies threaten the reproductive biology of an endemic shrub, Arctostaphylosmorroensis, in California (Odion and Tyler, 2002).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Arctostaphylos morroensisNational list(s) National list(s)CaliforniaOdion and Tyler, 2002
Thelymitra epipactoidesNational list(s) National list(s)AustraliaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesVidler, 2003
Lupinus nipomensis (Nipomo Mesa lupine)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaCompetition - stranglingD’Antonio and Vitousek, 1992; Bossard et al., 2000; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009
Perognathus longimembris pacificus (Pacific pocket mouse)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010
Nasturtium gambelii (Gambel's watercress)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesGuatemala; Mexico; CaliforniaCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998
Sibara filifolia (Santra Cruz Island Rockcress)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - strangling
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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Economic Value

E.calycina is palatable and used as a forage grass and for revegetation of degraded soils. Crude protein contents range from 9–30%, metabolizable energy from 7.3–10.7 MJ, and dry matter digestibility from 50–72% (Moore et al., 2006). It is considered as useful for ranch reseeding (Crop Index, 2013), and has been used for erosion control (Bossard et al., 2000).

In South Australia, E.calycina is used to control the weed false caper (Euphorbiaterracina L.) in cultivated fields (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage

Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Some other species of Ehrharta may be confused with E. calycina. Panic veldt grass (Ehrharta erecta) is 30-60 cm tall and has leaf blades 5-12 cm in length and 4-9 mm in width. Annual veldt grass (Ehrharta longiflora) is annual and has leaf blades up to 20 cm long and 10 mm wide.

Prevention and Control

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Physical/Mechanical Control

After mowing of E.calycina during flower anthesis, cut plants recovered to a large extent due to dormant buds (Van der Westhuizen and Joubert 1983). For small infestations, it is recommended to cut plants ensuring crown removal (Western Australian Herbarium, 2012).

Prescribed burning is not an appropriate control method for E.calycina, as studies have shown that fire increases abundance of this species (Milberg and Lamont, 1995; Bossard et al., 2000).

Chemical Control

Spraying with herbicide before flowering results in high mortality, whereas spraying at flowering time kills the top parts of the plant but causes resprouting from dormant buds at the base (Dixon, 1999). Dixon et al. (2002) used grass-selective herbicides such as fluazifop-P, quizalofop-P and haloxyfop to control buffel grass (Cenchrusciliaris) in Australia but state that other similar grasses can be controlled in similar ways

In coastal California, glyphosate applied as a foliar spray at 2% concentration with added surfactant proved to be effective against E.calycina (Bossard et al., 2000). Although this non-selective herbicide is most appropriate for near-monospecific stands, careful treatment of single bunches with a backpack sprayer can reduce impacts on native species (Bossard et al., 2000).

Unplanned fires give the opportunity to spray regrowth and seedlings; the best time is within 4-6 weeks of germination (Western Australian Herbarium, 2012).

Control by Utilization

Moore et al. (2006) state that E.calycina in Australian pastures persists poorly under continuous grazing as it is selectively grazed. Similarly, Rossiter (1947) reports that it does not withstand continuous or even rotational grazing by sheep. Whether grazing is a feasible control method for E.calycina is not clear.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Little is known about the ecology and ecological impacts of E.calycina in Australia. Case studies are badly needed.

References

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Alexander WB, Lane-Poole CE, Herbert DH, 1921. Lists of the principal indigenous West Australian plants of economic importance and of naturalised aliens and weeds established in the state, with their vernacular name. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Western Australia, 6:41-46.

Baird AM, 1977. Regeneration after fire in King's Park, Perth, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia, 60(1):1-22.

Blood K, 2001. Environmental Weeds: a field guide for SE Australia. Mt. Waverley, Victoria, Australia: C. H. Jerram Science Publishers, 228 pp.

Bossard CC, Randall JM, Hoshovsky MC, 2000. Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California Press.

Bossard CC, Randall JM, Hoshovsky MC, 2000. Invasive plants of California’s wildlands. Los Angeles, USA: University of California Press, 164-170.

Calflora, 2013. Calflora: Information on wild California plants for conservation, education, and appreciation. http://www.calflora.org

Cramer MD, Hoffmann V, Verboom GA, 2008. Nutrient availability moderates transpiration in Ehrharta calycina. New Phytologist, 179(4):1048-1057. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/nph

Crop Index, 2013. Crop Index. West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Purdue University. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/default.html

Curtis WM, Morris DI, 1994. The Student's Flora of Tasmania. Hobart, Tasmania, Australia: St. David's Park Publishing.

Cushman JH, Lortie CJ, Christian CE, 2011. Native herbivores and plant facilitation mediate the performance and distribution of an invasive exotic grass. Journal of Ecology (Oxford), 99(2):524-531. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2745

D’Antonio CM, Vitousek PM, 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 2363-87.

Dixon IR, Dixon KW, Barrett M, 2002. Eradication of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) on Airlie Island, Pilbara Coast, Western Australia. In: Turning the Tide: the Eradication of Invasive Species. Proceedings of the International Conference on eradication of island invasives [ed. by Veitch, C. R. \Clout, M. N.]. Gland\Cambridge, Switzerland\UK: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group, 92-101.

