Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Dombeya wallichii
(pink ball)

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Datasheet

Dombeya wallichii (pink ball)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Dombeya wallichii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pink ball
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • D. wallichii is a shrub to small tree that has been in cultivation since the 1800’s (Skema, 2010). It is only repo...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball); flowers and foliage. USA. December 2008.
TitleFlowers
CaptionDombeya wallichii (pink ball); flowers and foliage. USA. December 2008.
Copyright©Eric Bronson/via wikipedia/flickr - CC BY 2.0
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball); flowers and foliage. USA. December 2008.
FlowersDombeya wallichii (pink ball); flowers and foliage. USA. December 2008.©Eric Bronson/via wikipedia/flickr - CC BY 2.0
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball); flowers. Osaka Prefectural Flower Garden, Osaka, Japan. January 2008.
TitleFlowers
CaptionDombeya wallichii (pink ball); flowers. Osaka Prefectural Flower Garden, Osaka, Japan. January 2008.
Copyright©KENPEI/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball); flowers. Osaka Prefectural Flower Garden, Osaka, Japan. January 2008.
FlowersDombeya wallichii (pink ball); flowers. Osaka Prefectural Flower Garden, Osaka, Japan. January 2008.©KENPEI/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball); habit. Jardim Botânico da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal. January 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionDombeya wallichii (pink ball); habit. Jardim Botânico da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal. January 2017.
Copyright©Dguendel/via wikipedia - CC BY 4.0
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball); habit. Jardim Botânico da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal. January 2017.
HabitDombeya wallichii (pink ball); habit. Jardim Botânico da Ajuda, Lisbon, Portugal. January 2017.©Dguendel/via wikipedia - CC BY 4.0
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball); leaves. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October 2007.
TitleLeaves
CaptionDombeya wallichii (pink ball); leaves. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball); leaves. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October 2007.
LeavesDombeya wallichii (pink ball); leaves. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball); leaves and fruit. Lanai City, Lanai, Hawaii, USA. April 2007.
TitleLeaves and fruit
CaptionDombeya wallichii (pink ball); leaves and fruit. Lanai City, Lanai, Hawaii, USA. April 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball); leaves and fruit. Lanai City, Lanai, Hawaii, USA. April 2007.
Leaves and fruitDombeya wallichii (pink ball); leaves and fruit. Lanai City, Lanai, Hawaii, USA. April 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Dombeya wallichii (Lindl.) Benth. ex Baill

Preferred Common Name

  • pink ball

Other Scientific Names

  • Assonia wallichii (Lindl.) Kuntze
  • Astrapaea penduliflora DC.
  • Astrapaea wallichii Lindl.
  • Dombeya penduliflora (DC.) M.Gómez

International Common Names

  • English: Christmas rose; dombeya; pink snowball; pink tassel dombeya; pinkball; pink-ball-tree; tassel-tree; tropical hydrangea
  • Spanish: arbol de las hortensias
  • German: Hortensienbaum

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: astrapeia-rosa
  • Cuba: astrapea; dombeya
  • Dominican Republic: bejuco de barraco; bejuco de berraco; maravilla
  • India: domrupan; pink ball dombeya
  • Madagascar: ma(n)kilody; tsingafiaf
  • Mexico: bella aurora

Summary of Invasiveness

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D. wallichii is a shrub to small tree that has been in cultivation since the 1800’s (Skema, 2010). It is only reported as an invasive species in Cuba, without further details (Oviedo-Prieto et al., 2012). Most of the information available regards D. wallichii as being cultivated, and not as a naturalised species (Skema, 2010). Although it is being listed as an invasive species in Cuba, Alvarez de Zayas (2008), reports the species as an ornamental that is rarely used in gardens in Cuba. Gilman and Watson (2014) classify the species as having little invasive potential for the USA.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Malvales
  •                         Family: Sterculiaceae
  •                             Genus: Dombeya
  •                                 Species: Dombeya wallichii

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Dombeya is a genus with about 210 species from Africa, the Mascarenes, and Madagascar (Skema, 2012). Dombeya is one of the largest genera of Madagascar, representing about 2% of its flora. The genus was placed in the family Sterculiaceae, but due to phylogenetic studies most of the species were moved into the Malvaceae (Judd and Manchester, 1997).

