Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Carposina sasakii
(peach fruit moth)

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Datasheet

Carposina sasakii (peach fruit moth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Carposina sasakii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • peach fruit moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. sasakii is a pest of rosaceous fruits in eastern Asia, and does not spread easily to the non-native areas and countries. C. sasakii has the potential to fly long distances, but usually flies only within...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleC. niponensis; adult (museum set specimen)
Caption
Copyright©David Agassiz
C. niponensis; adult (museum set specimen)©David Agassiz

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Carposina sasakii Matsumura

Preferred Common Name

  • peach fruit moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Carposina niponensis Walsingham
  • Carposina persicana (Fitch)
  • Cydia persicana Sasaki

International Common Names

  • English: peach fruit borer
  • French: carpocapse du pêcher
  • Russian: persikovaya plodozhorka; yaponskaya plodovaya karposina

Local Common Names

  • Germany: apfelwicker-art
  • Japan: momo-hime-shinkui; momo-hime-sinkuiga; momo-shinkui-ga; momo-sinkuiga

EPPO code

  • CARSNI (Carposina niponensis)
  • CARSSA (Carposina sasakii)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. sasakii is a pest of rosaceous fruits in eastern Asia, and does not spread easily to the non-native areas and countries. C. sasakii has the potential to fly long distances, but usually flies only within and between canopies of fruit trees. Aerial dispersal to non-native areas has not been recorded. International trade of rosaceous fruits is a possible cause of spread of C. sasakii, but it is difficult for it to enter non-native countries under quarantine inspection. Even if C. sasakii enters non-native countries by international trade, it is not easy to establish a population, probably because the larvae in fruits cannot find a cocooning site near rosaceous plants after escaping from the fruits. However, C. sasakii has a strong impact on the management of rosaceous fruit orchards once a population is established. Damage to fruits can reach 100% in some cases in pears [Pyrus spp.] and 40-100% in apples [Malus spp.] if not controlled.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Carposinidae
  •                             Genus: Carposina
  •                                 Species: Carposina sasakii

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The peach fruit moth causing damage to rosaceous fruits in the Far East has been known as Carposina niponensis in the recent phytosanitary literature (Savotikov and Smetnik, 1995; Smith et al., 1997b). However, it appears (Diakonoff, 1989; Hua, 1992) that this species (with two subspecies - niponensis confined to the Far East of Asia on Rosaceae, and ottawana confined to Canada on Cornus and Ribes; Davis, 1968) is not a pest. All references to it as 'peach fruit moth' should be attributed to C. sasakii, which was treated as a synonym of C. niponensis in CABI/EPPO (1996b). Carposina persicana is another species on peach in Japan, treated as a synonym of C. niponensis by Smith et al. (1997b), but distinct, although of no known economic importance.

According to Nasu et al. (2010), the name persicana Matsumura, 1897, is the oldest available name for the peach fruit moth, and so the name sasakii Matsumura, 1900, is a junior synonym. However, the use of the younger synonym should be maintained to avoid confusion.

Description

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Egg

Elliptical, light yellowish-brown in colour with a granulated chorion, rose-red. Distinctive ring of spines round the apex, possibly encircling the micropyle (Wu and Hwang, 1955; Shutova, 1970).

Larva

Orange-red when newly hatched, changing to milky-white and then back to orange-red at maturity. Mature larva up to 13 mm long, with no anal comb. The setation is illustrated by Wu and Hwang (1955).

Pupa

Reddish-brown in cocoon.

Adult

Wing span 15-19 mm. Long narrow forewings, mottled grey in colour, with a darker area along the anterior margin; hind wings with a fringe of long scales, and only five veins arising from the median cell. The genitalia have been illustrated by Danilevskii (1958) and Wu and Hwang (1955).

