Carposina sasakii (peach fruit moth)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Air Temperature
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Impact: Biodiversity
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Carposina sasakii Matsumura
Preferred Common Name
- peach fruit moth
Other Scientific Names
- Carposina niponensis Walsingham
- Carposina persicana (Fitch)
- Cydia persicana Sasaki
International Common Names
- English: peach fruit borer
- French: carpocapse du pêcher
- Russian: persikovaya plodozhorka; yaponskaya plodovaya karposina
Local Common Names
- Germany: apfelwicker-art
- Japan: momo-hime-shinkui; momo-hime-sinkuiga; momo-shinkui-ga; momo-sinkuiga
- CARSNI (Carposina niponensis)
- CARSSA (Carposina sasakii)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
C. sasakii is a pest of rosaceous fruits in eastern Asia, and does not spread easily to the non-native areas and countries. C. sasakii has the potential to fly long distances, but usually flies only within and between canopies of fruit trees. Aerial dispersal to non-native areas has not been recorded. International trade of rosaceous fruits is a possible cause of spread of C. sasakii, but it is difficult for it to enter non-native countries under quarantine inspection. Even if C. sasakii enters non-native countries by international trade, it is not easy to establish a population, probably because the larvae in fruits cannot find a cocooning site near rosaceous plants after escaping from the fruits. However, C. sasakii has a strong impact on the management of rosaceous fruit orchards once a population is established. Damage to fruits can reach 100% in some cases in pears [Pyrus spp.] and 40-100% in apples [Malus spp.] if not controlled.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Lepidoptera
- Family: Carposinidae
- Genus: Carposina
- Species: Carposina sasakii
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The peach fruit moth causing damage to rosaceous fruits in the Far East has been known as Carposina niponensis in the recent phytosanitary literature (Savotikov and Smetnik, 1995; Smith et al., 1997b). However, it appears (Diakonoff, 1989; Hua, 1992) that this species (with two subspecies - niponensis confined to the Far East of Asia on Rosaceae, and ottawana confined to Canada on Cornus and Ribes; Davis, 1968) is not a pest. All references to it as 'peach fruit moth' should be attributed to C. sasakii, which was treated as a synonym of C. niponensis in CABI/EPPO (1996b). Carposina persicana is another species on peach in Japan, treated as a synonym of C. niponensis by Smith et al. (1997b), but distinct, although of no known economic importance.
According to Nasu et al. (2010), the name persicana Matsumura, 1897, is the oldest available name for the peach fruit moth, and so the name sasakii Matsumura, 1900, is a junior synonym. However, the use of the younger synonym should be maintained to avoid confusion.
DescriptionTop of page
Orange-red when newly hatched, changing to milky-white and then back to orange-red at maturity. Mature larva up to 13 mm long, with no anal comb. The setation is illustrated by Wu and Hwang (1955).
Reddish-brown in cocoon.
Wing span 15-19 mm. Long narrow forewings, mottled grey in colour, with a darker area along the anterior margin; hind wings with a fringe of long scales, and only five veins arising from the median cell. The genitalia have been illustrated by Danilevskii (1958) and Wu and Hwang (1955).
DistributionTop of page The distribution of C. sasakii is limited to the temperate Far East, centred on northeastern China and Japan. It is not known to have spread to other areas.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
Risk of IntroductionTop of page C. sasakii is an A2 quarantine pest for EPPO (OEPP/EPPO, 1999) and for COSAVE. Elsewhere in the world, there is no directly analogous lepidopteran pest of fruits, with several larvae surviving in a single fruit. In Europe, Argyresthia conjugella is perhaps the most similar. The pest presents a risk to production of rosaceous tree fruits in most parts of the world. Although it might only complete one generation per year in temperate countries, it seems likely that a partial or complete second generation would be possible under warmer conditions. The introduction of C. sasakii into other regions could have a severe economic impact on fruit-growing. In Russia, C. sasakii is an internal quarantine pest and measures are taken to prevent its spread from the Far East to European Russia. Pest risk analysis suggests (Savotikov and Smetnik, 1995) that it would have one generation in the northern fruit-growing areas (Sankt-Peterburg, Volgograd, Perm', Moscow, Siberia), and two generations in the south (Rostov, Krasnodar, Stavropol).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page C. sasakii occurs on a wide range of cultivated and wild fruits, especially Rosaceae but also other families. It is possible that the published host range to a certain extent confuses C. sasakii with authentic C. niponensis. Host records for loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) and cherry (Prunus avium) from previous editions of the Compendium could not be traced and have been deleted.