The genus Dombeya is named after Joseph Dombey. The species epithet wallichii is after Nathaniel Wallich (National Parks Board, 2016). D. wallichii is in Dombeya section Hilsenbergia, which includes five species endemic to Madagascar and the Comoros (Skema, 2014).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of Pakistan (2017):

A shrub or small tree with cordate, serrate leaves. Inflorescence an axillary, drooping, 12-15 cm across, many-flowered umbellate cyme; peduncle more than 20 cm long, hairy. Flowers pink, c. 3 cm across; pedicel c. 4 cm long, hairy. Sepals linear-oblong, c. 1.5 cm long, c. 3-4 mm broad, densely patent hairy outside. Petals obovate, oblique, 2-2.5 cm long, 1-1.5 cm broad. Fertile stamens c. 1 cm long; staminodes c. 1.5 cm long. Carpels 5; ovary ovate-oblong, densely villous; stigma exserted. Capsule pentagonal, ovate-oblong, densely beset with rusty hairs, tipped by c. 2 cm long, persistent style.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Shrub
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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D. wallichii is a shrub to a small tree in the Malvaceae family that is native to Madagascar. Skema (2014) reports that it is currently only found in a small area of eastern Madagascar with a severely fragmented distribution, and assigns it a preliminary conservation status here as Critically Endangered.

It has been reported as present, mostly as being cultivated, in Europe, North America, Central America, the Caribbean, Asia, and Oceania (See Distribution Table for details, Randall, 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; National Parks Board, 2016; Dave’s Garden, 2017; E-flora of India, 2017; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MadagascarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedE-Flora of India (2017)
-DelhiPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedE-Flora of India (2017)
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2017)
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2017)
PakistanPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora of Pakistan (2017)
PhilippinesPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCo's Digital Flora of the Philippines (2017)
SingaporePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: National Parks Board (2017)
ThailandPresentIntroducedAnderson (1986)

Europe

BelgiumPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedSkema (2010)In botanical garden
ItalyPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1912Bean (1912)Gardens at Isola Bella
SwitzerlandPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1878Anonymous (1896)Zurich
United KingdomPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1820Anonymous (1896)Brought from Madagascar

North America

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2017)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Quetzaltenango.
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)Francisco Morazán
MartiniquePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCABI (Undated)Cultivated in Botanical Garden; Original citation: New York Botanical Garden (2017)
MexicoPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017); González and Ornelas (2005)Chiapas, Oaxaca
United StatesPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Dave’s Garden (2017)
-CaliforniaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: New York Botanical Garden (2017)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017); Anonymous (1919)
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1963Mill et al. (1985)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedRandall (2007)

South America

BrazilPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: New York Botanical Garden (2017)
-Minas GeraisPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedBarbosa et al. (2016)
-Rio de JaneiroPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: New York Botanical Garden (2017)
-Sao PauloPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: New York Botanical Garden (2017)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)Antioquia
VenezuelaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedLasser et al. (1974)Botanic Garden, Caracas

History of Introduction and Spread

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D. wallichii has been in cultivation since the 1800’s, with historical data suggesting it came to Europe via Mauritius and India (Skema, 2010). The species is recorded as being available in USA by 1919 as an ornamental (Anonymous, 1919). It is reported as cultivated in the Caribbean in 1885 (New York Botanical Garden, 2017). Molecular data suggest that at least one of the origins of the cultivated D. wallichii is central Madagascar (Skema, 2010), but the native distribution is poorly understood, and most collected specimens have little or no location data associated with them (Skema, 2014). There is no information about the spread of the species where it is reported as introduced.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
USA 1919 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Anonymous (1919) Florida
Cuba 1933 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2017)
Montserrat 1885 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No New York Botanical Garden (2017) In Botanical Garden
Italy 1912 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Bean (1912)
Switzerland 1876-1878 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Anonymous (1896) Reported as being a tree 18-20 year old, flowering for the first time at the Botanical Garden in Zurich
UK Madagascar 1820 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Anonymous (1896)

