Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Cryptostegia madagascariensis
(Madagascar rubbervine)

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Datasheet

Cryptostegia madagascariensis (Madagascar rubbervine)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cryptostegia madagascariensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Madagascar rubbervine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. madagascariensis is a fast-growing invasive woody vine. Plants can begin to reproduce after about 200 days and they can produce large amount of seeds which are rapidly dispersed by wind, floodwaters, or stuc...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine); habit, showing flowers and foliage. Wavecrest, Molokai, Hawaii.  May 17, 2005.
TitleHabit, showing flowers and foliage
CaptionCryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine); habit, showing flowers and foliage. Wavecrest, Molokai, Hawaii. May 17, 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine); habit, showing flowers and foliage. Wavecrest, Molokai, Hawaii.  May 17, 2005.
Habit, showing flowers and foliageCryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine); habit, showing flowers and foliage. Wavecrest, Molokai, Hawaii. May 17, 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine); habit at Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii.  May 19, 2005
TitleHabit
CaptionCryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine); habit at Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii. May 19, 2005
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine); habit at Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii.  May 19, 2005
HabitCryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine); habit at Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii. May 19, 2005©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine); habit, showing dense growth. Kamalo, Molokai.  May 19, 2005
TitleHabit, showing dense growth
CaptionCryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine); habit, showing dense growth. Kamalo, Molokai. May 19, 2005
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine); habit, showing dense growth. Kamalo, Molokai.  May 19, 2005
Habit, showing dense growthCryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine); habit, showing dense growth. Kamalo, Molokai. May 19, 2005©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine);  flowers and foliage. Wavecrest, Molokai, Hawaii.  May 17, 2005.
TitleFlowers and foliage
CaptionCryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine); flowers and foliage. Wavecrest, Molokai, Hawaii. May 17, 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine);  flowers and foliage. Wavecrest, Molokai, Hawaii.  May 17, 2005.
Flowers and foliageCryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine); flowers and foliage. Wavecrest, Molokai, Hawaii. May 17, 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine);  flowers and foliage. Wavecrest, Molokai, Hawaii.  May 17, 2005.
TitleClose-up of flowers and foliage
CaptionCryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine); flowers and foliage. Wavecrest, Molokai, Hawaii. May 17, 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine);  flowers and foliage. Wavecrest, Molokai, Hawaii.  May 17, 2005.
Close-up of flowers and foliageCryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine); flowers and foliage. Wavecrest, Molokai, Hawaii. May 17, 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine), seedlings. Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii.  May 19, 2005
TitleSeedlings
CaptionCryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine), seedlings. Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii. May 19, 2005
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Cryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine), seedlings. Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii.  May 19, 2005
SeedlingsCryptostegia madagascariensis (rubber vine), seedlings. Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii. May 19, 2005©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cryptostegia madagascariensis Bojer ex Decne.

Preferred Common Name

  • Madagascar rubbervine

Other Scientific Names

  • Cryptostegia glaberrima Hochr.
  • Cryptostegia madagascariensis var. glaberrima (Hochr.) Marohasy & P.I. Forst
  • Cryptostegia madagascariensis var. septentrionalis Marohasy & P.I. Forst.

International Common Names

  • English: devil's claw vine; palay rubbervine; purple allamanda; rubber vine
  • Spanish: vid de caucho

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: unha do diabo
  • El Salvador: vid de goma
  • Mexico: vid de goma
  • Puerto Rico: canario morado falso
  • Saint Lucia: lèt makak; zong makak

