Cortaderia jubata (purple pampas grass)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Cortaderia jubata (Lemoine ex Carrière) Stapf
Preferred Common Name
- purple pampas grass
Other Scientific Names
- Gynerium jubatum Lemoine ex Carrière
- Gynerium pygmaeum Meyen
- Gynerium quila var. pygmaeum Nees
International Common Names
- English: pampas grass
- Spanish: sacuara
Local Common Names
- Australia: pink pampas grass
- South Africa: pampasgras
- USA: Andean pampas grass; jubata grass; selloa pampas grass
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
C. jubata is a large tussock grass, native to South America, which has been introduced elsewhere as an ornamental plant and, in some countries, for forage, shelter or erosion control. It has naturalised and become established in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and the USA, and is regarded as a very serious invasive species; it forms dense stands that displace native vegetation, and has become a serious problem in new forestry areas where it suppresses the growth of young trees and creates a fire hazard.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Monocotyledonae
- Order: Cyperales
- Family: Poaceae
- Genus: Cortaderia
- Species: Cortaderia jubata
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The genus Cortaderia contains about 20 species, all confined (as native species) to South America. However, there have been numerous revisions of the genus, with many species being transferred to closely related genera, and thus caution should be used when referring to old literature. For example, when Linder et al. (2010) revised the genus, the five New Zealand species formerly classified as species of Cortaderia were transferred to Austroderia. Cortaderia archboldii, found in New Guinea, is now Chimaerochloa archboldii according to ITIS (2014).
Two species of Cortaderia, C. jubata and C. selloana, have naturalised and become problematic invasive species in Australia, South Africa, New Zealand and parts of the western USA. One of the New Zealand Austroderia species, A. richardii (formerly C. richardii), is considered potentially invasive in Australia (University of Queensland, 2013).
DescriptionTop of page
C. jubata is a large tussock grass that can grow to over 2.5m in height. Individual plants can be huge and their diameters gradually increase with age; they become hollow in the centre. Popay et al (2004) in New Zealand measured clumps of the related C. selloana up to 6m across. In that environment, most plants were smaller (less than 2m across), although 20 to 30 % of the plants measured were greater than 2m across.
Habit: Perennial; caespitose. Culms 200-250 cm long; 3-6 mm diam. Culm-internodes distally glabrous. Culm-nodes brown; glabrous. Lateral branches lacking. Leaf-sheaths longer than adjacent culm internode; antrorsely scabrous; glabrous on surface, or puberulous. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 1-2 mm long. Leaf-blades 40-90 cm long; 4-12 mm wide; coriaceous; stiff. Leaf-blade midrib prominent beneath. Leaf-blade margins ciliate. Leaf-blade apex attenuate.
Inflorescence: Gynodioecious ("male", in this context, indicating the bisexual state). Inflorescence a panicle; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Panicle open; ovate; dense; 30-60 cm long; 10-15 cm wide. Primary panicle branches 20-30 cm long. Panicle branches scabrous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels 2-8 mm long; scabrous.
Fertile Spikelets: Spikelets comprising 3-5 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 12-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 1-1.5 mm long; pilose.
Glumes: Glumes similar; shorter than spikelet; similar to fertile lemma in texture; shiny; gaping. Lower glume lanceolate; 8-9 mm long; 0.9 length of upper glume; hyaline; light brown; without keels; 1-veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface asperulous. Lower glume margins ciliolate. Lower glume apex entire, or dentate; 2-fid; acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 8.5-10 mm long; 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline; light brown; without keels; 1-veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume surface asperulous. Upper glume margins ciliate. Upper glume apex entire, or dentate; 2-fid; acute.
Florets: Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma linear, or lanceolate; 9-11 mm long; hyaline; without keel; 3-veined. Lemma midvein extending to apex. Lemma lateral veins less than two thirds length of lemma. Lemma surface scaberulous; villous; hairy below. Lemma hairs white; 7-8 mm long. Lemma apex acuminate. Palea lanceolate; 3.2-4 mm long; 0.33 length of lemma; hyaline; 2-veined. Palea keels scabrous. Palea surface pilose; hairy on flanks. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Flower: Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy; ciliate.
Male inflorescence: bisexual similar to female; a panicle. Male spikelets distinct from female; glabrous.