Risk of Introduction

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D. wallichii is an ornamental species being in cultivation since the 1800’s (Skema, 2010). Although it is available over the internet at some websites and nurseries, Gilman and Watson (2014) report it as not commonly available. At some of the internet sites where the species is available, it is either an expensive plant, not easy to transport, or with only few individuals in stock. Although it is an attractive cultivated species, with the little information available at present, it has a low to medium risk of introduction.

Habitat

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According to Skema (2010), the native distribution of D. wallichii is poorly known, as few collections had been made from wild specimens in Madagascar, mostly from the 1800’s. The habitat information from these specimens reported is: “rainforest (?)”, “sublittoral forest” and “often streamside; to 28 m”. A few recent collections are from the east coast of Madagascar. Currently the species is considered as rare in its native range: using recent, wild collections, it has an area of occurrence of just 8 km2 and a severely fragmented distribution (Skema, 2014). Known wild-collected specimens come from sublittoral forest: one specimen from rainforest may not have been wild-collected (Skema, 2014).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Chromosome numbers for Dombeya include 2n = 46, 54 and 56 (Skema, 2010).

Reproductive Biology

D. wallichii is only reported as being reproduced from stem cuttings, mainly from softwood (National Parks Board, 2016; Dave’s Garden, 2017). Bees have been observed visiting the flowers in Madagascar (Skema, 2014).

Physiology and Phenology

There is little information about the species physiology and phenology, although Skema (2014) reports from Madagascar that it flowers in July. It is reported as flowering from mid autumn into the early spring when grown as an ornamental. Its growth rate is fast (Dave’s Garden, 2017).

Environmental Requirements

D. wallichii is reported as growing in clay, sand, loam, occasionally wet; well-drained soils with an optimal pH of 6.1 to 7.8 (Gilman and Watson, 2014; Dave’s Garden, 2017). Although it has been reported as cultivated in temperate areas, it is mostly being grown in botanical gardens, as a container plant or in sheltered areas as it needs protection from frost (Billiet, 1999; Dave’s Garden, 2017; New York Botanical Garden, 2017). From the information available about its native distribution, the preferred climate zone is tropical and subtropical areas (Skema, 2010; National Parks Board, 2016). The lowest temperature zone recorded is -3.8 °C, although it is not commonly grown in temperatures that fall below 1.7 °C to 4.5 °C (Dave’s Garden, 2017). The species is drought tolerant, grows in full sun to partial shade, and will not tolerate salinity (Gilman and Watson, 2014).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
50 -37

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -3.8

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7252400mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Brevipalpus phoenicis Herbivore not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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D. wallichii is a species that is not commonly affected by pests and diseases (Gilman and Watson, 2014). Brevipalpus phoenicis is reported as affecting the species (Evans et al., 1993).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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D. wallichii has been cultivated since the 1800’s (Skema, 2010). Fruit dispersal of species in Dombeya section Hilsenbergia in the wild is little understood, with no visible reward associated with the fruit or seed, and no classic morphological signs of adaptation for water dispersal (Skema, 2014).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosIn various botanical gardens Yes Yes Billiet, 1999; Skema, 2010; New York Botanical Garden, 2017
HorticultureAs an ornamental in gardens and urban areas Yes Yes Dave's Garden, 2017
Internet sales Yes Yes
Medicinal useA stomach medicine in Thailand Yes Anderson, 1986
Nursery tradeAvailable at nurseries and for trade by gardeners Yes Yes Dave's Garden, 2017
Ornamental purposesRecommended for gardens and urban areas for the showy, fragrant flowers Yes Yes Dave's Garden, 2017

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailSold over the internet Yes Yes

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact mechanisms
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

D. wallicchii is available as an ornamental species, although not commonly marketed (Gilman and Watson, 2014). The high visitation of Apis mellifera in Brazil makes D. wallichii a species with potential for honey production (Corrêa Barbosa et al., 2016).

