Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Dysphania ambrosioides
(Mexican tea)

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Datasheet

Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Dysphania ambrosioides
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Mexican tea
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • D. ambrosioides is a herb considered a cosmopolitan weed (Correa et al., 2004). It produces thousands of small seeds that can be easily disper...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); habit alongside a road. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2011.
TitleHabit
CaptionDysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); habit alongside a road. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); habit alongside a road. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2011.
HabitDysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); habit alongside a road. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); habit showing leaves. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2011.
TitleLeaves
CaptionDysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); habit showing leaves. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); habit showing leaves. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2011.
LeavesDysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); habit showing leaves. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); flowers. India. June 2014.
TitleFlowers
CaptionDysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); flowers. India. June 2014.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); flowers. India. June 2014.
FlowersDysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); flowers. India. June 2014.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); seedlings. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleSeedlings
CaptionDysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); seedlings. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); seedlings. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
SeedlingsDysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea); seedlings. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants

Preferred Common Name

  • Mexican tea

Other Scientific Names

  • Ambrina ambrosioides (L.) Spach
  • Ambrina anthelmintica (L.) Spach
  • Ambrina incisa Moq.
  • Ambrina parvula Phil.
  • Ambrina spathulata Moq.
  • Atriplex ambrosioides (L.) Crantz
  • Atriplex anthelmintica (L.) Crantz
  • Blitum ambrosioides (L.) Beck
  • Botrys ambrosioides (L.) Nieuwl.
  • Botrys anthelmintica (L.) Nieuwl.
  • Chenopodium amboanum (Murr) Aellen
  • Chenopodium ambrosioides L.
  • Chenopodium angustifolium Pav.ex Moq.
  • Chenopodium anthelminticum L.
  • Chenopodium citriodorum Steud.
  • Chenopodium cuneifolium Vent. ex Moq.
  • Chenopodium integrifolium Vorosch.
  • Chenopodium querciforme Murr
  • Chenopodium sancta-maria Vell.
  • Chenopodium spathulatum (Moq.) Sieber ex Moq.
  • Chenopodium suffruticosum Willd.
  • Chenopodium vagans Standl.
  • Chenopodium variegatum Gouan
  • Dysphania anthelmintica (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants
  • Orthosporum ambrosioides (L.) Kostel.
  • Orthosporum suffruticosum Kostel.
  • Roubieva anthelmintica (L.) Hook. & Arn.
  • Teloxys ambrosioides (L.) W.A. Weber
  • Teloxys vagans (Standl.) W.A. Weber
  • Vulvaria ambrosioides (L.) Bubani

International Common Names

  • English: American wormseed; bluebush; Indian goosefoot; Jerusalem-tea; Mexican tea; Spanish-tea; wormseed
  • Spanish: apazote; aposote; biengranada; epazote; hierba hormiguera; huacatay; paico; pasote; pazote; pichan; pichen
  • French: ambroisie du Mexique; botrice; chenopode ambroisine; feuilles à vers; herbe à puces; herbe à vers; thé du Mexique; vermifuge
  • Chinese: tu jing jie

Local Common Names

  • Central America: epazote
  • Bahamas: Jerusalem parsley
  • Brazil: ambrósia; ambrósia-do-México; anserina-vermífuga; ereva-mata-pulga; erva-das-lombrigas; erva-de-bicho; erva-de-Santa-Maria; erva-formigueira; mastruço; menstruço
  • Dominican Republic: chénopode; semen contra; semin contra
  • Haiti: simón contegras
  • Jamaica: bitter weed; hedge mustard; semicontract
  • Lesser Antilles: boldo; semen contra; worm bush; wormwood