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. madagascariensis is a fast-growing invasive woody vine. Plants can begin to reproduce after about 200 days and they can produce large amount of seeds which are rapidly dispersed by wind, floodwaters, or stuck to the fur of animals (Starr et al., 2003). Seeds can remain viable up to one year and studies have reported germination rates ranging from 90 to 95% (Starr et al., 2003; Vieira et al., 2004). C. madagascariensis has the ability to quickly spread along water courses, coastal forests, pastures, forest edges, and disturbed areas. The plant can form dense impenetrable thickets by climbing up trees and covering them, and may also displace and out-compete native vegetation.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Apocynaceae
  •                             Genus: Cryptostegia
  •                                 Species: Cryptostegia madagascariensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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C. madagascariensis is native to the north-western coast of Madagascar (USDA-ARS, 2012). It is closely related to C. grandiflora, the only other species in the genus. Currently, the genus Cryptostegia belongs to the family Apocynaceae, but previously was classified within Asclepiadaceae. Apocynaceae is a monophyletic family that includes 415 genera and about 4555 species of perennial herbs, shrubs, and vines distributed broadly within tropical and subtropical areas (Stevens, 2012). Hybrids of these two species with intermediate floral and vegetative morphology have been identified in Madagascar (ISSG, 2012).

Description

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C. madagascariensis is a twining woody vine or scandent shrub, 6-8 m in length, with abundant milky latex. Stems are cylindrical, glabrous, reddish brown, with few lenticels. Leaves are opposite; blades 4-10 × 2-4.7 cm, elliptical, oblong, or ovate, coriaceous, glabrous, the apex short-acuminate, obtuse, or rounded. The margins are entire; venation pinnate, with14-16 pairs of secondary veins; upper surface dull; lower surface pale, with obscure venation; petioles glabrous, 0.6-1.5 cm long; stipules minute, intrapetiolar. Flowers are arranged in pedunculate cymes; bracts foliaceous, lanceolate, approximately 5 mm long. Calyx green, campanulate, the sepals lanceolate, pubescent, 0.5-1.5 cm long; corolla 3-6 cm long, violet, the tube darker inside, the lobes abaxially whitish in the overlapping portion; corona with 5 simple lobes, approximately 1 cm long. Two follicles, divergent, brown when mature, 5.8-13 cm long, woody. Seeds are reddish brown, ovate-lanceolate, 3 mm long, with long, cream colored silky hairs (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Distribution

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C. madagascariensis is native to the north-western coast of Madagascar (USDA-ARS, 2012), but is widely distributed in India, Kenya, Brazil, Hawaii, Australia and the West Indies. It is also reported as present/naturalized in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia. Due to its large showy flowers, C. madagascariensis has been planted as an ornamental and it is still sold in the nursery and landscape trade. Thus, it is likely that this species has a wider geographical distribution than the official records suggest.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedMcFadyen and Harvey, 1991

Africa

KenyaPresentIntroducedMcFadyen and Harvey, 1991Cultivated
MadagascarPresentNative Not invasive Madagascar Catalogue, 2012Endemic to Madagascar
MalawiPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017Naturalized
MauritiusPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
SeychellesPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2012
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017Naturalized
ZambiaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017Naturalized

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2012Tabasco and Yucatán
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011Invasive Category II
-HawaiiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2012

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, Invasive Species Specialist Group; Connor, 2008
BarbadosPresentIntroducedSmithsonian Institution, 2012
BelizePresentIntroducedBalick et al., 2000
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive McGowan et al., 2006Anegada
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2012
CubaPresentIntroduced1926Smithsonian Institution, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced1946Smithsonian Institution, 2012
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2012
GrenadaPresentIntroducedAcevedo, pers. comm.
HondurasPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2012
MontserratPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, Invasive Species Specialist Group; Young, 2008Escaped from cultivation
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al., 2012
PanamaPresentIntroducedCorrea et al., 2004Coclé, Darién, Canal area
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1915 Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Smithsonian Institution, 2012Vieques
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced Invasive Krauss et al., 2008; Daltry, 2009; Kraus and Duffy, 2010; Graveson, 2012Common in Laborie, Micoud and Vieux Fort; risk in disturbed and burnt habitats; potential threat to xeric savanna
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Smithsonian Institution, 2012St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CearaPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, Invasive Species Specialist Group; Forzza et al., 2012
-MaranhaoPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, Invasive Species Specialist Group; Forzza et al., 2012
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced Invasive ISSG, Invasive Species Specialist Group; Forzza et al., 2012
GuyanaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007Escaped from cultivation
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007; Hokche et al., 2008Escaped from cultivation. Amazonas, Bolivar, Aragua, Nueva Esparta, Lara

