Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Clerodendrum chinense
(Chinese glory bower)

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Datasheet

Clerodendrum chinense (Chinese glory bower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Clerodendrum chinense
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Chinese glory bower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. chinense is a highly invasive weed in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. This species has the capacity to move into a habitat and reproduce aggressively by root suckers. C. chinense is cl...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Clerodendrum chinense (pikake hohono). Flowering habit at Keanae, Maui. June 18, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionClerodendrum chinense (pikake hohono). Flowering habit at Keanae, Maui. June 18, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum chinense (pikake hohono). Flowering habit at Keanae, Maui. June 18, 2009.
HabitClerodendrum chinense (pikake hohono). Flowering habit at Keanae, Maui. June 18, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum chinense (pikake hohono). Flowers and leaves at Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui.  April 30, 2009
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionClerodendrum chinense (pikake hohono). Flowers and leaves at Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui. April 30, 2009
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum chinense (pikake hohono). Flowers and leaves at Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui.  April 30, 2009
Flowers and leavesClerodendrum chinense (pikake hohono). Flowers and leaves at Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui. April 30, 2009©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum chinense (pikake hohono). Habit at Haiku, Maui.  December 12, 2006
TitleHabit
CaptionClerodendrum chinense (pikake hohono). Habit at Haiku, Maui. December 12, 2006
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum chinense (pikake hohono). Habit at Haiku, Maui.  December 12, 2006
HabitClerodendrum chinense (pikake hohono). Habit at Haiku, Maui. December 12, 2006©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabberley

Preferred Common Name

  • Chinese glory bower

Other Scientific Names

  • Clerodendrum fragrans Willd.
  • Clerodendrum fragrans Willd. f. pleniflorum (Schauer) Standl. & Steyerm
  • Clerodendrum fragrans Willd. var. pleniflorum Schauer.
  • Clerodendrum philippinum Schauer.
  • Ovieda fragrans Willd.
  • Volkameria fragrans Vent.

International Common Names

  • English: fragrant clerodendrum; fragrant glory bower; glory bower; stickbush; wild jasmine
  • Spanish: flor de muerto; hortensia; jazmín de muerto; jazmín de perro
  • French: herbe à madame villaret
  • Chinese: chong ban xiu mo li

Local Common Names

  • Bahamas: wild jasmine
  • Cook Islands: pitate mama; tiare tupapaku
  • Cuba: avispero; cógelo todo; jazmín trasminador; juan grande; mil flores; mil rosas; yerba hedionda
  • Jamaica: julius plague; Lady Nugent's rose
  • Lesser Antilles: moselle; pain killer; stick-bush; wez alba
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: Honolulu rose; rohsen onoluhlu (Pohnpei)
  • Puerto Rico: jazmín hediondo; yapaná
  • Samoa: losa fiti; Losa Honolulu
  • USA/Hawaii: pikake hohono; pikake pilau; pikake wauke

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. chinense is a highly invasive weed in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. This species has the capacity to move into a habitat and reproduce aggressively by root suckers. C. chinense is classified as a “major weed” in Hawaii, Fiji, Western Samoa, and America Samoa (PIER, 2012) where it grows commonly along roadsides and as an ornamental shrub in gardens. This species rapidly invades pastures and plantations wherever it is planted forming dense thickets that exclude other species (Space and Flynn, 2002; Motooka et al., 2003). In the West Indies, C. chinense is included in lists of invasive species in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and US Virgin Islands (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; González et al., 2012) and is classified as a widespread exotic plant in the Lesser Antilles (including Antigua, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent; Broome et al., 2007).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Clerodendrum
  •                                 Species: Clerodendrum chinense

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Lamiaceae includes mostly herbs or shrubs, comprising about 236 genera and 7173 species (Stevens, 2012). Species within this family commonly are aromatic plants with quadrangular stems and verticillate inflorescences. Leaves are opposite or whorled, and are simple or occasionally pinnately compound; stipules are absent. Flowers are bisexual and zygomorphic. Currently, the genus Clerodendrum is classified in the subfamily Ajugoideae, being one of several genera reassigned from Verbenaceae to Lamiaceae in the 1990s, based on phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data. The genus Clerodendrum includes about 150 species that are distributed worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas (Stevens, 2012).

Description

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Shrubs up to 3 m tall, finely pubescent throughout, branches and stems quadrangular. Leaves membranous, broadly ovate to triangular-ovate, 6-25 cm long, 5-25 cm wide, both surfaces sparsely to moderately strigillose, margins coarsely and irregularly dentate, apex acute, and base cordate to truncate. Inflorescences terminal, cymose, densely many-flowered, subsessile or short-pendulate, often subtended by a pair of foliaceous bracts, bracteoles numerous, oblong or elliptic, 1.5-3 cm long, strigillose, especially along the margins. Flowers are fragrant; calyx purple or red, sometimes with white spots, campanulate, 10-15 mm long, 5-lobed, the lobes anceolate, apex acuminate; corolla pale pink, usually doubled by petaloid stamens; stamens and ovary usually modified into extra petals. Fruits are rarely developed (Liogier, 1995; Wagner et al., 1999).