Distribution

Top of page The distribution of C. sasakii is limited to the temperate Far East, centred on northeastern China and Japan. It is not known to have spread to other areas.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaRestricted distributionHwang and Woo, 1958; EPPO, 2014
-AnhuiPresentEPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentIntroduced1987Huang et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentWang and Li, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresentHwang and Woo, 1958; Zhang and Wang, 1983; EPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentDiakonoff, 1989; EPPO, 2014
-HenanPresentZhang and Song, 1983; EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentHwang and Woo, 1958; EPPO, 2014
-JilinPresentKang, 1995; EPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentHwang and Woo, 1958; Chang et al., 1977; Jiang et al., 1986; EPPO, 2014
-NingxiaPresentOu et al., 1984; EPPO, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentGeoffrion, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentHwang and Woo, 1958; Li et al., 1986; EPPO, 2014
-ShanxiPresentHuan et al., 1987; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentHwang and Woo, 1958; EPPO, 2014
JapanWidespreadNativeHwang and Woo, 1958; Siezo, 1968; Komarova, 1981; EPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoWidespreadNativeKajino and Nakao, 1977; Mizukoshi, 1983; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuWidespreadNativeShirasaki et al., 1979; Otake, 1985; Ohira, 1986; Yaginuma and Takagi, 1987; Inoue and Okano, 1988; Ohira and Oku, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentNativeNarita, 1986
-ShikokuPresentNativeNarita, 1986
Korea, DPRPresentKomarova, 1981; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentKomarova, 1981; Lee et al., 1984; EPPO, 2014

Europe

Russian FederationRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentPavlova, 1970; Gibanov and Sanin, 1971; Komarova, 1981; Diakonoff, 1989; Savotikov and Smetnik, 1995; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

Top of page C. sasakii is an A2 quarantine pest for EPPO (OEPP/EPPO, 1999) and for COSAVE. Elsewhere in the world, there is no directly analogous lepidopteran pest of fruits, with several larvae surviving in a single fruit. In Europe, Argyresthia conjugella is perhaps the most similar. The pest presents a risk to production of rosaceous tree fruits in most parts of the world. Although it might only complete one generation per year in temperate countries, it seems likely that a partial or complete second generation would be possible under warmer conditions. The introduction of C. sasakii into other regions could have a severe economic impact on fruit-growing. In Russia, C. sasakii is an internal quarantine pest and measures are taken to prevent its spread from the Far East to European Russia. Pest risk analysis suggests (Savotikov and Smetnik, 1995) that it would have one generation in the northern fruit-growing areas (Sankt-Peterburg, Volgograd, Perm', Moscow, Siberia), and two generations in the south (Rostov, Krasnodar, Stavropol).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page C. sasakii occurs on a wide range of cultivated and wild fruits, especially Rosaceae but also other families. It is possible that the published host range to a certain extent confuses C. sasakii with authentic C. niponensis. Host records for loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) and cherry (Prunus avium) from previous editions of the Compendium could not be traced and have been deleted.

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage

Symptoms

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Several eggs may be laid on each fruit, usually near the calyx, and many larvae may tunnel a single fruit (up to 13 have been recorded). The larvae tunnel in the fruit, feeding on the fleshy part and seeds but rejecting the skin.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / internal feeding
Seeds / external feeding
Seeds / internal feeding

Biology and Ecology

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C. sasakii overwinters as hibernating larvae in cocoons in the soil (at a depth of 5-10 cm over a radius of 1-2 m from the trunk of the fruit tree), though some larvae may overwinter in fruits in storage (Shutova, 1970). Most winter cocoons are distributed at a depth of 0-6 cm (Sato and Ishitani, 1976; Narita and Otake, 1979). The larvae pupate in the spring in fresh cocoons on the surface of the soil and the moths emerge about 12 days later. Some larval cocoons showed a prolonged diapause, spending 2 years in the soil (Kim et al., 2000). The flight period of the overwintering generation starts in late May or early June in Korea (Muramatsu, 1927) and ends in mid-June, with the first generation of adults flying from mid-August to early September. In China (Hwang et al., 1958), Japan (Yago and Ishikawa, 1936) and Korea Republic (Lee et al., 1984), the overwintering larvae may pupate at any time between mid-May and late July, depending on soil temperature and soil humidity. The life cycle can be univoltine or bivoltine (or a combination of the two strains) depending on the environmental factors in the habitat (Sato and Ishitani, 1976; Chiba and Kobayashi, 1985). In the regions of bivoltine life cycle, the moths fly from mid-June until early September and there is considerable overlapping of broods. In Japan, a few larvae that have emerged from fruits enter diapause in July. A number of diapausing larvae begin to appear from the beginning of August and the percentage of diapausing larvae increases towards the end of the month (Toshima et al., 1961). In China, the first generation is only partial and overwintering-generation larvae leaving the fruit in July may go into hibernation (Chang et al., 1977). In Russia, there is only one generation, except in the extreme south of Primor'e territory. The emergence of the first generation of moths in Hokkaido (Japan) has been found to be well synchronized with the growth of the main apple cultivars there (Kajino and Nakao, 1977). In China, different biotypes emerge at different times according to host plant (Hua and Hua, 1995).