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
C. jubata is native to Argentina (Catamarca, Jujuy, La Rioja and Tucuman provinces), Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru. Like its close relative C. selloana, it has been introduced elsewhere as an ornamental garden plant (it has also been used for forage, shelter or erosion control). Both species have escaped from cultivation and become problems especially in Australia, South Africa, New Zealand and parts of the United States. C. jubata is listed as a noxious weed in California, Hawaii and Oregon (USDA-ARS, 2014), and as as a grade 1 invasive species in South Africa (AGIS, 2014).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 12 May 2022
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|South Africa||Present||Introduced||Free State, Gauteng, Western Cape|
|United Kingdom||Present, Only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced|
|United States||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-New South Wales||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Coastal central NSW|
|-Queensland||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Sparingly naturalised, south-eastern areas|
|-South Australia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Sparingly naturalised, south-eastern areas|
|-Tasmania||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Relatively common|
|-Victoria||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Southern Victoria|
|-Western Australia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||South-western areas|
|Argentina||Present||Native||Catamarca, Jujuy, La Rioja, Tucuman|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Like its close relative C. selloana, C. jubata has been introduced to a number of countries as an ornamental garden plant (it has also been used for forage, shelter or erosion control). According to literature cited by Costas Lippmann (1977), it was first cultivated in France and Ireland, from seed collected in Ecuador (where it is abundant in the Andes at heights of 2800 to 3400 m above sea level). Okada et al. (2009) identified southern Ecuador as the source of the original horticultural introduction, using microsatellite markers. Although it was probably in cultivation during the 19th Century, it was not noticed to have ‘escaped’ and become naturalised until the late 1950s or early 1960s (Costas Lippmann, 1977), in both California and in New Zealand. Like C. selloana, it has escaped from cultivation and become a problem, especially in Australia, South Africa, New Zealand and parts of the United States. Future climate change may well see further naturalisations and an increase in its status as a problem plant.
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|California||1950s||Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause)||Yes||Peterson and Russo (1988)|
|New Zealand||1940-1970||Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause)||Yes||Esler (1998)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
The greatest risk is escape of the species from its present status of ‘garden ornamental’ to its naturalisation and spread as an environmental weed; it could also be spread to new countries, especially as seeds are available on the Internet. It has also been used for land reclamation, shelter belts and as emergency stock feed (as late as 1984 nurseries in New Zealand were still producing up to 1,000,000 plants a year -- Gadgil et al., 1984). In New Zealand it is now illegal to grow or distribute either C. jubata or C. selloana.
HabitatTop of page
C. jubata is native to the Andes mountains of northern Argentina, Bolivia and Peru, at elevations of 2800 to 3400m, where it can form stands of several hundred hectares (Peterson and Russo, 1988). In New Zealand, South Africa, Australia and California it has spread along roadsides and into other disturbed land. It has become invasive in several habitats, including coastal and grassland sites, in these countries, and its huge size, copious seed production and rapid growth make it a great threat to these (Peterson and Russo, 1988; Gosling et al., 2000; University of Queensland, 2013). It seems to be able to grow in a wide range of habitats – pine forests, plantations, bushland, quarries, logged or burnt sites, and roadsides. It causes a particular threat to coastal dunes, where it can often interfere with the growth of endangered native species (Popay et al, 2004). In California it flourishes in coastal areas, notably on foreshores, roadsides and wet areas (Peterson and Russo, 1988). The same authors, quoting Potter (1970), suggest that it grows best in full sunshine with adequate water, but that it can tolerate rather severe drought, thanks to its deep root system; they also say that although it becomes established most easily in wet sandy soil without existing vegetation, it has broad habitat requirements and will grow vigorously in nearly any soil, under low or high moisture regimes, in full sun or dense shade.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Riverbanks||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Scrub / shrublands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Coastal dunes||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Coastal dunes||Principal habitat||Natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The chromosome number is recorded as 2n = 108 (Edgar and Connor, 2010) -- in contrast to the closely related C. selloana where 2n=72 (Lambrinos, 2002). C. jubata is apomictic, with all plants being female and producing genetically identical seeds which are quite viable.
Drewitz and DiTomaso (2004) studied the seed biology of C. jubata in California and found that it can produce over 100,000 light, wind-dispersed seeds from a single inflorescence, although only about 20 to 30 % of these are able to germinate when exposed to light and to temperatures of between 8 and 35oC. Seeds below 0.2 mg in weight (about 40% of the population) did not germinate, whilst those over 0.5 mg in weight (just over 2% of the population) gave 90% germination. Individual plants about 1 m in diameter contain between 5 and 20 inflorescences per tussock and could therefore produce between 300,000 and 1,300,000 seeds (average about 924,000) (Drewitz and DiTomaso, 2004).
Drewitz and DiTomaso (2004) buried seeds in nylon bags and exhumed samples at intervals. No seeds remained viable after four months’ burial, although seeds kept in the laboratory for a similar period of time showed no loss of viability.
