Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Cydia pomonella
(codling moth)



Cydia pomonella (codling moth)


  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cydia pomonella
  • Preferred Common Name
  • codling moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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C. pomonella larva (up to 20 mm).
TitleLarva on apple
CaptionC. pomonella larva (up to 20 mm).
C. pomonella larva (up to 20 mm).
Larva on appleC. pomonella larva (up to 20 mm).AgrEvo
Larva of C. pomonella in core of apple showing feeding damage.
TitleLarva in apple core
CaptionLarva of C. pomonella in core of apple showing feeding damage.
CopyrightHorticulture Research International/East Malling
Larva of C. pomonella in core of apple showing feeding damage.
Larva in apple coreLarva of C. pomonella in core of apple showing feeding damage.Horticulture Research International/East Malling
Larval damage to apple fruit by C. pomonella.
TitleLarval damage
CaptionLarval damage to apple fruit by C. pomonella.
CopyrightNOVARTIS Crop Protection AG, Basel Switzerland
Larval damage to apple fruit by C. pomonella.
Larval damageLarval damage to apple fruit by C. pomonella. NOVARTIS Crop Protection AG, Basel Switzerland
C. pomonella feeding damage on apple.
TitleFeeding damage
CaptionC. pomonella feeding damage on apple.
CopyrightHorticulture Research International/East Malling
C. pomonella feeding damage on apple.
Feeding damageC. pomonella feeding damage on apple.Horticulture Research International/East Malling
C. pomonella feeding damage on apple.
TitleFeeding damage
CaptionC. pomonella feeding damage on apple.
CopyrightHorticulture Research International/East Malling
C. pomonella feeding damage on apple.
Feeding damageC. pomonella feeding damage on apple.Horticulture Research International/East Malling


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cydia pomonella Linnaeus

Preferred Common Name

  • codling moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Carpocapsa pomonana Treitschke
  • Carpocapsa pomonella Linnaeus
  • Enarmonia pomonella Linnaeus
  • Grapholitha pomonella
  • Laspeyresia pomonella Linnaeus
  • Phalaena pomonella Linnaeus

International Common Names

  • English: walnut worm
  • Spanish: gusano de la fruta; palomilla de la manzana (Mexico); perforador mayor de la manzana (Colombia)
  • French: carpocapse de la pomme; carpocapse des pommes; pyrale de la pomme; ver des pommes et des poires
  • Portuguese: bicho da maca

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: aeblevikler
  • Finland: omenakaeaeriaeinen
  • Germany: Obstmade; Wickler, Apfel-
  • Israel: ash hatapuach
  • Italy: bruco delle mele; bruco delle pere; carpocapsa delle mele; verme del pomario; verme delle mele; verme delle pere
  • Netherlands: Appelbladroller; Appelmade; Appelmotje; Fruitmot; Peremade
  • Norway: eplevikler
  • Sweden: aepplevecklare
  • Turkey: elma ic kurdu

EPPO code

  • CARPPO (Cydia pomonella)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Tortricidae
  •                             Genus: Cydia
  •                                 Species: Cydia pomonella

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AfghanistanPresentMohammad-Ullah, 1988; EPPO, 2014
ArmeniaPresentAzizyan and Akopyan, 1991; EPPO, 2014
AzerbaijanPresentEPPO, 2014
ChinaRestricted distributionAPPPC, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-GansuPresentEPPO, 2014
-HebeiAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentEPPO, 2014
-HubeiAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
-JilinAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
-LiaoningAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
-Nei MengguPresentEPPO, 2014
-NingxiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-ShanxiPresentZhang et al., 2006
-XinjiangPresentZhang and He, 1986; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
Georgia (Republic of)PresentEPPO, 2014
IndiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentKhajuria et al., 1986; Bhardwaj, 1987; EPPO, 2014
-Jammu and KashmirPresentPawar and Tuhan, 1985; Masoodi et al., 1987; Pawar and Parry, 1989; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentEPPO, 2014
IranPresentDastgheyb-Beheshti et al., 1987; Kamali, 1991; Saeb, 1994; EPPO, 2014
IraqPresentAhmad and Ali, 1989; Sahib and Abdul-Sahib, 1995; EPPO, 2014
IsraelPresentKehat, 1995; Steinberg et al., 1988; Klijnstra et al., 1997; EPPO, 2014
JordanPresentEPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentNurmuraov et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014
KyrgyzstanPresentEPPO, 2014
LebanonPresentEPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentAPPPC, 1987; Khan and Chaudhry, 1989; Mohyuddin, 1992; EPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentEPPO, 2014
TajikistanPresentKovalenkov et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentBulut and Kilincer, 1989a; Bulut and Kilincer, 1989b; Kilincer et al., 1992; EPPO, 2014
TurkmenistanPresentEPPO, 2014
UzbekistanPresentEPPO, 2014


