Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Carludovica palmata
(Panama hat plant)

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Datasheet

Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 May 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Carludovica palmata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Panama hat plant
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Carludovica palmata is a large herbaceous plant resembling a small palm tree, native to Central America and northern South America. It has been widely introduced and cultivated because of its ornamental value a...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); habit. Colombia. June 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); habit. Colombia. June 2014.
Copyright©Alejandro Bayer Tamayo/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); habit. Colombia. June 2014.
HabitCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); habit. Colombia. June 2014.©Alejandro Bayer Tamayo/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); habit. Dpto. Magdalena, Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona, Colombia . On footpath from Calabazo to Pueblito Chairama, 300-450 m. December 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); habit. Dpto. Magdalena, Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona, Colombia . On footpath from Calabazo to Pueblito Chairama, 300-450 m. December 2017.
Copyright©Franz Xaver/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); habit. Dpto. Magdalena, Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona, Colombia . On footpath from Calabazo to Pueblito Chairama, 300-450 m. December 2017.
HabitCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); habit. Dpto. Magdalena, Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona, Colombia . On footpath from Calabazo to Pueblito Chairama, 300-450 m. December 2017.©Franz Xaver/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); foliage. Else Kientzler Botanical Garden, Sarchi Norte, Costa Rica. August 2008.
TitleFoliage
CaptionCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); foliage. Else Kientzler Botanical Garden, Sarchi Norte, Costa Rica. August 2008.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); foliage. Else Kientzler Botanical Garden, Sarchi Norte, Costa Rica. August 2008.
FoliageCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); foliage. Else Kientzler Botanical Garden, Sarchi Norte, Costa Rica. August 2008.©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); stems. Else Kientzler Botanical Garden, Sarchi Norte, Costa Rica. June 2008.
TitleStems
CaptionCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); stems. Else Kientzler Botanical Garden, Sarchi Norte, Costa Rica. June 2008.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); stems. Else Kientzler Botanical Garden, Sarchi Norte, Costa Rica. June 2008.
StemsCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); stems. Else Kientzler Botanical Garden, Sarchi Norte, Costa Rica. June 2008.©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); female flowers. Foster Botanical Garden, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. January 2014.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); female flowers. Foster Botanical Garden, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. January 2014.
Copyright©Wendy Cutler/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); female flowers. Foster Botanical Garden, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. January 2014.
FlowersCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); female flowers. Foster Botanical Garden, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. January 2014.©Wendy Cutler/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); female flowers. Foster Botanical Garden, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. January 2014.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); female flowers. Foster Botanical Garden, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. January 2014.
Copyright©Wendy Cutler/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); female flowers. Foster Botanical Garden, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. January 2014.
FlowersCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); female flowers. Foster Botanical Garden, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. January 2014.©Wendy Cutler/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); fruits. Nr. Las Horquetas, Costa Rica. July 2009.
TitleFruits
CaptionCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); fruits. Nr. Las Horquetas, Costa Rica. July 2009.
Copyright©Hans Hillewaert/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); fruits. Nr. Las Horquetas, Costa Rica. July 2009.
FruitsCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); fruits. Nr. Las Horquetas, Costa Rica. July 2009.©Hans Hillewaert/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); fruit. Colombia. September 2014
TitleFruit
CaptionCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); fruit. Colombia. September 2014
Copyright©Alejandro Bayer Tamayo/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); fruit. Colombia. September 2014
FruitCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); fruit. Colombia. September 2014©Alejandro Bayer Tamayo/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); fruit. Colombia. September 2014.
TitleFruit
CaptionCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); fruit. Colombia. September 2014.
Copyright©Alejandro Bayer Tamayo/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); fruit. Colombia. September 2014.
FruitCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); fruit. Colombia. September 2014.©Alejandro Bayer Tamayo/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); preperation of foliage for hat weaving. August 2011.
TitlePreparation of foliage
CaptionCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); preperation of foliage for hat weaving. August 2011.
Copyright©BlankeVla/via wikipedia - CC BY 3.0
Carludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); preperation of foliage for hat weaving. August 2011.
Preparation of foliageCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant); preperation of foliage for hat weaving. August 2011.©BlankeVla/via wikipedia - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pav.