Physiology and Phenology
In California the species flowers between July and October (Costas-Lippmann, 1979) and in Hawaii between early August and late October (Chimera, 1997). In New Zealand it flowers from January to March (summer and early autumn) (Edgar and Connor, 2010).
Only 8% of seeds germinated in darkness as opposed to about 26% in the light (Drewitz and DiTomaso, 2004). The authors found no evidence of any dormancy in the seeds and also found that burying seeds 1 cm or more below the soil surface reduced emergence dramatically.
Established plants seem able to survive for 10 to 15 years (Pleasants and Whitehead, 1977).
Although C. jubata is highly competitive with native plants once it is established, it appears able to coexist with many different species (Lambrinos, 2000; Popay et al., 2004) -- the danger is that both plants and populations will grow and eventually smother associated native species. Its rapid growth to large size allows it to acquire light, moisture and nutrients that would otherwise be used by native species (Peterson and Russo, 1988).
C. jubata is native to the Andes mountains of northern Argentina, Bolivia and Peru, at elevations of 2800 to 3400m (Peterson and Russo, 1988). The same authors, quoting Potter (1970), suggest that it grows best in full sunshine with adequate water, but that it can tolerate rather severe drought, thanks to its deep root system. They also say that although it becomes established most easily in wet sandy soil without existing vegetation, it has broad habitat requirements and will grow vigorously in nearly any soil, under low or high moisture regimes, in full sun or dense shade. It probably needs at least some summer moisture and freedom from freezing temperatures -- several consecutive nights of frost will generally not kill the plant, but can severely damage it.
ClimateTop of page
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
In 2011, the Sustainable Farming Fund (2011) funded a project to start searching for possible biocontrol agents both in New Zealand and in South America. A black smut fungus and a fly which attack the flowerheads seem to be quite damaging on Ecuadorian plants. No reports on their identification have been published as yet.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)
The seeds are light and produced in huge numbers, although Drewitz and DiTomaso (2004) found that seeds below 0.2 mg in weight (about 40% of the population) did not germinate; those over 0.5 mg in weight (just over 2% of the population) gave 90% germination. The seeds are primarily wind-dispersed, although some may also be carried by water or on animals, vehicles or machinery (University of Queensland, 2013).
University of Queensland (2013) suggests that some local spread might take place as the result of the dumping of garden waste.
C. jubata has already been introduced as an ornamental to several countries and the greatest danger is of spread from gardens where it has been planted into nearby native reserves and other places suitable for its establishment. Seeds are available on the internet, which raises the danger of its spread to new countries.
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Botanical gardens and zoos||Yes||Yes|
|Escape from confinement or garden escape||Yes||Edgar and Connor (2010)|
|Forage||Used as emergency feed for livestock||Yes||Yes||Pleasants and Whitehead (1977)|
|Garden waste disposal||Possible cause||Yes||University of Queensland (2013)|
|Habitat restoration and improvement||Yes||Yes|
|Hedges and windbreaks||Yes||Yes|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
In New Zealand, good forestry establishment is sometimes impossible because of suppression of young trees by pampas grass (C. jubata and C. selloana) (Gadgil et al., 1984). The same authors estimated that releasing trees from pampas grass to allow them to barely survive cost about NZ$350 ha-1 in 1983, and that later tending operations like pruning and thinning have been estimated to increase total tending costs by 144%. Complete body cover is needed to protect operators from the sharp edges of the leaves.
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Reports on the impact of C. jubata on native environments have been published in Australia, South Africa, California and New Zealand. Its rapid growth and accumulation of aboveground and belowground biomass allow it to acquire light, moisture and nutrients that would be used by other plants, and the large amount of dry matter that it produces make it a fire hazard (ISSG, 2014).
In California the most threatened habitats are coastal sand dunes and inland sand hills that contain a number of rare and endangered plant species (Peterson and Russo, 1988). Lambrinos (2000) describes its adverse effects on an endangered Mediterranean shrubland, where a diverse and unique shrub community is replaced by a perennial-dominated grassland with reduced native richness, and arthropod and small mammal communities are also affected.
Reports from Australia (University of Queensland, 2013) suggest that C. jubata is more aggressive than C. selloana; it forms dense stands of giant tussocks in wetter areas, where it displaces native vegetation (University of Queensland, 2013). It is considered an environmental weed in Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and Western Australia.
In New Zealand, the threats it offers are such that propagating, selling or distribution of the species is illegal (Ministry for Primary Industries, 2014). It readily colonises disturbed sites, quickly becomes dense and can suppress the growth of other species. It replaces ground cover, shrubs and ferns, creates a fire hazard, provides habitats for possums and rats, and impedes access.
