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Datasheet

Cynoglossum amabile
(Chinese forget-me-not)

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Datasheet

Cynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cynoglossum amabile
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Chinese forget-me-not
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Cynoglossum amabile is a perennial herb in warmer climates but also grows as an annual in cooler climates. It is native to China and Bhutan but has also been widely planted as an ornamental plant around the wor...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not); flowering habit. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2006.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionCynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not); flowering habit. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2006.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2006 - CC BY 4.0
Cynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not); flowering habit. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2006.
Flowering habitCynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not); flowering habit. Ulupalakua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2006.©Forest & Kim Starr-2006 - CC BY 4.0
Cynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not); flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not); flowers.
Copyright©saiberiac/via flickr- CC BY 2.0
Cynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not); flowers.
FlowersCynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not); flowers.©saiberiac/via flickr- CC BY 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cynoglossum amabile Stapf & J.R.Drumm.

Preferred Common Name

  • Chinese forget-me-not

Variety

  • Cynoglossum amabile f. leucanthum X.D.Dong
  • Cynoglossum amabile f. ruberum X.D.Dong
  • Cynoglossum amabile var. amabile

International Common Names

  • English: Chinese hound's tongue
  • Spanish: azulejo; azulito; miosotis; ninfle
  • Chinese: dao ti hu

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: miosótis chinês
  • Denmark: kinesisk hundetunge
  • Germany: chinesische Hundszunge
  • Haiti: feyé
  • Norway: kinahundetunge
  • Sweden: kinesisk förgätmigej

Summary of Invasiveness

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Cynoglossum amabile is a perennial herb in warmer climates but also grows as an annual in cooler climates. It is native to China and Bhutan but has also been widely planted as an ornamental plant around the world in temperate and tropical climates and is often naturalized where it is planted. It has not been recorded as an invasive species, however, it is considered a weed according to some sources and reportedly spreads as an escape from gardens, via the seed and nursery trade and via internet sales. Information about its impacts where it is naturalized is lacking.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Boraginales
  •                         Family: Boraginaceae
  •                             Genus: Cynoglossum
  •                                 Species: Cynoglossum amabile

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Cynoglossum is a large genus in the family Boraginaceae. A variety (Cynoglossum amabile var. amabile) and two forms (Cynoglossum amabile f. leucanthum X.D.Dong and Cynoglossum amabile f. ruberum X.D.Dong) of Cynoglossum amabile are considered synonyms of C. amabile (The Plant List, 2013).

Description

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Plants are described as perennial (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017), biennial or cool weather annuals (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017). Plants grow to 15-60 cm tall with single or multiple stems. Stems and leaves are densely hairy. Basal leaves are grey-green, oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate, 5-20 cm long. Stem leaves are sessile, grey-green, oblong-lanceolate and 2-7 cm long. Inflorescences are paniculate with numerous 5-petaled blue flowers (corolla 5-6 mm wide) (sometimes white or pink) held on short pedicels (2-3 mm long). The petals are united at the base to form a tube. The calyx (2.5-3.5 mm) is densely pilose with lobes ovate to oblong and an acute apex. Fruits are ovoid nutlets, 3.4 mm in diameter with dense glochids. Each flower produces up to five seeds (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; NZPCN, 2017).

Plant Type

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Biennial
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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C. amabile is native to China and Bhutan but widely naturalized where it has been planted as an ornamental (USDA-ARS, 2017). It has naturalized in parts of the USA, Europe, the Caribbean and New Zealand (New York Botanical Garden, 2017;  NOBANIS, 2017; Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017; USDA NRCS, 2017). It is widespread in Central and South America (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017). It has also naturalized in Kenya (USDA-ARS, 2017), Tanzania (Schmelzer and Gurib-Fakim, 2008) and South Africa (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017). It has not been reported as invasive.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BhutanPresentNative Not invasive Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
ChinaPresentNative Not invasive Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-GansuPresentNative Not invasive Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-GuizhouPresentNative Not invasive Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-SichuanPresentNative Not invasive Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-TibetPresentNative Not invasive Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
-YunnanPresentNative Not invasive Datamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
Sri LankaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2017