AlgeriaPresentEPPO, 2014
EgyptPresentHofer and Brassel, 1992; EPPO, 2014
LibyaPresentEPPO, 2014
MauritiusPresentEPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentEPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentBlomefield et al., 1997; EPPO, 2014
-Canary IslandsPresentEPPO, 2014
TunisiaPresentDhouibi and Ghidaoui, 1990; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentDyck and Gardiner, 1992; Judd et al., 1997; EPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentEPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentJaques et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentVincent et al., 1990; Jaques et al., 1994; Trimble, 1995; EPPO, 2014
-Prince Edward IslandPresentEPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentLanglois and Dube, 1984; Vincent et al., 1990; Chouinard et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
MexicoPresentTejada and Rumayor, 1988; Garcia-Salazar, 1991; EPPO, 2014
USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentLight et al., 1993; Shorey and Gerber, 1996; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisPresentWeinzierl, 1991
-IndianaPresentEPPO, 2014
-IowaPresentGleason et al., 1994
-MassachusettsPresentProkopy, 1985; Vincent et al., 1990; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentWeitzner and Whalon, 1987; Rock et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentFadamiro, 2004
-MissouriPresentBarrett, 1995; Chapman and Barrett, 1997
-New YorkPresentDean, 1989; Knodel and Agnello, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentRock et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentHall, 1979; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentMoffit et al., 1988; Varela et al., 1993; Hilton et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentHull and Starner, 1983; Rock et al., 1993; Cox et al., 1995; EPPO, 2014
-UtahPresentJones, 1987; Varela et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentPfeiffer et al., 1993a; Pfeiffer et al., 1993b; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentWilliamson et al., 1996; Klijnstra et al., 1997; EPPO, 2014
-West VirginiaPresentRock et al., 1993
-WisconsinPresentEPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentGiganti, 1994; EPPO, 2014
BoliviaPresentEPPO, 2014
BrazilRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-ParanaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Rio Grande do SulPresentEPPO, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentEPPO, 2014
ChilePresentGonzalez, 1993; Curkovic et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
ColombiaPresentEPPO, 2014
PeruPresentEPPO, 2014
UruguayPresentBentancourt and Scatoni, 1989; EPPO, 2014


AlbaniaPresentIsufi and Myrta, 1996; EPPO, 2014
AustriaPresentDenzer, 1996; EPPO, 2014
BelarusWidespreadEPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentPaternotte, 1989; Vantieghem, 1994; Paternotte, 1997; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaPresentAngelova, 1985; Kutinkova and Dimova, 1989; Marinkov, 1989; EPPO, 2014; Velcheva and Atanassov, 2016
CroatiaPresentBaric and Ciglar, 2005
CyprusPresentLouca, 1984; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentSt'astná and Psota, 2013; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentVrkoc and Koneeny, 1992
DenmarkPresentPercy-Smith & Ravn, 1991; Ravn and Madsen, 1995; EPPO, 2014
EstoniaPresentMottus et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
FinlandWidespreadKurppa, 1989; EPPO, 2014
FranceWidespreadMartinet,1997; Martinet and Speich, 1997; EPPO, 2014
-CorsicaPresentEPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentKruger et al., 1993; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentSamaras, 1983; EPPO, 2014
HungaryPresentBradley et al., 1995; Balazs et al., 1996; Klijnstra et al., 1997; EPPO, 2014
IrelandPresentEPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentBoscheri et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
-SardiniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-SicilyPresentEPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentEPPO, 2014
LithuaniaPresentTat'-yanskaite Tatjanskaite, 1988; EPPO, 2014
MaltaPresentEPPO, 2014
MoldovaPresentEPPO, 2014
NetherlandsPresentMalais et al., 1993; Klijnstra et al., 1997; EPPO, 2014
NorwayPresentEdland, 1991; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentKozlowski, 1994; Niemczyk et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentEPPO, 2014
-AzoresPresentEPPO, 2014
-MadeiraPresentEPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentMinoiu and Boaru, 1989; Surfu and Munteanu, 1990; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentEPPO, 2014
-Eastern SiberiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Russia (Europe)PresentEPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
-SiberiaPresentEmel'-yanov & Khairvshev, 1986
-Western SiberiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentNikolic et al., 2007; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentNikolic et al., 2007; EPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresentMatis, 2005; EPPO, 2014
SpainPresentKlijnstra, 1997; EPPO, 2014
SwedenPresentSubinprasert and Svensson, 1988; Witzgall et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentCharmillot et al., 1997a; EPPO, 2014
UKWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-England and WalesWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-Northern IrelandPresentEPPO, 2014
-ScotlandPresentEPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentGrodskii, 1995; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentStamenkovic, 1992; Stamenkovic et al., 1990; Stamenkovic et al., 1994


AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentThwaite, 1983; Valentine et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentEPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentCampbell et al., 1988; Barrass and Brown, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaEradicatedEPPO, 2014
New ZealandWidespreadMcLaren and Suckling, 1993; Bradley et al., 1995; Wearing Popay, 1995; Walker et al., 1997; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / frass visible
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / obvious exit hole
Fruit / premature drop

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Agathis nucicola Parasite Larvae
Agonum punctiforme Predator Larvae
Agulla xanthostigma Predator
Anisodactylus californicus Predator Larvae
Apistephialtes caudata Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Ascogaster quadridentatus Parasite Larvae Austria; Baluchistan; Canada; Germany; Kazakhstan; New Zealand; South Africa; Sweden apples; pears
Bacillus cereus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae France
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. dendrolimus Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Bassus rufipes Parasite Larvae Kazakhstan; Turkmenistan apples
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Larvae/Pupae
Beauveria globulifera Pathogen
Blondelia nigripes Parasite Larvae
Bracon gelechiae Parasite Larvae
Bracon hebetor Parasite Larvae
Calathus ruficollis Predator Larvae
Carabidae Predator Eggs/Larvae/Pupae
Cheiracanthium mildei Predator
Chelonus starki Parasite Larvae
Clivina impressifrons Predator Larvae
Cotesia melanoscela Parasite Larvae
Cryptus sexannulatus Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Diaea dorsata Predator Kazakhstan apples
Dibrachys affinis Parasite Bulgaria
Dibrachys cavus Parasite Germany; Kazakhstan; Turkmenistan apples
Elasmus nudus Parasite Turkmenistan apples
Elodia morio Parasite Larvae Canada; Sweden apples
Eumea linearicornis Parasite Larvae
Eurytoma Parasite Pupae
Forficula auricularia Predator
Granulosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Harpalus pensylvanicus Predator Larvae
Hirsutella subulata Pathogen
Hockeria micula Parasite Turkmenistan apples
Ixeuticus martius Predator
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen
Liotryphon caudatus Parasite Turkmenistan apples; pears
Liotryphon punctulatus Parasite Kazakhstan
Mastrus carpocapsae Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen
Neoplectops pomonellae Parasite Larvae
Nosema carpocapsae Pathogen
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen Sweden apples
Parus caeruleus Predator
Parus major Predator
Pimpla contemplator Parasite Germany; Kazakhstan; Switzerland
Pimpla spuria Parasite Kazakhstan; Turkmenistan apples
Pleistophora carpocapsae Pathogen
Poecilus cursitor Predator Larvae
Pristomerus vulnerator Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata Parasite Larvae
Pterostichus chalcites Predator Larvae
Pterostichus lustrans Predator Larvae
Pterostichus melanarius Predator Larvae
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite
Steinernema feltiae Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Trichogramma bezdenkovii Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma cacoeciae Parasite Eggs Belarus; Indiana
Trichogramma cacoeciae pallidum Parasite Eggs France; Jammu and Kashmir
Trichogramma dendrolimi Parasite
Trichogramma evanescens Parasite Eggs Bulgaria; Turkey; USSR apples
Trichogramma ivelae Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma pallidum Parasite Eggs Bulgaria; Ukraine; USSR
Trichogramma platneri Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma pretiosum Parasite Eggs Canada; Ontario apples
Trichogramma principium Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma silvestre Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma telengai Parasite Eggs Belarus; Bulgaria; France; Jammu and Kashmir; Romania; USSR; Kazakhstan; Moldova
Trichogramma turkeiensis Parasite Eggs
Trichomma enecator Parasite Germany apples
Zosterops lateralis Predator

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)


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Adler CRL, 1991. Identification of pupae on apple in eastern north America. In: Van der Geest LPS, Evenhuis HH, eds. Tortricid Pests, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 51-64.