Summary of Invasiveness

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D. ambrosioides is a herb considered a cosmopolitan weed (Correa et al., 2004). It produces thousands of small seeds that can be easily dispersed by human activities (seed contamination, mud, and farming machinery), as well as by abiotic factors (USDA-ARS, 2013). Once established in new areas, it grows as a weed affecting agriculture and native vegetation (Jellen et al., 2011). D. ambrosioides is one of the most successful herbs colonizing both disturbed and agricultural areas in almost all continents. It is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds where it is listed as a noxious weed in the United States, Central and South America, Asia, Africa, Australia and Europe (Randall, 2012). This species is considered invasive in a wide range of environments including areas in Australia, islands in the Pacific Ocean, Spain, Italy, Greece, China, Vietnam, Cambodia, and South Africa (see distribution table for details: DAISIE, 2013; PIER, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Chenopodiaceae
  •                             Genus: Dysphania
  •                                 Species: Dysphania ambrosioides

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The generic name Dysphania R. Br. has been traditionally applied to 7-10 species endemic to Australia, and included in the family Dysphaniaceae (Wilson, 1983). However, recent phylogenetic studies suggest that Dysphania is close to a group of Chenopodium species characterized by the presence of multicellular glandular hairs (Kadereit et al., 2003; Kadereit et al., 2005). Consequently, these studies have supported the proposal by Mosyakin and Clemants (2002, 2008) to transfer the glandular species of Chenopodium to Dysphania.

At present, the genus Dysphania includes about 45 species (Mosyakin and Clemants, 2002) and it is included by APG III in the widely circumscribed family Amaranthaceae (which includes also the family Chenopodiaceae; Stevens, 2012).  The CAB Thesaurus continues to use the Cronquist system in which the genus Dysphania remains in the separate family Chenopodiaceae.

According to the new classification, most of the species within the genus Dysphania are native to the Americas (18 species) and to Australia (20 species), while the remaining ones are native to Africa, Asia and Europe (Iamonico, 2011). The former species Chenopodium ambrosioides also belongs to the group of taxa now included in Dysphania, as D. ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin and Clemants, according to the infrageneric classification proposed by Mosyakin and Clemants (2002, 2008).

Description

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Erect subshrub to 1 m tall, with strong, fetid smell, many-branched from a woody base; stem ribbed to cylindrical, more or less pubescent. Leaf blades 2-9 × 0.6-3.8 cm, chartaceous, lanceolate or oblanceolate, glabrous or nearly so, lower surface with abundant yellowish gland dots, the apex obtuse or acute, the base tapering into a more or less elongate (to 2 cm), winged petiole, the margins deeply lobed or serrate to entire on upper leaves. Flowers minute, greenish, in axillary glomerules or in spikes of glomerules, the spikes 1-2 cm long. Calyx greenish, ca. 1 mm long, the sepals oblong; stamens ca. 1 mm long; styles 3, whitish. Utricle whitish, ca. 1 mm long, covered with persistent sepals. Seeds 1 mm long, nearly lenticular, reddish brown (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Plant Type

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Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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D. ambrosioides is native to Mexico, and Central and South America (Mosyakin and Clemants, 2002; 2008). It has been actively introduced to be used as a culinary and aromatic herb, tea, and food commodity and currently can be found naturalized in Europe, the United States, the West Indies, Africa, Australia, Pacific Islands and Asia (Correa et al., 2004; Park et al., 2012; Randall, 2012; Prota4U, 2013).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BotswanaPresentIntroduced
EgyptPresentIntroducedWeed
EswatiniPresentIntroduced
GabonPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresentIntroduced
LesothoPresentIntroduced
MadagascarPresentIntroduced
MalawiPresentIntroduced
MauritiusPresentIntroducedInvasive
MozambiquePresentIntroduced
NamibiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasive
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
UgandaPresentIntroduced
ZambiaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced

Asia

CambodiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresentIntroduced
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced
-HunanPresentIntroduced
-JiangsuPresentIntroduced
-JiangxiPresentIntroduced
-SichuanPresentIntroduced
-YunnanPresentIntroduced
-ZhejiangPresentIntroduced
Hong KongPresentIntroducedInvasive
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroduced
-UttarakhandPresent
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroducedBonin Islands
PakistanPresentIntroducedAgricultural weed
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroduced
South KoreaPresentIntroducedInvasive
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasive
TurkeyPresentIntroduced
VietnamPresentIntroducedInvasive