Preferred Common Name

  • Panama hat plant

Other Scientific Names

  • Carludovica gigantea Kuntze
  • Carludovica incisa H. Wendl
  • Carludovica jamaicensis Lodd. ex Fawcett & Harris
  • Carludovica serrata Wawra & Bermann
  • Ludovia palmata (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.
  • Salmia palmata (Ruiz & Pav.) Willd.

International Common Names

  • English: carludovica palm; jipijapa; jipipapa; panama-hat; panama-hat palm; toquilla; toquilla palm
  • Spanish: bombonaje; carludovica; chidra; jipijapa ; palma de sombrero; palma jipijapa; toquilla
  • French: carludovique; carludovique palmée

Local Common Names

  • Cook Islands: Panamā
  • Cuba: bombonaxa; chupa; hiraca; jipijapa; palma jipijapa exótica del Perú; yracas
  • Dominican Republic: panamá
  • Ecuador/Galapagos Islands: cade; paja toquilla
  • Germany: Panama-Palme
  • Haiti: jipi-japa
  • Italy: carludovica
  • Jamaica: jippi jappa
  • Lesser Antilles: ailes mooches; cachibou; langue à boeuf; siguine bâtard; zelle moches
  • Mexico: palma de sonbreroros
  • Peru: bombonaje
  • Puerto Rico: palma de sombrero de Panamá
  • Sweden: panamapalm

EPPO code

  • CVFPA (Carludovica palmata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Carludovica palmata is a large herbaceous plant resembling a small palm tree, native to Central America and northern South America. It has been widely introduced and cultivated because of its ornamental value and its use as a source of fibre, in particular for making Panama hats. It is considered naturalized on many Caribbean Islands, and is recorded as invasive in Cuba. It has been seen to be naturalizing in the forest understorey on Upolu, Samoa. Thus, although there is little evidence of any negative impact, it is considered as an invasive or potentially invasive plant on tropical islands such as the Cook Islands and Samoa. It is one of the invasive species of environmental concern in Guam, Hawaii and Papua New Guinea (Space et al., 2003). On the basis of its potential for spreading, the risk assessment in PIER (2018) classifies it as 'High risk'.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyclanthales
  •                         Family: Cyclanthaceae
  •                             Genus: Carludovica
  •                                 Species: Carludovica palmata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Carludovica belongs to the family Cyclanthaceae; these plants are only distantly related to the true palms and are more closely related to the screw pines (Pandanus spp.). Carludovica palmata is the most common species in its genus. It was named in the late 18th century by José Pavon and Hipolito Ruiz, botanists from the royal gardens in Madrid, after King Carlos IV of Spain and his wife Ludovica (Pachacuti, 2020).

Description

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“An erect, palm-like, monoecious, rhizomatous, perennial herb, 1.5—4(—5) m tall, usually growing in dense clumps. Stem absent or short and underground. Leaves dispersed; blades usually lobed nearly to the base. Inflorescence a spadix, borne in the axil of leaves near ground level; peduncle during anthesis 20—50 cm long, in fruiting stage 1 m or longer.  Spadix at first enclosed by 3—4 spathes, which fall and leave the cylindrical spadix naked. Spathes lanceolate to ovate, acuminate to subcuspidate, the 2 lower ones green and coarse, the 2 upper ones creamy-white to greenish-white. Male flowers fleshy, massive, without distinct pedicel, rounded to angular, 3—5 mm long, receptacle flat or shallowly concave, 2—3 mm in diameter. Stamens 30—55, densely crowded, filaments 0.1—0.2 mm long, slightly thickened at base. Female flowers suborbicular to quadrangular; tepals 4, connate at base, obtusely triangular; staminodes 4, filiform, 3—6 mm long, yellowish-white to silken-white, forming a disordered mass on the flowering spadix; pistil with ovary one-loculed bearing 4 placentas, style one, short at first, later prolonged; stigmas 4, alternating with the tepals, generally rather broad, ovate to suborbicular when seen from above, entirely encircled by the tepals. Fruit a berry but all berries of the spadix fused to a single, fleshy, yellow-green, cylindrical syncarp.” (PROTA, 2016).