Growth StagesTop of page Fruiting stage
SymptomsTop of page
Several eggs may be laid on each fruit, usually near the calyx, and many larvae may tunnel a single fruit (up to 13 have been recorded). The larvae tunnel in the fruit, feeding on the fleshy part and seeds but rejecting the skin.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / abnormal shape|
|Fruit / discoloration|
|Fruit / gummosis|
|Fruit / internal feeding|
|Seeds / external feeding|
|Seeds / internal feeding|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
C. sasakii overwinters as hibernating larvae in cocoons in the soil (at a depth of 5-10 cm over a radius of 1-2 m from the trunk of the fruit tree), though some larvae may overwinter in fruits in storage (Shutova, 1970). Most winter cocoons are distributed at a depth of 0-6 cm (Sato and Ishitani, 1976; Narita and Otake, 1979). The larvae pupate in the spring in fresh cocoons on the surface of the soil and the moths emerge about 12 days later. Some larval cocoons showed a prolonged diapause, spending 2 years in the soil (Kim et al., 2000). The flight period of the overwintering generation starts in late May or early June in Korea (Muramatsu, 1927) and ends in mid-June, with the first generation of adults flying from mid-August to early September. In China (Hwang et al., 1958), Japan (Yago and Ishikawa, 1936) and Korea Republic (Lee et al., 1984), the overwintering larvae may pupate at any time between mid-May and late July, depending on soil temperature and soil humidity. The life cycle can be univoltine or bivoltine (or a combination of the two strains) depending on the environmental factors in the habitat (Sato and Ishitani, 1976; Chiba and Kobayashi, 1985). In the regions of bivoltine life cycle, the moths fly from mid-June until early September and there is considerable overlapping of broods. In Japan, a few larvae that have emerged from fruits enter diapause in July. A number of diapausing larvae begin to appear from the beginning of August and the percentage of diapausing larvae increases towards the end of the month (Toshima et al., 1961). In China, the first generation is only partial and overwintering-generation larvae leaving the fruit in July may go into hibernation (Chang et al., 1977). In Russia, there is only one generation, except in the extreme south of Primor'e territory. The emergence of the first generation of moths in Hokkaido (Japan) has been found to be well synchronized with the growth of the main apple cultivars there (Kajino and Nakao, 1977). In China, different biotypes emerge at different times according to host plant (Hua and Hua, 1995).
Several eggs are laid on each fruit, usually near the calyx. Up to 13 larvae have been recorded in a single pear (Yago and Ishikawa, 1936). One female can carry up to 350 mature eggs (Ohira, 1989) and lays an average of about 100 eggs (Gibanov and Sanin, 1971). Adult longevity decreases as temperature increases (22 days at 15°C to 4.5 days at 35°C, and the total number of eggs laid by a female is estimated to be at its highest at 22°C in a fecundity model (Kim and Lee, 2003). The young larvae bore into the fruit, usually near the calyx, but reject the skin. Larvae moving from one fruit to another has not been recorded in the field. Susceptibility to penetration by the young larvae varies with growth stage, species and cultivar of fruit. These factors (in addition to temperature) affect rate of development of the larvae (Gibanov and Sanin, 1971; Chang et al., 1977). In the case of ‘Fuji’ apples, no larvae survived inside the fruits during mid- to late June, and larval survivorship in mid-July was very low (2.0%) (Kim and Lee, 2002). However, 72.1% of larvae successfully emerged from fruits when the fruits were picked from the trees (Ishiguri and Toyoshima, 2006).
ClimateTop of page
|C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate||Preferred||Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Preferred||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
|Ds - Continental climate with dry summer||Preferred||Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)|
|Dw - Continental climate with dry winter||Preferred||Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||5||25|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||0||35|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||-18||0|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Mean annual rainfall||400||1000||mm; lower/upper limits|
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Isaria fumosorosea||Pathogen||Sekiguchi, 1960|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page There are few records of parasites. Anilastus sp. [Campoletis sp.] (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) was raised from infested apples in Japan (Pschorn-Walcher, 1964). A fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, has been advocated for control (Sekiguchi, 1960). More recently, Metarhizium anisopliae has been reported most effective in a comparative study (Yaginuma and Takagi, 1987), while Bacillus thuringiensis had high but not very persistent activity (Lu et al., 1993). Entomophilic nematodes have been successfully tested in the 1990s.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Natural Dispersal (non-biotic)
The moths normally fly only short distances, although they have a potential to fly more than 10 km (Ishiguri and Shirai, 2004). In China, 80% of marked adults dispersed randomly within a radius of 100 m and the furthest distance an adult dispersed was 225 m (Sun et al., 1987). A field investigation showed that adults dispersed from an abandoned apple orchard, which had been cut down in the preceding winter, to the adjacent orchard, caused fruit damage to the extent of at least 50 m (Okazaki et al., 2002). The mating status of female moths does not influence flight activity (Ishiguri and Shirai, 2004).