In Hawaii the naturalized populations are as yet quite small, but could easily spread and become problematic. Of particular concern is the discovery of small infestations in rainforest, the first such infestations anywhere (Chimera, 1997).
In South Africa, the species is classified as a grade 1 invasive species which is prohibited and must be controlled, as in those parts of the country where it is present it forms large clumps which displace smaller indigenous species (AGIS, 2014).
Social ImpactTop of page
According to AGIS (2014), referring to the situation in South Africa, the fluffy inflorescences cause respiratory problems in humans, especially to asthma sufferers, and the leaves are very abrasive with sharp, cutting edges. In New Zealand, forest workers controlling C. jubata and C. selloana need complete body cover to protect them from the sharp edges of the leaves (Gadgil et al., 1984).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Tolerant of shade
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Long lived
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Reproduces asexually
- Altered trophic level
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of fire regime
- Modification of successional patterns
- Monoculture formation
- Negatively impacts forestry
- Negatively impacts human health
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition - shading
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
According to Gadgil et al. (1984) the closely related C. selloana had been used in New Zealand as animal forage since the early 1930s but this use has now disappeared. Plants of both species have been produced commercially for this purpose, and also for shelter belts, land protection and erosion control, but now neither species can be propagated, sold or distributed (Ministry for Primary Industries, 2014). Plants and seeds are commercially available from nurseries in several countries, and several decorative cultivars have been produced.
Presumably many people still appreciate having one or more pampas grass plants in their gardens.
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Fodder/animal feed
- Boundary, barrier or support
- Erosion control or dune stabilization
- Shade and shelter
- Sociocultural value
- garden plant
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
C. jubata is similar in general appearance to its close relative C. selloana and also to its less close relatives, the New Zealand species of Austroderia (known there by their Maori name toetoe). The leaf blades of C. jubata are shorter than those of C. selloana, not curled at the tip and less V-shaped in cross-section; they are also dark green on both surfaces while those of C. selloana are blue-green on the upper surface and dark green on the lower. The flower heads of C. jubata are shorter, more flexuous and purplish, drying to a dirty brown, while those of C. selloana are of various colours. C. jubata spikelets are smaller, with purple glumes, and contain a few less florets than those of C. selloana (Edgar and Connor, 2010; DiTomaso, 2000). According to Connor (1973), in its introduced range, C. jubata has only female flowers and reproduces by apomixis.
The New Zealand native Austroderia species all have prominent secondary veins on the leaves in addition to the prominent midrib: the two invasive Cortaderia species have a prominent midrib only (Edgar and Connor, 2010). Austroderia species have a white waxy bloom at the bases of the leaves and the old leaf sheaths do not curl up: the two Cortaderia species do not have the waxy bloom, and the old leaf sheaths curl up (like wood-shavings) and break into short lengths (New Zealand Department of Conservation, 2013).
Another difference between species of Cortaderia and those of Austroderia is their flowering time (at least in New Zealand). C. jubata begins flowering in late January, and C. selloana begins flowering in early March. Austroderia species flower from October to January (New Zealand Department of Conservation, 2013).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Once established within a country, the further spread of C. jubata is hard to limit, except perhaps by eliminating plants growing upwind of important sites.
Legislation and associated public awareness campaigns, as has happened in New Zealand since the inclusion of C. jubata in the National Pest Plant Accord (2012), seems to be an effective way of discouraging future spread. Similar legislation is in place in some Australian States (University of Queensland, 2013) and in South Africa (Invasive Species South Africa, 2013).
Most of New Zealand’s Regional Councils actively run public awareness campaigns to remind people that they cannot distribute C. jubata and their policies are actively backed up by strict policing. Some of these Councils have eradication or containment in their pest management strategies (Ministry for Primary Industries, 2013).
Physical removal of plants is feasible if they are small enough but this can be very labour intensive (Peterson and Russo, 1988). The same authors describe physical removal of plants at a Marine Corps base by tying a rope or chain round the plants and pulling them out with a vehicle. Mechanical excavation has been tried (Gosling et al., 2000) but this causes too much damage to surrounding vegetation.
Biological control of grass species has rarely been attempted because of the danger of damaging desirable grass species. In New Zealand, despite the possibility of collateral damage to native Austroderia species, the Sustainable Farming Fund (2011) has been funding the search for possible agents; a black smut fungus and a fly which attack the flowerheads seem to be quite damaging on Ecuadorian plants, but no reports on their identification have been published as yet.