Africa

KenyaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017
South AfricaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017

North America

MexicoLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Nash and Moreno, 1981
USAPresentIntroduced
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-HawaiiLocalisedIntroducedWester, 1992Maui, Hawaii
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-New YorkPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
HaitiPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017
HondurasPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
JamaicaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017
PanamaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedDatamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
BoliviaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
BrazilPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroduced Not invasive New York Botanical Garden, 2017
-ParanaPresentIntroduced Not invasive New York Botanical Garden, 2017
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroduced Not invasive New York Botanical Garden, 2017
ColombiaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
EcuadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
PeruPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017

Europe

NorwayPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive NOBANIS, 2017
SwedenPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedDatamining 2011 - Invasive Species Databases; NOBANIS, 2017

Oceania

FijiPresentIntroducedSmithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2017Herbarium collection 1947
New ZealandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017

History of Introduction and Spread

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Probably first introduced to the USA in 1926-1927 from botanic gardens in Russia and Cambridge, England (Office of Foreign Plant Introductions, 1928; USDA, 1929). Available as early as 1928 in a seed catalog from New York, USA (Peter Henderson and Co, 1928) and 1932 in a seed catalog from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA (Currie Brothers Co, 1932). Found naturalized on Martha’s Vineyard in Massachusetts in 1932 and thought to have established from discarded garden waste (Sanford, 1933). Currently naturalized in Puerto Rico ( Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012) and in scattered states in the USA (USDA-NRCS, 2017). Introduced to Norway in 1939 and to Sweden in 1942 (NOBANIS, 2017). Introduced to New Zealand in 1980 and recorded in eight locations on the North Island as well as in one location on the South Island (NZPCN, 2017). It is commonly grown as a garden plant in New Zealand (de Lange, 2011). Introduced as a garden plant to Tanzania and naturalized (Schmelzer and Gurib-Fakim, 2008).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Norway Asia 1939 No No NOBANIS (2017)
Sweden Asia 1942 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No NOBANIS (2017)
New Zealand Europe 1980 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No NZPCN (2017) Introduced from South Europe
Sri Lanka 1949 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2017)
Hawaii Asia 1930 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Wester (1992)
USA Russia (Asia) 1926 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No USDA (1929)
USA UK 1927-1928 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Office of Foreign Plant Introduction (1928)

Risk of Introduction

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Plants are commonly grown as ornamental plants and are known for self-seeding and spreading via external animal dispersal (Dave’s Garden, 2017; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017). One early report of establishment said plants established from garden waste (Sanford, 1933).

Habitat

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C. amabile is found in a wide range of habitats. In China it grows on hillside meadows, in thickets, forests, roadsides and riverbanks (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). Early collectors describe it as growing densely on dry hillsides in China (Diel, 1913) and Mack (2005) describes it as growing along roadsides in China. In its introduced range it is listed as growing in gardens, disturbed areas, roadsides, meadows and fields, pastures, among limestone boulders, in a pine forest, and along the banks of a river (NEWFS, 2017; New York Botanical Garden, 2017; Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2017). In Mexico it is found in disturbed areas and in mesophilic forests of oak and pine between 1300-2500 m in elevation (Nash and Moreno, 1981).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

2n = 24 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017).

Reproductive Biology

Flowers are attractive to bee pollinators (Nogueira-Neto, 2002). Seeds mature about 20 days after pollination (Quinn et al., 1987). Garden plants freely self-seed (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017). Seeds are dispersed by animals (Melcher et al., 2000).

Physiology and Phenology

Plants grow as annuals in cooler climates but as biennials or perennials in warmer climates (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017), and is described as growing densely in large populations on hillsides in China (Diel, 1913). It blooms in June-September in the USA where plants are generally grown as annuals (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017); Blooms in February-October in Mexico where plants are perennial (Nash and Moreno, 1981).