Carludovica palmata resembles a small palm. When mature, the petioles are 2 to 3 metres long, with leaves 1.5 to 4 metres long and 1 metre wide, in the shape of a fan. The inflorescences sprout at the base of the plant, next to the petioles (Gallegos and Burbano, 2004). The species grows in clumps of 40 to 300 mature individuals (Gallegos, 2004).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub

Distribution

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Carludovica palmata is a neotropical species widely spread from Guatemala to Bolivia. It is considered naturalized in the Caribbean (IUCN, 2020), and has also been introduced for cultivation to a number of Pacific islands and Asian countries. PROTA (2016) cites a source mentioning introduction to Africa, and USDA-ARS (2020) lists it as cultivated there, but neither gives details.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 11 May 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

CambodiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
IndiaPresent, CultivatedUSDA-ARS (2020)
IndonesiaPresent, CultivatedIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2020)
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
Sri LankaPresent, CultivatedIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2020)
TaiwanPresent, CultivatedIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2020)
VietnamPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)

North America

AnguillaPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
ArubaPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
BarbadosPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
BelizePresentNativeIUCN (2020)
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba PresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
Costa RicaPresentNativeIUCN (2020)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012); IUCN (2020)
CuraçaoPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
DominicaPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
El SalvadorAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)IUCN (2020)
GrenadaPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
GuatemalaPresentNativeIUCN (2020)
HaitiPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
HondurasPresentNativeIUCN (2020)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
MartiniquePresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
MexicoPresentIUCN (2020)
MontserratPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
NicaraguaPresentNativeIUCN (2020)
PanamaPresentNativeIUCN (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
Saint BarthélemyPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
Saint MartinPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
Sint MaartenPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
United States
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedNeal (1965)

Oceania

Cook IslandsPresent, CultivatedIntroducedSpace and Flynn (2002a)Atiu Island, Rarotonga Island. Of concern as a potential invasive species.
Federated States of Micronesia
-PohnpeiPresentIntroducedInvasiveHerrera et al. (2010)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedFosberg (1997)Tahiti
GuamPresentIntroducedFosberg et al. (1987)
NiuePresent, Few occurrencesSykes (1970)One occurrence. Voucher cited: CHR 17306
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2002)Upolu Island. Voucher Flynn 6933 (PTBG). Cultivated and invasive.

South America

BoliviaPresentNativeIUCN (2020)
BrazilPresentNativeIUCN (2020)
ColombiaPresentNativeIUCN (2020)
EcuadorPresentNative and IntroducedCharles Darwin Foundation (2008); IUCN (2020)Native on mainland; introduced in Galapagos Islands.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedCharles Darwin Foundation (2008)
GuyanaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)IUCN (2020)
PeruPresentNativeIUCN (2020)
VenezuelaPresentNativeIUCN (2020)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Carludovica palmata is thought to have been introduced to the West Indies, and possibly to southern Mexico and Guyana (IUCN. 2020). It has also been introduced for cultivation in Asia, from India and Sri Lanka through South-East Asia (e.g. Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines) to Taiwan (USDA-ARS, 2020; PROTA, 2016; note that only the latter source mentions Malaysia and the Philippines). PROTA (2016) cites a source mentioning introduction to Africa, but gives no details. Further introductions have taken place in some Pacific islands (see Distribution table).

Habitat

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Carludovica palmata is found in lowland, submontane tropical rain forests and in transitional forests on sandy soils; sometimes it grows as a pioneer in secondary vegetation (IUCN, 2020). It is occasionally found in drier and more open locations, such as roadsides, pastures and scrubland (PROTA, 2016). In Amazonian Ecuador, it grows in open, disturbed sites, often in alluvial soil (Bennett et al., 1992).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Secondary/tolerated habitat
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat
Disturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat
Rail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat
Natural grasslands Principal habitat

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Chromosome number has been reported as 2n=30 and 2n=18 for Carludovica palmata (Kubitzki et al., 1998). Genetic variation has not been recorded or studied, and no germplasm collections or breeding programs are recorded (PROTA, 2016).