Glyphosate in its various forms has been widely used for control of species of Cortaderia, but these adversely affect most green plant material they touch and are non-selective. Haloxyfop controls grasses without affecting broadleaf plants, offering some selectivity (Popay et al., 2004), but following aerial application to very large plants, these authors found that further treatment was needed a year after the initial application. Hexazinone is a residual herbicide that has been used to good effect in plantation forests (Gosling et al., 2000), but it is non-selective and can leach into the soil and affect non-target species. Other herbicides that have been used include amitrole and dalapon (Peterson and Russo, 1988).
Grazing with cattle has been used for control of Cortaderia species in plantation forests in New Zealand (Gosling et al., 2000).
ReferencesTop of page
AGIS (Agricultural Geo-Referenced Information System), 2013. Weeds & Invasive Plants. http://www.agis.agric.za/wip/
Chimera C, 1997. Cortaderia jubata (Lemoine) Stapf. HNIS Report for Cortaderia jubata. Hawaii, USA: Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project, 13 pp. http://www.hear.org/hnis/reports/hnis-corjub.pdf
Clayton WD; Vorontsova MS; Harman KT; Williamson H, 2013. GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Costas Lippmann M, 1977. More on the weedy "pampas grass" in California. Fremontia, 4(4):25-27. http://docubase.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/pl_dochome?query_src=pl_search&format=INDEX&collection=Fremontia&id=22
Esler AE, 1998. Naturalisation of plants in urban Auckland: a series of articles from the New Zealand Journal of Botany. Wellington, New Zealand: DSIR Publishing.
Gadgil RL; Knowles AL; Zabkiewicz JA, 1984. Pampas - a new forest weed problem. In: Proceedings, New Zealand weed and pest control conference. Hastings, New Zealand: New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society, 187-190.
Gosling DS; Shaw WB; Beadel SM, 2000. Review of control methods for pampas grasses in New Zealand. Science for Conservation, No. 165:32 pp. http://www.doc.govt.nz/documents/science-and-technical/Sfc165.pdf
Invasive Species South Africa, 2014. Plants A-Z: Flora that is invasive in South Africa. South Africa: Invasive Species South Africa. http://www.invasives.org.za/invasive-plants.html
ISSG, 2014. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/
ITIS, 2014. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov
Linder HP; Baeza M; Barker NP; Galley C; Humphreys AM; Lloyd KM; Orlovich DA; Pirie MD; Simon BK; Walsh N; Verboom GA, 2010. A generic classification of the Danthonioideae (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 97(3):306-364. http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-archive&issn=0026-6493
Ministry for Primary Industries, 2013. Regional Pest Management. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry for Primary Industries. http://www.biosecurityperformance.maf.govt.nz/
Ministry for Primary Industries, 2014. National Pest Plant Accord. New Zealand. http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/nppa
New Zealand Department of Conservation, 2013. Common Weeds in New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Conservation. http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/threats-and-impacts/weeds/common-weeds-in-new-zealand/
Okada M; Lyle M; Jasieniuk M, 2009. Inferring the introduction history of the invasive apomictic grass Cortaderia jubata using microsatellite markers. Diversity and Distributions, 15(1):148-157. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/121454979/HTMLSTART
Peterson DL; Russo MJ, 1988. Element Stewardship Abstract for Cortaderia jubata, pampas grass. Arlington, Virginia, USA: The Nature Conservancy, 8 pp. http://www.invasive.org/gist/esadocs/documnts/cortjub.pdf
Popay I; Timmins SM; McCluggage T, 2003. Aerial spraying of pampas grass in difficult conservation sites. Science for Conservation, No.218:18 pp. http://www.doc.govt.nz/documents/science-and-technical/SFC218.pdf
Potter CH, 1970. Annuals and perennials; Marguerite daisies, California poppy, pampas grass. American Nurseryman, 131(2):13, 85-89.
Royal Horticultural Society, 2009. Cortaderia: final trials report 2007-2009. Wisley, UK: Royal Horticultural Society, 7 pp. http://apps.uk/planttrials/TrialReports/Cortaderia%202009
Sustainable Farming Fund, 2011. Biological control for pampas (Cortaderia jubata and Cortaderia selloana) in New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry for Primary Industries, 3 pp. http://maxa.maf.govt.nz/sff/about-projects/search/11-049/l11-049-biological-control-for-pampas-in-NZ.pdf
University of Queensland, 2013. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland edition. Queensland, Australia. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/
USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
USDA-NRCS, 2013. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
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09/04/13: Original text by:
Ian Popay, consultant, New Zealand, with the support of Landcare Research.
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