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced Invasive Australian Weeds Committtee, 2012
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Australian Weeds Committtee, 2012
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Australian Weeds Committtee, 2012
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive McCormack, 2007Cultivated
PalauPresentIntroduced Invasive Space et al., 2003Cultivated

History of Introduction and Spread

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The closely related species Cryptostegia grandiflora and C. madagascariensis are very similar and were probably introduced together into tropical and subtropical countries, first as ornamentals and later planted for rubber production. Currently, C. madagascariensis is widely distributed in India, Kenya, Brazil, Hawaii, Australia and the West Indies and it has become invasive in Hawaii, Brazil, the West Indies (Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, St Lucia, Montserrat, Anguilla), and Australia.

In Australia, by 2002 this species was listed as a Class 3 invasive species under the Land Protection Act and the sale or supply of this species is prohibited and the removal from environmentally significant areas is required (Australian Weeds Committee, 2012). In Florida, it has been classified as a category II weed (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011). For the West Indies, C. madagascariensis was probably introduced as an ornamental in the nineteenth century and was collected by J.A. Stevenson in Puerto Rico 1915 and later in Cuba in 1926. Currently, this species is reported as an “invasive species” on the British Virgin Islands (since 2006), Anguilla (since 2008), Montserrat (since 2008), and St. Lucia (since 2009). In Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands (St. Croix, St. John, and St. Thomas) C. madagascariensis is classified as an invasive species and is common in thickets and coastal forests (i.e., Guánica, Vieques, Fajardo and Mayaguez; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). According to residents of the islands of St. John, an area ca. 2,000 m² that has been overgrown by this species is the result of one individual introduced about 70 years ago in that area (Acevedo, pers. comm.).

Risk of Introduction

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C. madagascariensis is available to the public through internet sites (i.e., garden and landscape companies online) and few of them describe the invasive capacity of this species. C. madagascariensis also produces large number of seeds that are easily dispersed by wind and water with high germination rates. Thus, the probability of colonizing new areas remains high.

Habitat

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In Madagascar (native range), C. madagascariensis can be found from Tulear in the south west to Diego Suarez in the extreme north, in coastal plains below 500 m altitude and with rainfall patterns ranging 400-2400 mm annually (McFadyen and Harvey, 1991). Outside its native range, C. madagascariensis can be found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It occurs along roadsides, coastal and riparian forests in lowland areas as well as disturbed forests, especially as a climber in the upper layers of trees from where it invades natural adjacent forests.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Freshwater
Rivers / streams Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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C. madagascariensis is not a weed of agricultural crops. However, in Australia, both C. grandiflora and C. madagascariensis can smother and out-compete both wild and pasture grasses, being a serious problem in pasture lands. These species are an expensive problem for ranchers in Australia who must control these plants which are toxic to cattle and horses (Australian Weeds Committee, 2012).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Hybrids formed between C. grandiflora and C. madagascariensis have been reported for Madagascar (Marohasy and Forster, 1991). These hybrids can be distinguished by intermediate floral morphology.

Reproductive Biology

C. madagascariensis is a self-compatible species, but spontaneous self-pollination does not occur due to morphological characteristics (i.e., protandry). Flowers are insect-pollinated, visited mainly by bees. Once pollinated, a fruit with two divaricate follicles results per flower. Each fruit averages around 96.5 seeds. Seeds can remain viable for up to one year and germination experiments under controlled conditions using seeds collected from natural-pollinated fruits show germination rates ranging from 93 to 95% (Vieira et al., 2004).

Physiology and Phenology

C. madagascariensis flowers in Madagascar in November and December. In Australia, flowering occurs from December to February (Australian Weeds Committee, 2012). In Brazil, flowering occurs in November and December (Vieira et al., 2004), and in Puerto Rico, flowers occurred in August and from December to February (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). Flowers open during the day and last about 24 hours. Fruit take four to five months to reach the maximum size, and around 200 days for opening, when the ripe fruit split to allow seed dispersal (Vieira et al., 2004).