Associations

In Brazil flowers are pollinated by various bee species including Scaptotrigona postica, S. xanthotricha, Paratrigona spp., Melipona quadrifasciata and Apis mellifera (Nogueira-Neto, 2002).

Environmental Requirements

Plants grow best in full sun but tolerate light shade. Plants prefer moist, well-drained soils (Christman, 2016; Dave's Garden, 2017Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Tolerated Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
55 45 1300 2500

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -30
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 5.35 26.7
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 26 32
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -16 12

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration3number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall800mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Ceutorhynchus cruciger Herbivore Roots to genus Clerck-Floate and Schwarzlӓnder, 2002 Canada Cynoglossum officinale
Longitarsus sp. Herbivore Leaves to genus Jordan, 1997 Canada Cynoglossum officinale

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Two insects used as biocontrol agents for Cynoglossum officinale in Canada (Jacobs, 2007) also feed on C. amabile. These are the adult flea beetle Longitarsus quadriguttatus, though C. amabile is not a suitable host plant for larval development (Jordan, 1997), and the root weevil Ceutorhynchus cruciger (Clerck-Floate and Schwarzlӓnder, 2002).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector Transmission

Seeds have small barbs that facilitate dispersal by animals (Melcher et al., 2000).

Accidental Introduction

Seeds stick to clothing (Dave’s Garden, 2017).

Intentional Introduction

Plants are widely planted as ornamentals (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017) and as pollinator plants (Nogueira-Neto, 2002).

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsSeeds Yes Dave’s Garden, 2017
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds Yes ​Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017​
MailSeeds Yes Dave’s Garden, 2017
LivestockSeeds Yes Melcher et al., 2000

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive

Impact: Economic

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Plants contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids poisonous to mammals (Bull et al., 1968), but no reports on animal poisoning by this species were found.

Impact: Social

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Some gardeners dislike the plant because of its rapid spread and the ability of the seeds to stick to pet fur and clothing (Dave’s Garden, 2017).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact mechanisms
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

Sold as an ornamental plant (de Lange, 2011; Dave’s Garden, 2017).

Social Benefit

Used as a medicinal plant in China (Schmelzer and Gurib-Fakim, 2008).

Environmental Services

Used as a plant to attract pollinators (Dave’s Garden, 2017; Johnny’s Selected Seeds, 2017).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Wildlife habitat

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Cut flower
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Cynoglossum officinale has red-purple flowers with the calyx 3-5 mm long (NEWFS, 2017). Hackelia mexicana has clasping leaves along the stems and shorter spines on the fruits (Miller, 1988).

Prevention and Control

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Control

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Ensure that clothing, shoes and animal fur are free of seeds.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Hand-pulling, hoeing and tilling are used to control the closely related C. officinale (FEIS, 2017)

Chemical Control

Herbicides are used to control the closely related C. officinale (FEIS, 2017).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There is a lack of information on the impact of this species in natural areas, pastures or fields despite many reports that the species has naturalized in many areas.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany. 98. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp.

Bull LB, Culvenor CCJ, Dick AT, 1968. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids (Appendix I). In: FDA Poisonous Plants Database, New York, USA: Elsevier.234-248. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/plantox/detail.cfm?id=4551

Christman S, 2016. Cynoglossum amabile. In: Floridata, http://floridata.com/Plants/Boraginaceae/Cynoglossum%20amabile/1264

Clerck-Floate, R. de, Schwarzländer, M., 2002. Host specificity of Mogulones cruciger (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a biocontrol agent for houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale), with emphasis on testing of native North American Boraginaceae. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 12(3), 293-306. doi: 10.1080/09583150220128095

Currie Brothers Co., 1932. Garden Annual. Milwaukee, USA: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/42237891#page/3/mode/1up

Dave's Garden, 2017. Dave's Garden. http://davesgarden.com/

de Lange PJ, 2011. New paper explores the origin of Chatham Islands native flora. http://www.chathams.co.nz/index.php/naturalheritage/32-new-paper-explores-the-origin-of-chatham-islands-native-flora