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroduced
BelgiumPresentIntroducedEstablished
BulgariaPresentIntroduced
CroatiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
CyprusPresentIntroducedEstablished
CzechiaPresentIntroduced
DenmarkPresentIntroduced
EstoniaPresentIntroduced
FrancePresentIntroducedEstablished
-CorsicaPresentIntroducedEstablished
GermanyPresentIntroduced
GreecePresentIntroducedInvasive
HungaryPresentIntroduced
ItalyPresentIntroducedIncluding Sicilia
-SardiniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
MoldovaPresentIntroduced
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedEstablished
North MacedoniaPresentIntroduced
PortugalPresentIntroducedEstablished
-AzoresPresentIntroducedEstablished
RomaniaPresentIntroducedEstablished
SerbiaPresentIntroducedWeed
SpainPresentIntroducedInvasiveAndalucia, Castilla & León, Basque Country
-Balearic IslandsPresentIntroducedEstablished
SwedenPresentIntroducedEstablished
UkrainePresentIntroduced
United KingdomPresentIntroducedEngland, Scotland, Wales

North America

AnguillaPresentIntroduced
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced
ArubaPresentIntroduced
BahamasPresentIntroduced
BarbadosPresentIntroduced
BelizePresent
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedTortola
CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroduced
-OntarioPresentIntroduced
-QuebecPresentIntroduced
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentWeed; Original citation: INBio (Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad) (1998)
CubaPresentIntroduced
CuraçaoPresentIntroduced
DominicaPresentIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
El SalvadorPresent
GrenadaPresentIntroduced
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentOriginal citation: Tropicos (2013)
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentNativeWeeds
MontserratPresentIntroduced
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedSaba, St. Barthelemy, St. Eustatius, St. Marteen, Bonaire
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeed
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroduced
Saint LuciaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedDescribed as “rare” on this island
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeed
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-DelawarePresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IdahoPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-IndianaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-IowaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-KansasPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-MichiganPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-MississippiPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-MissouriPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-NevadaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-OhioPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-OregonPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-South DakotaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-TennesseePresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-TexasPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-UtahPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-VermontPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedListed as a weed

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasive
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentIntroduced
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeed
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

ArgentinaPresentBuenos Aires, Chaco. Cordoba, Corrientes, DF, Entre Ríos, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Río Negro, Salta, Santa Fe, San Juan, Tucumán
BoliviaPresentOriginal citation: Tropicos (2013)
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentNative
-AlagoasPresentNative
-AmapaPresentNative
-AmazonasPresentNative
-BahiaPresentNative
-CearaPresentNative
-Espirito SantoPresentNative
-GoiasPresentNative
-MaranhaoPresentNative
-Mato GrossoPresentNative
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNative
-Minas GeraisPresentNative
-ParaPresentNative
-ParaibaPresentNative
-ParanaPresentNative
-PernambucoPresentNative
-PiauiPresentNative
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNative
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNative
-RondoniaPresentNative
-RoraimaPresentNative
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative
-Sao PauloPresentNative
-SergipePresentNative
-TocantinsPresentNative
ChilePresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive on Juan Fernández Islands
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresentNativeContinental Ecuador
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
French GuianaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
GuyanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
ParaguayPresentAlto Paraguay, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Itapúa, Paraguarí, Hayes
PeruPresentIntroducedWeed
SurinamePresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
UruguayPresentMontevideo. Considered a weed.
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized

History of Introduction and Spread

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Within its native distribution range, D. ambrosioides has been cultivated since pre-Columbian times. Outside its native range, it has been actively introduced (probably repeated introductions) in tropical and temperate regions of the world and also has been accidentally introduced as a seed contaminant (Prota4U, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013). For example, in Korea, it was accidentally introduced around the 1970s and has become widely naturalized by replacing indigenous plants and disrupting native ecosystems (Park et al., 2012). It was reported from Puerto Rico as early as 1883 in Bello’s studies of Puerto Rican plants (Bello, 1883). I. Urban reported the occurrence of this species in Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Virgin Islands, Antigua, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St Vincent, and Trinidad at the start of the twentieth century (Urban, 1905).