Reproductive Biology

According to one source cited by the Carludovica palmata risk assessment in PIER (2018), almost all members of the Cyclanthaceae are pollinated by derolomine flower weevils, as also reported by Anderson et al. (1997) for C. palmata in Costa Rica, although another source mentions stingless bees (Meliponinae) apparently pollinating C. palmata in Colombia.  Seeds of C. palmata germinate within 2 weeks under hot and moist conditions. The plant can also be propagated by seeds, suckers and rhizomes. (In cultivation, plants grown from suckers are preferred because the leaves can be harvested after 18 months whereas plants grown from seed can take up to seven years before the leaves can be cut (PROTA, 2016)).

Physiology and Phenology

In Panama, Carludovica palmata flowers mostly in January and February, and possibly March. Fruit matures from April to June, and rarely later in the rainy season (Croat, 1978).

Associations

Carludovica palmata grows in colonies, each consisting of about 40 to 300 petioles. Like many typical colonizing species, it is found in areas with disturbed soils along with families such as Heliconaceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae,and Cecropiaceae. In agricultural areas or agroforestry systems, it grows near fruit trees, some crop plants, and timber trees (Gallegos and Burbano, 2004)

Environmental Requirements

Carludovica palmata requires well-drained, humus-rich soil and ample water (Staples and Herbst, 2005). It grows well in hot tropical climates with partial shade and plenty of rain (NIIR Board of Consultants and Engineers, 2005). It easily gets dehydrated in direct sunlight (which caused the failure of attempts to cultivate it in Bolivia, although it is often cultivated in Ecuador) (Arancibia and López, 2004).

According to Useful Tropical Plants (2016), it grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 24 - 32°C, but can tolerate 12 - 37°C; it prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1200 - 1800mm, but tolerates 800 - 2200mm; and it prefers a pH in the range 5 - 6, but tolerates 4.5 - 6.5. (This source says that it can succeed in full sun, but prefers a shady position).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
38 20

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 32 37
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 12 24

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall12001800mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • light

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspidiotus destructor Herbivore not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Aspidiotus destructor, the coconut scale insect, is a pest of Carludovica palmata (Howard et al., 2001). A leaf yellowing disease has been observed since 1994 in Mexico, similar to the one that affects the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) (PROTA, 2016).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Ants and rain disperse the seeds of Carludovica palmata, as do a variety of vertebrates (Purseglove, 1972, in risk assessment in PIER (2018), and other sources cited by the same risk assessment).

Intentional Introduction

Carludovica palmata has been widely introduced for cultivation because of its palm-like form and its ornamental value (Whistler, 2000). In the Pacific, it has been seen in cultivation on Rarotonga and Atiu, Cook Islands (Space and Flynn, 2002b) and in Vailima Reserve and the Alaoa area of Samoa (Space and Flynn, 2002a). It is also extensively cultivated on Caribbean Islands for its use in making Panama hats because of its soft, flexible, and durable fibers.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionFor making hats and baskets Yes Yes ,
Internet salesOrnamental and economic use Yes Yes
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes ,
Seed tradeOrnamental and economic use Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailSeeds can be ordered online for delivery Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally)
Human health

Impact

Top of page

There is little evidence of any negative impact of Carludovica palmata, although it is nevertheless recorded as invasive in a few countries.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Reproduces asexually
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

In some areas the weaving of hats from the leaves of Carludovica palmata is an important part of the economy. Becal, in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico, is one such place, where it has been a main source of income in most families for a long time, and has contributed positively to the local economy and to cultural identity (Fadiman, 2001). A similar situation can be found in parts of Ecuador (Gallegos and Burbano, 2004) and Bolivia (Arancibia and López, 2004).

The commercial use of buds of Carludovica palmata for food, and the marketing of native crafts made from C. palmata, could potentially exceed the economic benefits of the Panama hat industry (Bennett et al., 1992).

Social Benefits

All of Ecuador's indigenous Amazonian people use Carludovica palmata for roof thatching. The Shuar, Achuar and Quichua make mammal and fish traps from the petiole. Peruvians extract oil from the seeds,  and it has been reported that a decoction made from the leaves has haemostatic properties (​Bennett et al., 1992).