Ahmad TR; Ali MA, 1989. Effect of plant type cover and pheromone concentration on movement of codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lep., Olethreutidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 108(3):312-316

Angelova R, 1985. Overwintering and pupation sites of the codling moth Laspeyresia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Pochvoznanie, Agrokhimiya i Rastitelna Zashchita, 20(1):102-106

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Audemard H; Ferron P, 1980. Codling moth control with Beauveria bassiana in orchards. WPRS Bulletin, 3:55-56.

Azizyan AA; Akopyan AS, 1991. Ecology of the codling moth Laspeyresia pomonella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in the Ararat Valley. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 70(4):768-773

Balazs K; Bujaki G; Farkas K; Polesny F; Muller W; Olszak RW, 1996. Incorporation of apple clearwing (Synanthedon myopaeformis Bork.) control into the IPM system of apple. Bulletin-OILB-SROP, 19(4):134-139.

Baric B; Ciglar I, 2005. The Tortricidae population in Croatian apple orchards and a possibility for mating disruption techniques. Bulletin OILB/SROP [Use of pheromones and other semiochemicals in integrated control. Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS 6th International Conference on Integrated Fruit Production, Baselga di Piné, Italy, 26-30 September 2004.], 28(7):89-92.

Barnes MM, 1959. Deciduous fruit insects and their control. Annual Review of Entomology, 4:353-362.

Barnes MM, 1991. Codling Moth Occurrence, Host Race Formation and Damage. In: van der Geest LPS, Evenhuis HH, eds. Tortricid Pests, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, 5:313-328.

Barrass I; Brown D, 1993. Integrated control and cost reduction in pear orchards of the Goulburn Valley, Australia. Acta Horticulturae, No. 347:307-313; 6 ref.

Barrett BA, 1995. Effect of synthetic pheromone permeation on captures of male codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in pheromone and virgin female moth-baited traps at different tree heights in small orchard blocks. Environmental Entomology, 24(5):1201-1206; 20 ref.

Barrett CG, 1905-07. The Lepidoptera of the British Islands. London, UK 470-504.

Bentancourt CM; Scatoni IB, 1989. Lepidoptera of economic importance in Uruguay (identification and biology of agricultural and forest pests and the damage caused by them). Part I - Tortricidae. Notas Tecnicas - Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo Montevideo, Uruguay; Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de la Republica, No. 7:57 pp.

Bhardwaj SP, 1987. Investigations on the response of lepidopteran sex pheromones of temperate fruit pests in Himachal Pradesh, India. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 19(1):87-91.

Blomefield TL; Pringle KL; Sadie A, 1997. Field observations on oviposition of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae), in an unsprayed apple orchard in South Africa. African Entomology, 5(2):319-336; 30 ref.

Blommers L; Vaal F; Freriks J; Helsen H, 1987. Three years of specific control of summer fruit tortrix and codling moth on apple in the Netherlands. Journal of Applied Entomology, 104(4):353-371

Boscheri S; Zelger R; Sgarbossa A, 1996. The protection of apple from Cydia pomonella and leaf rollers by mating disruption. Rivista di Frutticoltura e di Ortofloricoltura, 58(10):27-31.

Brader L, 1977. Resistance in mites and insects affecting orchard crops. In: Watson DL, Brown AWA, ed. Pesticide management and insecticide resistance. New York, USA: Academic Press Inc., 353-376

Bradley JD; Tremewan WG; Smith A, 1979. British tortricoid moths. Tortricidae: Olethreutinae. British tortricoid moths. Tortricidae: Olethreutinae. London, UK: The Ray Society, 336.

Bradley SJ; Suckling DM; Knight AL, 1995. Simulations predict pheromone release rates for codling moth dispensers. Proceedings of the Forty Eighth New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, Angus Inn, Hastings, New Zealand, August 8-10, 1995., 152-154; 5 ref.

Bulut H; Kilin¦er N, 1989. Investigations in the natural effectiveness of the egg parasitoids Trichogramma embryophagum (Hartig) and T. kilinceri Kostadinov against the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in Ankara [Turkey]. Bitki Koruma Bu^umlaut~lteni, 29(3-4):165-194; 34 ref.