Risk of Introduction

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D. ambrosioides has been intentionally introduced in many tropical and subtropical regions to be used as a culinary and aromatic herb, tea, food commodity, to extract essential oils and as a medicinal plant. It has escaped from cultivation and spreads rapidly into disturbed areas, secondary forests, and agricultural lands where it behaves as a weed (Park et al., 2012; Randall, 2012; Prota4U, 2013: USDA-ARS, 2013). Considering that this species can produce thousands of seeds which can be easily dispersed by both biotic and abiotic seed dispersal vectors, the probability of invasion remains high principally in areas near its cultivation (PIER, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013).

Habitat

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D. ambrosioides can be found growing in a wide variety of habitats and climates including tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions, from sea level to 2000 m altitude. This species is described as a “cosmopolitan weed” common in disturbed areas, waste places, roadsides, forest edges, abandoned gardens, pastures, and agricultural fields (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; PIER, 2013; Prota4U, 2013). D. ambrosioides is very successful colonizing new habitats, principally areas with high sunlight exposure and moist conditions (Holm et al., 1997).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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D. ambrosioides has been reported as a weed affecting crops such as cotton, coffee, beans, chickpeas, maize, rice and grapes (Vibrans, 2011). Additionally, D. ambrosioides is host of the fungal pathogen Erysiphe betae (powdery mildew) which can spread to tomato crops (Prota4U, 2013).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for D. ambrosioides is 2n = 32 (Grozeva, 2006). 

Reproductive Biology

Flowers in D. ambrosioides are bisexual (have both male and female organs) or gynomonoecious (bisexual and female flowers) and are pollinated primarily by wind (Prota4U, 2013). 

Physiology and Phenology

In Mexico, within its native distribution range, D. ambrosioides produces flowers in the summer and fruits from mid-summer until mid-autumn (Vibrans, 2011). Outside its native distribution range, this species also reproduces over a lengthy period (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012). For example, in Africa, D. ambrosioides has been reported flowering from July to October, and the seeds ripen from August to October (Prota4U, 2013). 

Longevity

Plants of D. ambrosioides are mostly annuals or short-lived perennials (Holm et al., 1997). 

Environmental Requirements

D. ambrosioides grows in a wide variety of soils including light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. It prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. D. ambrosioides does not grow in shaded areas and requires moist soil, but can tolerate seasonal drought (Prota4U, 2013). In general, plants occur from sea level to 2000 m altitude in areas with temperatures ranging from 6°C to 30°C and precipitation ranging from 300 to 3000 mm (Holm et al., 1997; PIER, 2013).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 7 27

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall3002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Peronospora Pathogen All Stages not specific N

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The downy mildew caused by Peronospora spp. is an important disease in D. ambrosioides cultivated areas (Prota4U, 2013).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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D. ambrosioides spreads by seeds. Plants produce thousands of seeds which can be dispersed by wind, water or as a contaminant in hay, crop seeds, mud, and agricultural equipment (Holm et al., 1997; Prota4U, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionLeaf vegetable, aromatic herb, industrial uses Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
DisturbanceThis species grows as a weed Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
FoodLeaf vegetable, aromatic herb Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Garden waste disposalPotential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Industrial purposesHerbal tea and essential oils Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Intentional releaseFrequently grown as garden plants in the tropics. Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Medicinal useThis species is used worldwide as a vermifuge, analgesic, antiashmatic, and antifungal agent Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
People foragingLeaves and seeds are consumed by humans Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesPotential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Land vehiclesSeeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Machinery and equipmentSeeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
WaterSeeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
WindSeeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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D. ambrosioides represents a major concern to agricultural activities. It is a common weed in pastures and crop fields (i.e., cotton, coffee, beans, chickpeas, maize, rice and grapes; Holm et al., 1997; Vibrans, 2011) and it is also host of the fungal species Erysiphe betae (powdery mildew) (PROTA4U, 2013).