Social Benefit

The flowers are dried and used in arrangements (Dave’s Garden, 2017). Extracts are used as a stomach medicine in Thailand (Anderson, 1986).

Environmental Services

D. wallichii attracts bees, butterflies and birds (González and Ornelas, 2006; Dave’s Garden, 2017). Corrêa Barbosa et al. (2016) report that cultivated plants in Brazil attract many species of insects, especially Hymenoptera, mostly Apis mellifera, Trigona spinipes and Agelaia vicina.

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Wildlife habitat

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Ornamental

  • Cut flower
  • Potted plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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D. wallichii can be confused with D. × cayeuxii. This species is a cross between D. wallichii and D. burgessiae, done by Cayeux in 1895 in Lisbon. D. × cayeuxii can be distinguished from D. wallichii by having narrower stipules and bracts, and the flowers being more open and lighter pink instead of darker pink Also, the staminal tube of D. wallichii is almost equal to or just surpassing the corolla in length, whereas that of D. × cayeuxii is roughly half the length of the corolla (Skema, 2010).

D. wallichii can be easily distinguished from other species in sect. Hilsenbergia by its umbellate inflorescence subtended by a conspicuous involucre of large bracts (Skema, 2014).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Although there are various sites with information about the cultivation of D. wallichii, data on its distribution, environmental requirements, biology and ecology, naturalization and invasiveness are scarce.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Alvarez de Zayas A, 2008. Ornamental plants in Cuba: uses, diversity and threats. (Plantas ornamentals en Cuba: usos, diversidad y amenazas). Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 29, 83-100.

Anderson, E. F., 1986. Ethnobotany of hill tribes of northern Thailand. 1. Medicinal plants of Akha. Economic Botany, 40(1), 38-53. doi: 10.1007/BF02858945

Anonymous, 1896. Dombeya wallichii (Lindl) Benth and Hooker. The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects, 3(19):169. https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/25900527

Anonymous, 1919. The Everglades Nursery Company [catalog]: growers of palms, crotons, hibiscus, vines, budded avocado pears: inarched Indian mangoes, etc. https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/50541785

Barbosa, B. C., Paschoalini, M., Maciel, T. T., Prezoto, F., 2016. Floral visitors and their temporal patterns of activity in flowers of Dombeya wallichii (Lindl.) K. Schum (Malvaceae). (Visitantes florais e seus padrões temporais de atividade em flores de Dombeya wallichii (Lindl.) K. Schum (Malvaceae)). Entomotropica, 31(16), 131-136. http://www.entomotropica.org/index.php/entomotropica/article/view/582/696

Bean WJ, 1912. Some gardens and parks in S. Europe. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), 1912(6), 284-297.

Billiet, F., 1999. Contribution to the phenology of tropical and subtropical plants grown in greenhouses: flowering and fruiting. (Contribution à l'étude de la phénologie de plantes tropicales et subtropicales cultivées en serre: floraisons et fructifications). Systematics and Geography of Plants, 69(1), 45-90.

Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines, 2017. Dombeyaceae. http://www.philippineplants.org/Families/Dombeyaceae.html

Dave’s Garden, 2016. Dave’s Garden. http://davesgarden.com/

E-Flora of India, 2017. Eflora of India. A---L (families & genera). https://sites.google.com/site/efloraofindia/species/a---l

Evans, G. A., Cromroy, H. L., Ochoa, R., 1993. The Tenuipalpidae of Honduras (Tenuipalpidae: Acari). Florida Entomologist, 76(1), 126-155. doi: 10.2307/3496021

Flora of Pakistan, 2017. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Tropicos website. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Gilman EF, Watson DG, 2014. Dombeya wallichii: Pinkball. University of Florida IFAS Extension. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/st232

González C, Ornelas JF, 2005. Song structure and microgeographic song variation in Wedge-tailed sabrewings (Campylopterus curvipennis) in Veracruz, Mexico. The Auk, 122(2), 593-607.