Longevity

This species is a long-lived perennial woody vine that can last for decades.

Associations

Within its native range in Madagascar, C. madagascariensis inhabits deciduous thickets dominated by Didiereaceae (an endemic family) and arborescent Euphorbias (ISSG, 2012).

Environmental Requirements

C. madagascariensis grows in areas below 500-600 m altitude where annual rainfall varies from 400 to 2400 mm (Marohasy and Forster, 1991). The species is able to extend its range into drier areas with 400 mm or less of annual rainfall. It is also tolerant of a wide variety of soil types. Seed germination requires high humidity and temperatures around 30°C (ISSG, 2012).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 5
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 35

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration6number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall4002400mm; lower/upper limits

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Euclasta gigantalis Herbivore Leaves to genus Australia
Glomerella cingulata Pathogen Leaves to genus Brazil
Maravalia cryptostegiae Pathogen Leaves to genus Australia
Nephele densoi Herbivore Leaves to genus Australia
Pseudocercospora cryptostegiae-madagascariensis Pathogen Leaves to genus Brazil
Schizomyia cryptostegiae Parasite Leaves/Stems to genus Australia

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Seeds are mainly dispersed by wind and water, aided by the silky hairs. Seeds can float for long periods enabling them to be carried along watercourses. In addition, seeds can tolerate prolonged periods of immersion in saline water, facilitating oceanic dispersal (Starr et al., 2003).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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C. madagascariensis can smother and out-compete both wild and pasture grasses, being a serious problem in pasture lands in Australia. In addition, it is an expensive problem for ranchers in Australia who must control these plants which are toxic to cattle and horses. This species is toxic to both humans and grazing animals. Lethal effects on cattle have been reported when they have eaten C. madagascariensis and C. grandiflora in the dry season when proper forage is scarce. C. madagascariensis is considered a noxious weed in Australia, Hawaii, and Florida.

Environmental Impact

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C. madagascariensis can form dense monospecific thickets that can out-compete native vegetation (ISSG, 2012). In Australia, this species is invading national parks threatening native and endemic biodiversity (Australian Weeds Committee, 2012). It may also impact forest communities by preventing trees from getting sunlight, because it is able to overtop trees and then shade forests. In Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands C. madagascariensis can invade coastal dry forests by climbing over trees at the periphery of the forest and slowly spreading further into the interior forest.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Hybridization
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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C. madagascariensis has been used for the production of rubber in both India and Madagascar. In Madagascar, the species is also used to produce fibres used for making ropes, fish nets and fishing line. C. madagascariensis is a poisonous species and has been used in committing suicide for religious purposes. It is also used in traditional medicine in Madagascar (ISSG, 2012).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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C. madagascariensis is similar to C. grandiflora, but they differ in flower and fruit morphology. C. madagascariensis has flowers with simple corona lobes and follicles (dry unilocular fruit) 5.8 to 13 cm long. On the other hand, C. grandiflora has flowers with a corona with bifid lobes and follicles from 10 to 15.4 cm long (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical control

Small plants can be controlled by hand pulling or digging out the plant. Fruits should be bagged and disposed of properly. Contact with the milky latex should be avoided (Starr et al., 2003). 

Biological Control

In Australia, biological control has been used in both the species C. grandiflora and C. madagascariensis. The rubber vine rust (Maravalia cryptostegiae) has been used for biological control over a wide area in Queensland. Yellow spores form under leaves eventually causing defoliation, reducing seed production, causing dieback of stems, and killing young seedlings. In addition the larvae of the moth Euclasta whalleyi have been used in combination with the rust. This larvae feed on leaves. These agents do not kill established plants, but do cause abnormal defoliation and lead to reduced seed production. Their success and potential damage depends on their abundance (Starr et al., 2003). In Brazil, two fungal pathogens Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Glomerella cingulata) and Pseudocercospora cryptostegiae-madagascariensis have been targeted as potential biological control agents (Silva et al., 2008). 