Several eggs are laid on each fruit, usually near the calyx. Up to 13 larvae have been recorded in a single pear (Yago and Ishikawa, 1936). One female can carry up to 350 mature eggs (Ohira, 1989) and lays an average of about 100 eggs (Gibanov and Sanin, 1971). Adult longevity decreases as temperature increases (22 days at 15°C to 4.5 days at 35°C, and the total number of eggs laid by a female is estimated to be at its highest at 22°C in a fecundity model (Kim and Lee, 2003). The young larvae bore into the fruit, usually near the calyx, but reject the skin. Larvae moving from one fruit to another has not been recorded in the field. Susceptibility to penetration by the young larvae varies with growth stage, species and cultivar of fruit. These factors (in addition to temperature) affect rate of development of the larvae (Gibanov and Sanin, 1971; Chang et al., 1977). In the case of ‘Fuji’ apples, no larvae survived inside the fruits during mid- to late June, and larval survivorship in mid-July was very low (2.0%) (Kim and Lee, 2002). However, 72.1% of larvae successfully emerged from fruits when the fruits were picked from the trees (Ishiguri and Toyoshima, 2006).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 5 25
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 0 35
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -18 0

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall4001000mm; lower/upper limits

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults/Larvae/Pupae
Bracon variator Parasite Larvae
Campoletis Parasite Pschorn-Walcher, 1964
Isaria fumosorosea Pathogen Sekiguchi, 1960
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Adults/Larvae/Pupae
Microchelonus sulcatus Parasite Eggs/Larvae
Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Pathogen Larvae/Pupae
Serratia marcescens Pathogen Adults/Larvae/Pupae
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite Shandong
Steinernema feltiae Parasite Hebei

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page There are few records of parasites. Anilastus sp. [Campoletis sp.] (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) was raised from infested apples in Japan (Pschorn-Walcher, 1964). A fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, has been advocated for control (Sekiguchi, 1960). More recently, Metarhizium anisopliae has been reported most effective in a comparative study (Yaginuma and Takagi, 1987), while Bacillus thuringiensis had high but not very persistent activity (Lu et al., 1993). Entomophilic nematodes have been successfully tested in the 1990s.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (non-biotic)

The moths normally fly only short distances, although they have a potential to fly more than 10 km (Ishiguri and Shirai, 2004). In China, 80% of marked adults dispersed randomly within a radius of 100 m and the furthest distance an adult dispersed was 225 m (Sun et al., 1987). A field investigation showed that adults dispersed from an abandoned apple orchard, which had been cut down in the preceding winter, to the adjacent orchard, caused fruit damage to the extent of at least 50 m (Okazaki et al., 2002). The mating status of female moths does not influence flight activity (Ishiguri and Shirai, 2004).

Movement in Trade

Larvae can survive for long periods in stored fruits, so imported fruits are the most likely means of entry. C. sasakii is found by USDA inspectors almost every year on raw fruits from Japan and Korea.

Accidental Introduction

Imported fruits are the most likely means of entry because larvae can survive for long periods in stored fruits and detection of infested fruits is quite difficult during quarantine inspections. However, there is no information about their dispersal after the quarantine system was established.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Impact

Top of page Despite its common name, C. sasakii is primarily a pest of pome fruits. It is considered one of the most important pests of these fruits in the Far East. On apples in Japan, Korea Republic and China, it may cause heavy losses if not controlled (USDA, 1958). In China (Hwang et al., 1958), it is recorded as destroying about one-third of the apple crop in Liaoning province (with Cydia inopinata). It is also damaging to Ziziphus jujuba crops. In the Primor'e territory of Russia, C. sasakii is the most damaging fruit moth, more so than Cydia pomonella. Damage to pears [Pyrus] can reach 100% in some cases, but apples [Malus] are less heavily infested (40-100%); apricots [Prunus armeniaca] are also attacked and, less often, plums [Prunus domestica] (Sytenko, 1960; Pavlova, 1970; Gibanov and Sanin, 1971). C. sasakii is a serious pest of peach [Prunus persica] in Japan. In general, C. sasakii appears to be cited more as a pest of the worldwide-grown rosaceous fruit trees than of indigenous Far Eastern species.