Movement in Trade
Larvae can survive for long periods in stored fruits, so imported fruits are the most likely means of entry. C. sasakii is found by USDA inspectors almost every year on raw fruits from Japan and Korea.
Imported fruits are the most likely means of entry because larvae can survive for long periods in stored fruits and detection of infested fruits is quite difficult during quarantine inspections. However, there is no information about their dispersal after the quarantine system was established.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||larvae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Impact SummaryTop of page
ImpactTop of page Despite its common name, C. sasakii is primarily a pest of pome fruits. It is considered one of the most important pests of these fruits in the Far East. On apples in Japan, Korea Republic and China, it may cause heavy losses if not controlled (USDA, 1958). In China (Hwang et al., 1958), it is recorded as destroying about one-third of the apple crop in Liaoning province (with Cydia inopinata). It is also damaging to Ziziphus jujuba crops. In the Primor'e territory of Russia, C. sasakii is the most damaging fruit moth, more so than Cydia pomonella. Damage to pears [Pyrus] can reach 100% in some cases, but apples [Malus] are less heavily infested (40-100%); apricots [Prunus armeniaca] are also attacked and, less often, plums [Prunus domestica] (Sytenko, 1960; Pavlova, 1970; Gibanov and Sanin, 1971). C. sasakii is a serious pest of peach [Prunus persica] in Japan. In general, C. sasakii appears to be cited more as a pest of the worldwide-grown rosaceous fruit trees than of indigenous Far Eastern species.
Economic ImpactTop of page
C. sasakii may cause heavy losses of apple [Malus spp.], pear [Pyrus spp.] and peach [Prunus persica] if not controlled. However, the severity of economic impact has not been clarified.
Environmental ImpactTop of page
C. sasakii may not have any impact on habitats. C. sasakii is found only in orchards and it is quite difficult to find it in natural habitats.
Impact: BiodiversityTop of page
C. sasakii does not have any impacts on biodiversity. We do not have any evidence of hybridization with related species, or competition with animals in the same niche.
Social ImpactTop of page
C. sasakii is harmless to human activities.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Abundant in its native range
- Tolerant of shade
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Host damage
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Cut fruits and examine for damage.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page Damage to peach resembles that due to Grapholita molesta (Smith et al., 1997a). Damage to apple resembles that due to Rhagoletis pomonella (Smith et al., 1997c), rather than that due to Cydia pomonella.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Control of the pest was in the past achieved by applying granular formulations of insecticides such as diazinon to the soil shortly before emergence of the adults. This can be followed by foliar sprays of fenitrothion, fenvalerate or deltamethrin at the oviposition peaks of the overwintering and first generations, in combination with the mechanical removal of fallen fruit (Huan et al., 1987). Other active substances found effective in more recent trials include: bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. Soil applications are best used to bring an infestation under control and, in a well-managed orchard, applications should be limited to foliar sprays. In an article on IPM for deciduous fruit crops, Feng (1997) states that chemical methods still dominate for C. sasakii. Sex pheromones (Kang, 1995; Lee et al. 1994) and action thresholds (Jiang et al., 1990) are used to monitor males, and decide on and time chemical control. Sex pheromones are also used to interfere with pre-mating communication between female and male moths, which is called mating disruption (Kydonieus and Beroza, 1982). Recently, the use of entomophilic nematodes has been widely tested (Li et al., 1986; 1993) and seems promising. These may be applied to the soil at the time of adult emergence (Steinernema feltiae; Li et al., 1993; Liu, 1994) or as sprays (Heterorhabditis sp.; Li et al., 1990).
Irradiation has been studied in China. The effects of phosphine fumigation were investigated in Japan (Soma et al., 2000).
ReferencesTop of page
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ContributorsTop of page
02/01/2008 Updated by:
Shingo Toyoshima, National Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agric. & Food Res. Organization, Morioka, Iwate 020-0123, Japan
Distribution MapsTop of page
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