Environmental Impact

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D. ambrosioides has been identified as an agricultural and environmental weed that can smother native plant communities where it has been introduced (Randall, 2012). This species has the potential to out-compete native plant communities and can also reduce biodiversity in invaded areas because plants are able to dominate large areas in disturbed sites with early successional stages affecting the germination and establishment of native pioneer species (Holm et al., 1997; Park et al., 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Loss of medicinal resources
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Hybridization
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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D. ambrosioides is often planted as an aromatic and spice herb, leaf vegetable, and herbal tea. Essential oils extracted from leaves are used as fragrance components in creams, perfumes and soaps (Prota4U, 2013). Leaves and stems are consumed cooked and as a condiment in traditional Mexican food. Seeds are also consumed, but they should be soaked in water overnight and thoroughly rinsed before being used in order to remove any saponins. Because D. ambrosioides contains terpene compounds, it is also used as a fumigant against mosquitoes and is added to fertilizers to inhibit insect larvae. Gold-green dyes can be obtained from the whole plant. In Cuba, Mexico and Amazonia this species is considered a magic plant and it is used in traditional rituals. In traditional herbal medicine, this species is used as an analgesic, antiasthmatic, antifungal, carminative, and vermifuge compound. In Mexico and Central America, this herb has been used for centuries to expel parasitic worms from the body and in the early 1900s it was one of the major anthelmintics used to treat ascarids and hookworms in humans, cats, dogs, horses, and pigs in the United States (Jellen, 2011; Prota4U, 2013).

Uses List

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Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Religious

Environmental

  • Amenity

General

  • Ritual uses

Human food and beverage

  • Food additive
  • Seeds
  • Spices and culinary herbs
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Chemicals
  • Cosmetics
  • Dyestuffs
  • Essential oils
  • Pesticide

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams CD, 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies, 848 pp

Arianoutsou M, Bazos I, Delipetrou P, Kokkoris Y, 2010. The alien flora of Greece: taxonomy, life traits and habitat preferences. Biological Invasions, 12(10):3525-3549. http://www.springerlink.com/content/64p8761783323136/

Backer CA, 1954. Chenopodiaceae. Flora Malesiana, 4:99-106

Balick MJ, Nee M, Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246

Bello D, 1883. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Segunda parte. Monoclamídeas.) Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 12:103-130

Bethune S, Griffin M, Joubert DF, 2004. National Review of Invasive Alien Species, Namibia. Windhoek, : Ministry of Environment and Tourism

Borsic I, Milovic M, Dujmovic I, Bogdanovic S, Cigic P, Resetnik I, Nikolic T, Mitic B, 2008. Preliminary check-list of invasive alien plant species (IAS) in Croatia. Natura Croatica, 17(2):55-71. http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=casopis&id_casopis=51

Brenan JPM, 1954. 36 Chenopodiaceae. In: Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Keay RWJ, eds. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Volume 1. Part 1. London, UK, Crown Agents

Brundu G, Camarda I, Satta V, 2003. A methodological approach for mapping alien plants in Sardinia (Italy). In: Plant invasions: ecological threats and management solutions [ed. by Child, L.\Brock, J. H.\Brundu, G.\Prach, K.\Pyse?k, K.\Wade, P. M.\Williamson, M.]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 41-62

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation

Correa A, Galdames MDC, Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp

Correll DS, Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Vaduz, Germany: J. Cramer, 1692 pp

DAISIE, 2013. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. DAISIE (online). www.europe-aliens.org