Diel L, 1913. Plantae Chinensis Forrestianae. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh , 7, 1-334. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/31507856#page/3/mode/1up

FEIS, 2017. Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.https://www.feis-crs.org/feis/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Jacobs J, 2007. Ecology and management of houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale L.). Invasive Species Technical Note MT-8. USDA-NRCS. https://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_other/rmrs_2007_jacobs_j002.pdf

Johnny's Selected Seeds, 2017. Cynoglossum amabile. http://www.johnnyseeds.com/flowers/cynoglossum/chinese-forget-me-not-cynoglossum-seed-1931.html

Jordan, T., 1997. Host specificity of Longitarsus quadriguttatus (Pont., 1765) (Col., Chrysomelidae), an agent for the biological control of hound's-tongue (Cynoglossum officinale L., Boraginaceae) in North America. Journal of Applied Entomology, 121(8), 457-464. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.1997.tb01434.x

Mack RN, 2005. Predicting the identity of plant invaders: future contributions from horticulture. HortScience , 40, 1168-1174.

Melcher, I. M., Bouman, F., Cleef, A. M., 2000. Seed dispersal in páramo plants: epizoochorous and hydrochorous taxa. Plant Biology, 2(1), 40-52.

Miller, J. S., 1988. A revised treatment of Boraginaceae for Panama. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 75(2), 456-521. doi: 10.2307/2399433

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx

Nash DL, Moreno NP, 1981. Flora de Veracruz. Fascículo 18 (II), [ed. by Sosa V]. Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico: Instituto de Ecología.

New York Botanical Garden, 2017. The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden.http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

NEWFS, 2017. Cynoglossum amabile. GoBotany, New England Wildflower Society.https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/cynoglossum/amabile/

NOBANIS, 2017. Cynoglossum amabile. European Network on Invasive Alien Species.https://www.nobanis.org/species-info/?taxaId=3099

Nogueira-Neto P, 2002. Management of plants to maintain and study pollinating bee species, and also to protect vertebrate frugivorous fauna. In: Pollinating Bees - The Conservation Link Between Agriculture and Nature [ed. by Kevan P, Imperatriz Fonseca VL]. Brasília, Brazil: Ministry of Environment.21-28.

NZPCN, 2016. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network.http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/

Office of Foreign Plant Introduction, 1928. Plant introductions sixteenth annual list 1927-1928. Washington DC, USA: Bureau of Plant Industry, USDA.http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/42492266#page/33/mode/1up

Peter Henderson and Co., 1928. New York, USA: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/43876775#page/3/mode/1up

Quinn, J., Whipkey, A., Simon, J., Janick, J., 1987. Embryo development of Borago officinalis. Acta Horticulturae, 208, 243-250.

Randall, R. P., 2012. A global compendium of weeds, (Ed.2) [ed. by Randall, R. P. ]. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia.1124 pp. http://www.agric.wa.gov.au

Sanford SNF, 1933. Cynoglossum amabile in Massachusetts. Rhodora, 35, 66.

Schmelzer GH, Gurib-Fakim A, 2008. Medicinal Plants. Vol. 1, Wageningen, The Netherlands: PROTA Foundation.790 pp.

Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2017. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History.http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.theplantlist.org

USDA, 1929. Plant material introduced by the Office of Foreign Plant Introduction, Bureau of Plant Industry, April 1 to June 30, 1926. In: Inventory 87 . 1-49. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/41665158#page/726/mode/1up

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.http://plants.usda.gov/

Wester L, 1992. Origin and distribution of adventive alien flowering plants in Hawaii. In: Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawai'i, [ed. by Stone CP, Smith CW, Tunison JT]. Manoa, Hawaii: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii. http://manoa.hawaii.edu/hpicesu/book/1992_chap/07.pdf

Wiersema JH, León B, 2016. World Economic Plants, Florida, USA: CRC Press.1336 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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26/01/17 Original text by:

Sylvan Kaufman, Sylvan Green Earth Consulting, Santa Fe, USA

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