India Biodiversity Portal, 2017. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Judd WS, Manchester SR, 1998. Circumscription of Malvaceae (Malvales) as determined by a preliminary cladistic analysis of morphological, anatomical, palynological, and chemical characters. Brittonia, 49(3), 384-405.

Lasser T, Braun A, Steyermark J, 1974. Catalogue of plants growing in the Botanical Garden of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock, Caracas. (Catálogo de las plantas que crecen en el Jardín Botánico del Ministerio de Agricultura y Cría, Caracas). Acta Botánica Venezuélica, 9(1/4), 9-61.

Mill SW, Wagner WL, Herbst DR, 1985. Bibliography of Otto and Isa Degeners’ Hawaiian Floras. Taxon, 34(2), 229-259.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

National Parks Board, 2016. Flora and fauna web. Singapore: National Parks Board (online). http://florafaunaweb.nparks.gov.sg/Home.aspx

New York Botanical Garden, 2017. The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., et al. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Randall RP, 2007. Australia: CRC for Australian Weed Management. Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia.528 pp.

Skema C, 2010. The Systematics of Dombeya Cav. and its near relatives (Dombeyaceae). Thesis. New York, USA. Cornell University

Skema, C., 2012. Toward a new circumscription of Dombeya (Malvales: Dombeyaceae): a molecular phylogenetic and morphological study of Dombeya of Madagascar and a new segregate genus, Andringitra. Taxon, 61(3), 612-628. http://www.botanik.univie.ac.at/iapt/s_taxon.php

Skema, C., 2014. Reevaluation of species delimitations in Dombeya section Hilsenbergia (Dombeyaceae). Systematic Botany, 39(2), 541-562. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1600/036364414X680717 doi: 10.1600/036364414X680717

Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2017. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/

The Plant List, 2017. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Anderson E F, 1986. Ethnobotany of hill tribes of northern Thailand. 1. Medicinal plants of Akha. Economic Botany. 40 (1), 38-53. DOI:10.1007/BF02858945

Anonymous, 1896. Dombeya wallichii (Lindl) Benth and Hooker. In: The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects, 3 (1) 169. https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/25900527

Anonymous, 1919. The Everglades Nursery Company [catalog]: growers of palms, crotons, hibiscus, vines, budded avocado pears: inarched Indian mangoes, etc., https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/50541785

Barbosa B C, Paschoalini M, Maciel T T, Prezoto F, 2016. Floral visitors and their temporal patterns of activity in flowers of Dombeya wallichii (Lindl.) K. Schum (Malvaceae). (Visitantes florais e seus padrões temporais de atividade em flores de Dombeya wallichii (Lindl.) K. Schum (Malvaceae).). Entomotropica. 31 (16), 131-136. http://www.entomotropica.org/index.php/entomotropica/article/view/582/696

Bean WJ, 1912. Some gardens and parks in S. Europe. In: Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), 1912 (6) 284-297.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines, 2017. Dombeyaceae., http://www.philippineplants.org/Families/Dombeyaceae.html

E-Flora of India, 2017. Eflora of India. A---L (families & genera)., https://sites.google.com/site/efloraofindia/species/a---l

Flora of Pakistan, 2017. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. In: Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Co's Digital Flora of the Philippineshttp://www.philippineplants.org
Dave’s Gardenhttps://davesgarden.com
E-flora of Indiahttps://sites.google.com/site/efloraofindia/species/a---l
Flora & Fauna Webhttps://florafaunaweb.nparks.gov.sg/Special-Pages/plant-detail.aspx?id=5082
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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29/12/2017 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez

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