Economic Impact

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C. sasakii may cause heavy losses of apple [Malus spp.], pear [Pyrus spp.] and peach [Prunus persica] if not controlled. However, the severity of economic impact has not been clarified.

Environmental Impact

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C. sasakii may not have any impact on habitats. C. sasakii is found only in orchards and it is quite difficult to find it in natural habitats.

Impact: Biodiversity

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C. sasakii does not have any impacts on biodiversity. We do not have any evidence of hybridization with related species, or competition with animals in the same niche.

Social Impact

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C. sasakii is harmless to human activities.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Detection and Inspection

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Cut fruits and examine for damage.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Damage to peach resembles that due to Grapholita molesta (Smith et al., 1997a). Damage to apple resembles that due to Rhagoletis pomonella (Smith et al., 1997c), rather than that due to Cydia pomonella.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Control of the pest was in the past achieved by applying granular formulations of insecticides such as diazinon to the soil shortly before emergence of the adults. This can be followed by foliar sprays of fenitrothion, fenvalerate or deltamethrin at the oviposition peaks of the overwintering and first generations, in combination with the mechanical removal of fallen fruit (Huan et al., 1987). Other active substances found effective in more recent trials include: bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. Soil applications are best used to bring an infestation under control and, in a well-managed orchard, applications should be limited to foliar sprays. In an article on IPM for deciduous fruit crops, Feng (1997) states that chemical methods still dominate for C. sasakii. Sex pheromones (Kang, 1995; Lee et al. 1994) and action thresholds (Jiang et al., 1990) are used to monitor males, and decide on and time chemical control. Sex pheromones are also used to interfere with pre-mating communication between female and male moths, which is called mating disruption (Kydonieus and Beroza, 1982). Recently, the use of entomophilic nematodes has been widely tested (Li et al., 1986; 1993) and seems promising. These may be applied to the soil at the time of adult emergence (Steinernema feltiae; Li et al., 1993; Liu, 1994) or as sprays (Heterorhabditis sp.; Li et al., 1990).

Irradiation has been studied in China. The effects of phosphine fumigation were investigated in Japan (Soma et al., 2000).

References

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CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI; EPPO, 1998. Thrips palmi. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, December (2nd revision). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 480.

Chang NX; Chang LY; Shi ZQ; Hwang KH, 1977. Studies on the biology of the apple fruit moth - influences of the fruits on the establishment, growth and diapause of the larvae. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 20(2):170-176

Chebanov GE, 1977. Disinfestation regimes. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 1:55-56

Chiba T; Kobayashi M, 1985. Seasonal prevalence of the peach fruit moth, Carposina niponensis Walsingham, in the apple orchards in Iwate Prefecture. Bulletin of the Iwate Horticultural Experiment Station, 6:1-14.

Danilevskii AS, 1958. The species of fruit moths (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Carposinidae, Tortricidae) injurious to fruit trees in the Far East. Revue d'Entomologie de l'URSS, 37:282-293.

Davis DR, 1968. A revision of the American moths of the family Carposinidae. Bulletin of the Smithsonian Institution US National Museum No. 289.

Diakonoff A, 1989. Revision of the Palparctic Carposinidae with description of a new genus and new species (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea). Zoologische Verhandelingen, No. 251:1-155

EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Feng MX, 1997. On integrated pest management for deciduous fruit crops. China Fruits, no. 1:47-49.

Geoffrion R, 1987. Establishment of the first bases for agricultural warning stations in China, in the Province of Shaanxi. Phytoma, No. 390:14-18

Gibanov PK; Sanin YuV, 1971. Lepidoptera - pests of fruits in the Maritime Province. Zashchita Rastenii, 16(8):41-43

Hua BZ, 1992. On the scientific name of the peach fruit borer. Entomotaxonomia, 14(4):313-314

Hua L; Hua BZ, 1995. A preliminary study on the host biotypes of the peach fruit borer. Acta Phytophylactica Sinica, 22:165-170.

Huan JL; Cheng XM; Zhou CB, 1987. Infestation pattern of Carposina niponensis in plantations of Ziziphus jujuba and its control. Plant Protection, 13(1):18-20

Huang J; Luo XN; Lin QC; Wang QS; Zhang LM; Liao QY; Hou MG; Hou RX, 1995. Studies on the bionomics of peach fruit borer, a new orchard pest in Fujian Province. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 22(1):22-26

Hukusima S, 1953. Ecological studies on the peach fruit moth, Carposina niponensis Walsingham. I. On the diurnal rhythm of adult. Japanese Journal of Applied Zoology, 18: 55-60.