Dixon R, 1999. Best management practices for the control of perennial veld grass Ehrharta calycina. In: Managing our bushland: Proceedings of a conference about the protection and management of urban bushland [ed. by Tullis, K. \McLean, K.]. West Perth, Western Australia, Australia: Urban Bushland Council W A Inc., 147-149.

Edgar E, Connor HE, 2000. Flora of New Zealand - Vol. V: Gramineae. Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Whenua Press, lxxxii + 650 pp.

Edgar E, Connor HE, Shand JE, 1991. Checklist of oryzoid, arundinoid, and chloridoid grasses naturalised in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 29(2):117-129.

Fisher JL, Veneklaas EJ, Lambers H, Loneragan WA, 2006. Enhanced soil and leaf nutrient status of a Western Australian Banksia woodland community invaded by Ehrharta calycina and Pelargonium capitatum. Plant and Soil, 284(1/2):253-264. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100326

Frey M, 2005. Element Stewardship Abstract for Ehrharta spp. Thunb. Arlington, Virginia, USA: The Nature Conservancy. http://www.imapinvasives.org/GIST/ESA/esapages/ehrhcaly.html

GBIF, 2013. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org/species/

Germishuizen G, Meyer NL, 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist [ed. by Germishuizen, G.\Meyer, N. L.]. Pretoria, South Africa: National Botanical Institute, vi + 1231 pp.

Goldblatt P, Manning J, 2000. Cape plants: a conspectus of the Cape flora of South Africa [ed. by Bond, P.\Goldblatt, P.\Manning, J.]. Pretoria, South Africa: National Botanical Institute, 743 pp.

Hickman JC, 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California Press.

Jones SD, Wipff JK, Montgomery PM, 1997. Vascular plants of Texas: a comprehensive checklist including synonymy, bibliography, and index. Austin, Texas, USA: University of Texas Press.

Love RM, 1948. Eight new forage plants developed for California ranges. California Agriculture, 2(1):7, 14.

Love RM, 1948. Preliminary cytological studies of Ehrharta calycina Smith. American Journal of Botany, 35:358-360.

Milberg P, Lamont BB, 1995. Fire enhances weed invasion of roadside vegetation in southwestern Australia. Biological Conservation, 73(1):45-49.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Moore G, Sanford P, Wiley T, 2006. Perennial pastures for Western Australia. South Perth, Western Australia, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia [Bulletin 4690.]

Odion D, Tyler C, 2002. Are long fire-free periods needed to maintain the endangered, fire-recruiting shrub Arctostaphylos morroensis (Ericaceae)? Conservation Ecology, 6(2):5. http://www.consecol.org/vol6/iss2/art4/abstract.html

Parsons WT, Cuthbertson EG, 2001. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 698 pp.

Pascoe IG, Priest MJ, Shivas RG, Cunnington JH, 2005. Ustilospores of Tilletia ehrhartae, a smut of Ehrharta calycina, are common contaminants of Australian wheat grain, and a potential source of confusion with Tilletia indica, the cause of Karnal bunt of wheat. Plant Pathology, 54(2):161-168. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=ppa

Pierce SM, Cowling RM, 1991. Disturbance regimes as determinants of seedbanks in coastal dune vegetation of the southeastern Cape. Journal of Vegetation Science, 2:403-412.

Rosengurtt B, Maffei BA de, Artucio PI de, 1970. Gramineas Uruguayas (Uruguayan grasses). Montevideo, Uruguay: Universidad de la Republica, 489 pp. [Colección Ciencias vol. 5.]

Rossiter RC, 1947. Studies on perennial veldt grass (Ehrharta calycina). Bull. Coun. Sci. Industr. Res. Aust, 227. 35 pp.

Smith MA, Bell DT, Loneragan WA, 1999. Comparative seed germination ecology of Austrostipa compressa and Ehrharta calycina (Poaceae) in a Western Australian Banksia woodland. Australian Journal of Ecology, 24(1):35-42.

Spies JJ, Dyk MM van, Wyk SMC van, 2002. Chromosome studies on African plants. 16. Polyploidy in the genus Ehrharta. Bothalia, 32(1):123-126.

Spies JJ, Saayman EJL, Voges SP, Davidse G, 1989. Chromosome studies on African plants. 9. Chromosome numbers in Ehrharta (Poaceae: Ehrharteae). Bothalia, 19(1):125-132.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. In: Recovery Plan for Marsh Sandwort (Arenaria paludicola) and Gambel's Watercress (Rorippa gambelii). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 50 pp. + appendices.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. In: Sibara filifolia (Santa Cruz Island Rockcress). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 24 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: Lupinus nipomensis (Nipomo Lupine). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 18 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Pacific Pocket Mouse (Perognathus longimembris pacificus). 5-Year review: summary and evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 86 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Bureau of Land Management (BLM), U.S. Department of the Interior: Californiahttp://www.blm.gov/ca
California Invasive Plant Councilhttp://www.cal-ipc.org
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
iMapInvasives - Element Stewardship Abstractshttp://www.imapinvasives.org/GIST/ESA/
Victorian Resources Online - Invasive Plantshttp://vro.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/lwm_pest_plants

Organizations

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USA: California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC), 1442-A Walnut Street, #462, Berkeley, California, CA 94709, http://www.cal-ipc.org/

Contributors

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14/03/13: Original text by:

Ewald Weber, Biodiversity Research, University of Potsdam, Maulbeerallee 1, 14469, Potsdam, Germany.

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