Danton P, Perrier C, Reyes GM, 2006. New catalogue of the vascular flora of the Juan Fernández archipelago (Chile). (Nouveau catalogue de la flore vasculaire de l'archipel Juan Fernández (Chili).) Acta Botanica Gallica, 153(4):399-587

eFloras, 2013. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

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Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Foxcroft LC, Henderson L, Nichols GR, Martin BW, 2003. A revised list of alien plants for the Kruger National Park. Koedoe, 46(2):21-44

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp

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Henty EE, 1981. Handbooks of the flora of Papua New Guinea, vol 2. Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne University Press, 276 pp

Holm LG, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc

Howell C, Sawyer JWD, 2006. New Zealand naturalised vascular plant checklist. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network

Iamonico D, 2011. Dysphania anthelmintica (Amaranthaceae), new to the nonnative flora of Italy, and taxonomic considerations on the related species. Hacquetia, 10:41-48

INBio (Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad), 1998. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica (Manual of plants of Costa Rica). Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica: Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, 125 pp

Jellen E, Kolano B, Sederberg M, Bonifacio A, Maughan P, 2011. Chenopodium. In: Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources [ed. by Kole, C.]. 35-61

Jørgensen PM, León-Yánez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden. 75:1-1182

Kadereit G, Borsch T, Weising K, Freitag H, 2003. Phylogeny of Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae and the evolution of C4-photosynthesis. International Journal of Plant Science, 164:959-986

Kadereit G, Gotzek D, Jacobs S, Freitag H, 2005. Origin and age of Australian Chenopodiaceae. Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 5(1):59-80. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/14396092

Kato H, 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University

Khuroo AA, Irfan Rashid, Zafar Reshi, Dar GH, Wafai BA, 2007. The alien flora of Kashmir Himalaya. Biological Invasions, 9(3):269-292. http://www.springerlink.com/content/p47k291348887h31/?p=3f7396e4601240f4a981389077081fd3&pi=3

Madagascar Catalogue, 2012. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. Antananarivo, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden, Madagascar Research and Conservation Program. http://www.efloras.org/madagascar

Mashaly LA, Awad ER, 2003. Weed Flora of Orchards in the Nile Delta, Egypt: Floristic Features. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 2:314-324

Migahid AM, 1988. Chenopodiaceae. In: Flora of Saudi Arabia. Vol. 1. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: King Saud University, 192-223

Molina RA, 1975. Enumeration of the plants of Honduras. (Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras) Ceiba, 19(1):1-118

Mosyakin SL, Clemants SE, 2002. New nomenclatural combinations in Dysphania R. (Chenopodiaceae): taxa occurring in North America. Ukrainian Botanical Journal, 59:380-385

Mosyakin SL, Clemants SE, 2008. Further transfer of glandular-pubescent species from Chenopodium subg. Ambrosia to Dysphania (Chenopodiaceae). Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 2:425-431

Nestorovic MLJ, Konstantinovic B, 2011. Overview of the Weed Flora in the Serbia. Contemporary Agriculture,The Serbian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 60:215-230

Orchard AE, 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service

ORSTOM, 1988. List of vascular plants of Gabon

Park MJ, Cho SE, Wolcan S, Shin HD, 2012. First Report of Powdery Mildew Caused by Erysiphe betae on the Invasive Weed Dysphania ambrosioides in Korea. Plant Disease, 96:592-592

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Prota4U, 2013. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Ravindran, P. N., 2017. The encyclopedia of herbs & spices. Volumes 1 and 2, [ed. by Ravindran, P. N.]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.xlv + 1128 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173378261 doi:10.1079/9781780643151.0000

Senna L, 2013. Chenopodium in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB4313

Shah GM, Khan MA, 2006. Checklist of noxious weeds of district Mansehra, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 12(3):213-219. http://wssp.org.pk/

Silva MC da, Izidine S, Amude AB, 2004. A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Pretoria, South Africa: South African Botanical Diversity Network

Smith AC, 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). Volume 2. 1981, 818 pp.; many pl. (8 col.)