Chemical Control

A variety of chemicals listed in Australia to control Cryptostegia species includes: triclopyr butoxyethyl ester, dimethylamine salt of dicamba (3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid), 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid, and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxy- acetic acid. These herbicides are effective when they are applied directly to roots, leaves, and cut stumps (Starr et al., 2003). 

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Flora of St. John, US Virgin Islands. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 78:1-581

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp

Australian Weeds Committtee, 2013. Weeds of Australia. Canberra, Australia: Australian Weeds Committtee. http://www.weeds.org.au/

Balick MJ, Nee M, Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246

Connor RA, 2008. Anguilla Invasive Species Strategy (draft). http://www.gov.ai/documents/Anguilla%20Invasive%20Species%20Strategy%202008%20(2).pdf

Correa A, Galdames MDC, Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp

Daltry JC, 2009. Biodiversity Asessment of Saint Lucia's Forest, with Management Recommendations., Finland: FCG & Fauna & Flora, 80 pp. http://www.bananatrustslu.com/index.php?link=doccentre&project=sfa2003

Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F, 2012. Rubiaceae a Verbenaceae. Flora Mesoamericana, 4:1-533

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011. Florida EPPC's 2011 Invasive Plant Species List. http://www.fleppc.org/list/11list.html

Forzza RC, Leitman PM, Costa AF, Carvalho Jr AA, et al. , 2012. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. New catalogue of the vascular plants of Venezuela (Nuevo Catalogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundacion Instituto Botanico de Venezuela

ISSG (Invasive Species Specialist Group), 2012. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Auckland, New Zealand: Invasive Species Specialist Group and IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/

Kraus F, Duffy DC, 2010. A successful model from Hawaii for rapid response to invasive species. Journal for Nature Conservation, 18(2):135-141

Krauss U, Seier M, Stewart J, 2008. Mitigating the Threats of Invasive Alien Species in the Insular Caribbean. Report on Project Development Grant (PPG) Stakeholder Meeting, GFL-2328-2740-4995. Piarco, Trinidad and Tobago: GEF, UNEP, CABI Caribbean and Latin America, 43 pp

Madagascar Catalogue, 2012. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. Antananarivo, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden, Madagascar Research and Conservation Program. http://www.efloras.org/madagascar

Marohasy J, Forster PI, 1991. A taxonomic revision of Cryptostegia R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae: Periplocoideae). Australian Systematic Botany, 4:571-577

McCormack G, 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Rarotonga: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org

McFadyen RE, Harvey GJ, 1991. Rubber vine, Cryptostegia grandiflora, A Major Threat to Natural Ecosystems in Northern Australia. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Exotic Pest Plants, November 2-4, 1988, Miami, Florida [ed. by Center, T. D. \Doren, R. F. \Hofstetter, R. L. \Myers, R. L. \Whiteaker, L.]. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service

McGowan A, Broderick AC, Clubbe C, Gore S, Godley BJ, Hamilton M, Lettsome B, Smith-Abbott J, Woodfield NK, 2006. Darwin Initiative Action Plan for the Coastal Biodiversity of Anegada, British Virgin Islands. 13 pp. http://www.seaturtle.org/mtrg/projects/anegada/Anegada%20BAP.pdf

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Silva JLda, Barreto RW, Pereira OL, 2008. Pseudocercospora cryptostegiae-madagascariensis sp. nov. on Cryptostegia madagascariensis, an exotic vine involved in major biological invasions in Northeast Brazil. Mycopathologia, 166(2):87-91. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=102966

Smithsonian Institution, 2012. Cryptostegia grandiflora. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/datasearch/WI/resultRemote.cfm?myPlantName=Cryptostegia grandiflora

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Australian Weeds Committeehttp://www.weeds.org.au/
Flora of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Councilhttp://www.fleppc.org
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)http://www.hear.org/Pier/index.html

Contributors

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11/01/13 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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