The young leaf fibres are widely used for making hats, fans, baskets, and curtains. Brooms are made from more mature leaves. Guaymi Indians eat the young inflorescences and the boiled roots are used as a medicine (Hanelt, 2016).

Roots of Carludovica palmata are used in salads and as a potherb (Useful Tropical Plants, 2016).

Other uses reported from Ecuador by Bennett et al. (1992) include making designs on pottery with the petioles, and the use of leaves to make women's skirts (in the past), as umbrellas, as plate substitutes or as covers for pots of the local alcoholic beverage chicha.

Carludovica palmata has been widely introduced for cultivation because of its palm-like form and its ornamental value (Whistler, 2000).

Environmental Services

Since Carludovica palmata grows in disturbed open areas that are widespread but underutilized, its cultivation in its native range could bring economic benefits without  further destruction of primary forests (​Bennett et al., 1992).

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Sociocultural value

Human food and beverage

  • Fruits
  • Oil/fat
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Baskets
  • Fibre

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Carludovica palmata is very similar to C. drudei except for differences in the leaves, tepal length, and shape of stigma (Croat, 1978).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

The Cook Islands, where Carludovica palmata is of concern as a possible invasive species, have established inter-island quarantine procedures to prevent the movement of invasive plants and other species, including C. palmata, between islands (Space and Flynn, 2002b).

In Samoa, where small naturalized populations of Carludovica palmata were observed and the species had the potential to spread more widely in the forest understorey, Space and Flynn (2002a) recommended that it should be evaluated for eradication.

References

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Anderson, R. S., Gómez-P., L. D., 1997. Systenotelus, a remarkable new genus of weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) associated with Carludovica (Cyclanthaceae) in Costa Rica and Panamá. Revista de Biología Tropical, 45(2), 887-904.

Arancibia E, López F, 2004. Jipi japa fibre, handicrafts: Bolivian case. In: Riches of the forest: fruits, remedies and handicrafts in Latin America, [ed. by Lopez C, Shanley P, Fantini AC]. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). 41-44. https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor/001612 doi: 10.17528/cifor/001612

Bennett, B. C., Alarcón, R., Cerón, C., 1992. The ethnobotany of Carludovica palmata Ruíz & Pavón (Cyclanthaceae) in Amazonian Ecuador. Economic Botany, 46(3), 233-240. doi: 10.1007/BF02866622

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. In: Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.unpaginated.

Chong, K. Y., Tan, H. T. W., Corlett, R. T., 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Croat, T. B., 1978. Flora of Barro Colorado Island, Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press.ix + 943 pp.

Fadiman, M., 2001. Hat weaving with jipi, Carludovica palmata (Cyclanthaceae) in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Economic Botany, 55(4), 539-544. doi: 10.1007/BF02871716

Fosberg, F. R., Sachet, M. H., Oliver, R., 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesia, 20, 1-2, 19-129.

Fosberg, FR, 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society islands. [ed. by Stoddart, DR]. California, USA: University of California, Berkeley.

Gallegos RA, 2004. Toquilla fibre, Panama hat: Ecuadorian case. In: Riches of the forest: fruits, remedies and handicrafts in Latin America, [ed. by Lopez C, Shanley P, Fantini AC]. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). 37-40. https://doi.org/10.17528/cifor/001612 doi: 10.17528/cifor/001612

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Distribution References

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Fosberg FR, 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society islands., [ed. by Stoddart DR]. California, USA: University of California, Berkeley.

Herrera K, Lorence D H, Flynn T, Balick M J, 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia. 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

IUCN, 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, IUCN.

Neal MC, 1965. In gardens of Hawaii. Special Publication 50., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Bernice P. Bishop Museum Press. 924 pp.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Space J C, Flynn T, 2002a. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. In: Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service. 146 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/cook_islands_report.pdf

Space JC, Flynn T, 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service. 83 pp.

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USDA-ARS, 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Contributors

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23/11/16: Original text by:

Shruti Dube, Department of Botany, Smithsonian NMNH, Washington, DC, USA

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