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Swarbrick JT, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical Paper - South Pacific Commission, No. 209: 124 pp

Tropicos, 2012. Tropicos. Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org

Urban I, 1905. Symbolae Antillanae. Volumen IV. Berlin, Germany: Fratres Borntraeger, 771 pp

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2013. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vibrans H, 2011. [English title not available]. (Malezas de México. Listado alfabético por familia, géneroy especie.) . http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/paginas/listaplantas

Wagner WI, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press

Wilson PG, 1983. A taxonomic revision of the tribe Chenopodieae (Chenopodiaceae) in Australia. Nuytsia, 4:135-262

Wu TL, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised):384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Monocotyledoneae (Catalogue of the vascular plants of the southern cone (Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay). Volume 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledoneae) [ed. by Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 983 pp

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams C D, 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies. 848 pp.

Anon, 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. [ed. by Orchard A E]. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Arianoutsou M, Bazos I, Delipetrou P, Kokkoris Y, 2010. The alien flora of Greece: taxonomy, life traits and habitat preferences. Biological Invasions. 12 (10), 3525-3549. http://www.springerlink.com/content/64p8761783323136/ DOI:10.1007/s10530-010-9749-0

Backer CA, 1954. Chenopodiaceae. In: Flora Malesiana, 4 99-106.

Balick MJ, Nee M, Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. In: Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85 1-246.

Bethune S, Griffin M, Joubert D F, 2004. National Review of Invasive Alien Species, Namibia. Windhoek, Namibia: Ministry of Environment and Tourism.

Boršić I, Milović M, Dujmović I, Bogdanović S, Cigić P, Rešetnik I, Nikolić T, Mitić B, 2008. Preliminary check-list of invasive alien plant species (IAS) in Croatia. Natura Croatica. 17 (2), 55-71. http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=casopis&id_casopis=51

Brenan J P M, 1954. 36 Chenopodiaceae. In: Flora of West Tropical Africa. Volume 1. Part 1. [ed. by Hutchinson J, Dalziel J M, Keay R W J]. London, UK: Crown Agents.

Brundu G, Camarda I, Satta V, 2003. A methodological approach for mapping alien plants in Sardinia (Italy). In: Plant invasions: ecological threats and management solutions. [ed. by Child L, Brock J H, Brundu G, Prach K, Pysĕk K, Wade P M, Williamson M]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers. 41-62.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos., Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

Correa A, Galdames MDC, Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama. (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama)., Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 599 pp.

Correll DS, Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago., Vaduz, Germany: J Cramer. 1692 pp.

DAISIE, 2013. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Dangwal L R, Antima Sharma, Amandeep Singh, Rana C S, Tajinder Singh, 2011. Weed flora of S.R.T. Campus Badshahi Thaul Tehri Garhwal (H.N.B. Garhwal Central University, Uttarakhand), India. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 17 (4), 387-396. http://www.wssp.org.pk/174-10.pdf

Danton P, Perrier C, Reyes G M, 2006. New catalogue of the vascular flora of the Juan Fernández archipelago (Chile). (Nouveau catalogue de la flore vasculaire de l'archipel Juan Fernández (Chili).). Acta Botanica Gallica. 153 (4), 399-587.

eFloras, 2013. eFloras., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria .

Fazal Hadi, Muhammad Ibrar, 2015. Ecology of weeds in wheat crops of Kalash valley, district Chitral, Hindukush Range, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 21 (3), 425-433. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-21-3-2015/11.%20PJWSR-06-2015.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Flora of China Web., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Foxcroft L C, Henderson L, Nichols G R, Martin B W, 2003. A revised list of alien plants for the Kruger National Park. Koedoe. 46 (2), 21-44.

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

Graveson R, 2012. Plants of Saint Lucia., http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Henty EE, 1981. Handbooks of the flora of Papua New Guinea., 2 Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne University Press. 276 pp.

Holm L, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho J, Herberger J, 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons. xv + 1129 pp.

Howell C, Sawyer JWD, 2006. New Zealand naturalised vascular plant checklist., Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network.