Hwang KH, Woo WC et al. , 1958. Studies on the biology and chemical control of the apple fruit borer Carposina niponensis. Acta Oeconomica-Entomologica Sinica, no. 1:31-66.

Inoue H, Okano M et al. , 1988. Iconographia insectorum japonicorum vol. 1 (Lepidoptera):269.

Ishiguri Y; Shirai Y, 2004. Flight activity of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae), measured by a flight mill. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 39:127-131.

Ishiguri Y; Shirai Y, 2004. Flight activity of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae), measured by a flight mill. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 39:127-131.

Ishiguri Y; Toyoshima S, 2006. Larval survival and development of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae), in picked and unpicked apple fruits. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 41:685-690.

Ishihuri Y; Toyoshima S, 2006. Larval survival and development of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae), in picked and unpicked apple fruits. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 41(4):685-690.

Iwahana H; Konno T; Sato R, 1985. A Pathogenic Bacterium of the Peach Fruit Moth, Carposina niponensis Walsingham (Lepidoptera : Carposinidae). Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 29(3):256-258.

Jiang YZ; Piao CS; Zhang SF; Wu SQ; Zhao FY, 1990. On the damage and 'on-tree' action threshold of peach fruit borer to apple. Acta Phytophylactica Sinica, 17(4):359-364

Jiang YZ; Zhang SF; Zhao FY; Wu SQ; Piao SC, 1986. Control of Carposina sasakii Matsumura with cypermethrin. Plant Protection, 12(2):21-22

Kajino Y; Nakao H, 1977. Ecology of peach fruit moth, Carposina niponensis Walsingham. I. Period of adult emergence of the first brood. Bulletin of Hokkaido Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Stations, No. 37:77-84

Kang ZX, 1995. Studies on the occurrence and appropriate time for chemical control of Carposina niponensisin Changchun region. Journal of Jilin Agricultural University, 17:22-26.

Kim DS; Lee JH, 2002. Egg and larval survivorship of Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple and peach and their effects on adult population dynamics in orchards. Environmental Entomology, 31(4):686-692.

Kim D-S; Lee J-H, 2002. Egg and larval survivorship of Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple and peach and their effects on adult population dynamics in orchards. Environmental Entomology, 31:686-692.

Kim D-S; Lee J-H, 2003. Oviposition model of Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae). Ecological Modelling, 162:145-153.

Kim DS; Lee JH; Yiem MS, 2000. Spring emergence pattern of Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple orchards in Korea and its forecasting models based on degree-days. Environmental Entomology, 29(6):1188-1198.

Komarova GF, 1981. The peach fruitmoth. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 9:37-38

Kydonieus AF; Beroza M, 1982. Pheromones and their use. In: Insect Suppression with Controlled Release Pheromone Systems, volume 1 [ed. by Kydonieus AF, Beroza M] Florida, USA: CRC Press, 3-12.

Lee SW; Hyun JS; Park JS, 1984. Studies on the developments of the overwintering peach fruit moth, Carposina niponensis Walsingham. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 23(1):42-48

Lee SW; Lee MH; Choi KM; Hyun JS; Yiem MS, 1994. The effects of pesticide applications on the major apple insect pests and their natural enemies. RDA Journal of Agricultural Science, Crop Protection, 36:383-394.

Li SC; Lian JS; Yang P; Zhang YQ, 1986. A preliminary study on entomopathogenic nematode, Taishan No. 1 (Heterorhabditis sp.). Acta Phytophylactica Sinica, 13(4):267-272

Li SC; Liu JB; He DJ, 1990. Study on the control of Carposina nipponensis using entomopathogenic nematode Taishan 1 (Heterorhabditis sp.). Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 17(3):237-240

Li Y; Liu Z; Zhang L; Chai F; Zong J, 1993. Application of Steinernema feltiae agriotes against the peach fruit borer. Acta Phytophylactica Sinica, 20:337-342.

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02/01/2008 Updated by:

Shingo Toyoshima, National Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agric. & Food Res. Organization, Morioka, Iwate 020-0123, Japan

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