Bulut H; Kilincer N, 1989. Investigations on species of Trichogramma spp. (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoids of important lepidopterous pests of fruit trees and their distribution in Ankara. Bitki Koruma Bulteni, 29(1-2):19-46

Burts EC, 1983. Effectiveness of a soft-pesticide program on pear pests. Journal of Economic Entomology, 76(4):936-941

Bush M; Rock G, 1991. Resistance to parathion in the codling moth. Resistant Pest Management, 3(1):14-15

Bush MR; Abdel-Aal YAI; Rock GC, 1993. Parathion resistance and esterase activity in codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from North Carolina. Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(3):660-666

Butt BA, 1975. Bibliography of the codling moth. Bibliography of the codling moth. Western Region, ARS, USDA. Berkeley USA, [2 +] 221 pp.

Campbell MM; Loveless RT; Evans PT, 1988. Effects of spraying volume and chemical rate on the control of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in an apple orchard. Crop Protection, 7(2):112-117

Carden PW, 1987. Supervised control of apple pests in southern England. Crop Protection, 6(4):234-243

Chapman KL; Barrett BA, 1997. Susceptibility of male codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to azinphosmethyl in Missouri. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 14(4):441-447; 13 ref.

Charmillot PJ, 1995. Possibilities and limitations of control of the codling moth by mating disruption and granulosis virus: practical recommendations. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 27(2):76-77; 7 ref.

Charmillot PJ; Baillod M; Bloesch B; Linder C; Pasquier D; Schaub L, 1997. Management strategies for insect pests in deciduous fruit orchards. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 29(1):39-44.

Charmillot PJ; Iselin P, 1985. The efficacy and persistence of its ovicidal effect of diflubenzuron in control of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 17(2):109-113

Charmillot PJ; Mayor P; Keimer C; Schmid A, 1984. The effectiveness and persistence of some insecticides and a virus applied against the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 16(4):223-228

Charmillot PJ; Pasquier D; Dorsaz L; Keimer C; Herminjard P; Olivier R; Zuber M, 1997. Mating disruption of codling moth Cydia pomonella L. with Isomate-C Plus distributors in Switzerland in 1996. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 29(2):91-96; 7 ref.

Charmillot PJ; Pasquier D; Scalco A; Hofer D, 1996. Studies on the control of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. using attractant-insecticide. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 69(3-4):431-439; 10 ref.

Charmillot PJ; Pasquier D; Scalco A; Hofer D, 1997. Control of codling moth Cydia pomonella L. by an attract and kill technique. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 29(2):111-117; 12 ref.

Chouinard G; Vincent C; Langlais G; Roy M, 1996. Population management of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Quebec commercial orchards using synthetic pheromones. Phytoprotection, 77(1):57-64; 28 ref.

CIE, 1976. Distribution Maps of Pests, Map No. 9. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agricultural Handbook No. 480. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

Cox DL; Knight AL; Biddinger DJ; Lasota JA; Pikounis B; Hull LA; Dybas RA, 1995. Toxicity and field efficacy of avermectin against codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on apples. Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(3):708-715

Cravedi P; Molinari F, 1983. Field trials of a granulosis virus for the control of Cydia pomonella (L.). Frustula Entomologica, 6:27-37

Croft BA; Bode WM, 1983. Tactics for deciduous fruit IPM. In: Croft BA, Hoyt SC, eds. Integrated Management of Insect Pests of Pome and Stone Fruits. New York, USA: Wiley Interscience, 219-270.

Croft BA; Riedl HW, 1991. Chemical control and resistance to pesticides of the codling moth. In: van der Geest LPS, Evenhuis HH, eds. Tortricid Pests, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, 5:371-387.

Cross JV, 1985. Codling moth. Leaflet, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, UK, No. 42:6 pp.

Cross JV; Solomon MG; Babandreier D; Blommers L; Easterbrook MA; Jay CN; Jenser G; Jolly RL; Kuhlmann U; Lilley R; Olivella E; Toepfer S; Vidal S, 1999. Biocontrol of pests of apples and pears in northern and central Europe: 2. Parasitoids. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 9(3):277-314; 9 pp. of ref.

Curkovic ST; Gonzßlez RRH; Barria PG, 1996. Periods of protection and degradation of residues of insecticides used against codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Revista Fruti^acute~cola, 17(3):77-91; 12 ref.

Dastgheyb-Beheshti N; Seyedoleslami H, 1987. Forecasting codling moth phenology (Laspeyresia pomonella L.) based on degree day summation in apple orchards in the west of Esfahan. Entomologie et Phytopathologie Appliquees, 54(1-2):en pp. 7-10, Pe pp.

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