Jørgensen P M, León-Yánez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. 1182 pp.

Kato H, 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium., Tokyo Metropolitan University.

Khan R U, Wazir S M, Muhammad Subhan, Saad Ullah, Hidayat Ullah, Aysha Farooq, Farheen Jaffar, Shazia, Shah I A, Mustafa Kamal, 2012. Weed flora of sugarcane in district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 18 (4), 541-552. http://www.wssp.org.pk/article.htm

Khuroo A A, Irfan Rashid, Zafar Reshi, Dar G H, Wafai B A, 2007. The alien flora of Kashmir Himalaya. Biological Invasions. 9 (3), 269-292. http://www.springerlink.com/content/p47k291348887h31/?p=3f7396e4601240f4a981389077081fd3&pi=3 DOI:10.1007/s10530-006-9032-6

Li T T, Sun X C, Wu G X, 2012. First report of A group 16SrI phytoplasma infecting epazote in China. Journal of Plant Pathology. 94 (4, Supplement), S4.89. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Madagascar Catalogue, 2012. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar., Antananarivo, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden, Madagascar Research and Conservation Program. http://www.efloras.org/madagascar

Mashaly LA, Awad ER, 2003. Weed Flora of Orchards in the Nile Delta, Egypt: Floristic Features. In: Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 2 314-324.

Migahid A M, 1988. Chenopodiaceae. In: Flora of Saudi Arabia. Vol. 1. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: King Saud University. 192-223.

Molina R A, 1975. Enumeration of the plants of Honduras. (Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras). Ceiba. 19 (1), 1-118.

Nestorovic MLJ, Konstantinovic B, 2011. Overview of the Weed Flora in the Serbia. In: Contemporary Agriculture,The Serbian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 60 215-230.

ORSTOM, 1988. List of vascular plants of Gabon.,

Ortega-Acosta S Á, Palemón-Alberto F, Cruz-Lagunas B, Toribio-Jiménez J, Damián-Nava A, 2018. First report of downy mildew on Dysphania ambrosioides caused by Peronospora sp. in Mexico. Plant Disease. 102 (11), 2383-2384. DOI:10.1094/pdis-02-18-0273-pdn

Park MJ, Cho SE, Wolcan S, Shin HD, 2012. First Report of Powdery Mildew Caused by Erysiphe betae on the Invasive Weed Dysphania ambrosioides in Korea. In: Plant Disease, 96 592-592.

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2013. PROTA4U web database., [ed. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Rahmatullah Qureshi, Bhatti G R, 2001. Determination of weed communities in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields of district Sukkur. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 33 (1), 109-115.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds., Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia. 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Senna L, 2013. (Chenopodium in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB4313

Shah G M, Khan M A, 2006. Checklist of noxious weeds of district Mansehra, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 12 (3), 213-219. http://wssp.org.pk/

Silva MC da, Izidine S, Amude AB, 2004. A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique., Pretoria, South Africa: South African Botanical Diversity Network.

Smith A C, 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). Volume 2. In: Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). Volume 2. Kauai, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. 818 pp.

Swarbrick J T, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. In: Technical Paper - South Pacific Commission, Nouméa, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission (Commission du Pacifique Sud). viii + 124 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2013. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Vibrans H, 2011. [English title not available]. (Listado alfabético por familia, géneroy especie)., http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/paginas/listaplantas

Vuković N, Miletić M, Milović M, Jelaska S D, 2014. Grime's CSR strategies of the invasive plants in Croatia. Periodicum Biologorum. 116 (3), 323-329. http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=199334

Wagner WI, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press.

Wu TL, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. In: Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised), 384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants., Tampa, Florida, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Zuloaga F O, Morrone O, Belgrano M J, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Monocotyledoneae. [ed. by Zuloaga F O, Morrone O, Belgrano M J]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. xcvi + 983 pp.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Plant Resources of Tropical Africahttp://www.prota.org
Tropicoshttp://www.tropicos.org/

Contributors

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16/01/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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