Plant Type

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Shrub
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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C. chinense is native to southern Asia (probably China and Vietnam). The invasive nature of this species has allowed it to become established in numerous tropical and subtropical areas throughout North America (Florida, Hawaii and Mexico), Central America, South America, West Indies, and the Pacific Islands.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
-GuizhouPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
Hong KongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993)
JapanPresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993)
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993)
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)Cultivated
TaiwanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
ThailandPresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993)
VietnamPresentNativePIER (2012)

North America

AnguillaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
BahamasPresentIntroducedBritton and Millspaugh (1920)Reported in a 1920 collection made by Britton & Millspaugh
BarbadosPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
BelizePresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2012)Ornamental
BermudaPresentIntroducedBritton (1918)Reported in a 1918 collection made by N.L. Britton
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2012)Ornamental
CubaPresentIntroduced1900InvasiveGonzález-Torres et al. (2012)Date of introduction is taken from collections housed in the Smithsonian Herbarium
DominicaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced1920Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Date of introduction is taken from collections housed in the Smithsonian Herbarium
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2012)
GrenadaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
GuadeloupePresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2012)Ornamental
HaitiPresentIntroduced1920Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Date of introduction is taken from collections housed in the Smithsonian Herbarium
HondurasPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2012)Ornamental
JamaicaPresentIntroduced1904Adams (1972)Date of introduction is taken from collections housed in the Smithsonian Herbarium
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
MexicoPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2012)Chiapas
MontserratPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2012)Ornamental
PanamaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2012)Ornamental
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1901InvasiveLiogier (1995)Date of introduction is taken from collections housed in the Smithsonian Herbarium
Saint LuciaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)St. Thomas
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWunderlin and Hansen (2003)Cultivated
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1865InvasiveWagner et al. (1999); Englberger (2009)Found in wet pastures and forests on all main islands except Ni’ihau (Motooka et al., 2003)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993)Cultivated
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993)Aitutaki Atoll and Rarotanga Islands
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveEnglberger (2009); CABI (Undated)Kosrae, Chuuk and Pohnpei Islands. Under eradication on Pohnpei
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993); Englberger (2009)Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, and Viti Levu Islands
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993); Englberger (2009)Tahiti, Moore, Havai, Maketea and Raevavae Islands
NiuePresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2000); Englberger (2009)
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993)Cultivated
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated); Englberger (2009)Ofu, Olosega, Ta’u and Tutuila Islands; Original citation: Space and Flynn (2002)

South America

ChilePresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993)Cultivated
ColombiaPresentIntroducedIdárraga-Piedrahita et al. (2011)Antioquia
EcuadorPresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993)St. Cruz and St. Cristobal Islands
PeruPresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993)Cultivated

History of Introduction and Spread

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In Hawaii, C. chinense was first collected in 1864-1865 and currently is an invasive weed that can be found in wet pastures and forests on all main islands except on Ni’ihau (Motooka et al., 2003). In the West Indies, this species was probably introduced as an ornamental plant in the nineteenth century. The first records of this species from Puerto Rico come from the collections of A.P. Garber in 1880 and from P.E. Sintenis in 1885 (Urban, 1911; Smithsonian Herbarium). In Puerto Rico this species was reported by Britton and Wilson (1925) as escaped from cultivation in lower and middle elevations and Vélez (1950) as one of the worst weeds in coffee plantations. Later, this species has been collected in Cuba (1900), Jamaica (1904), Dominican Republic and Haiti (1920). Currently, C. chinense is becoming “widespread” in the Lesser Antilles on the islands of Antigua, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent (Broome et al., 2007). In American Samoa and the Pacific Islands (Cook Islands, Fiji, Niue, Tonga, and Western Samoa) since 2002 this species is classified as a ‘weed” that has to be monitored closely (Space and Flynn, 2002; PIER et al., 2012).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of C. chinense is high. This species is commonly planted as an ornamental mainly for its foliage and showy flowers, but it produces large amounts of root suckers which can rapidly spread the plant to form dense thickets. The risk of introduction of stems and/or roots as a contaminant of garden soils remains high in those countries where this species is planted. Additionally, C. chinense is still sold in the nursery and landscape trade in many countries and thus it is available for further dispersal. The use of this species for nurseries, gardens, and landscaping should be discouraged and it should be monitored closely for spread.

Habitat

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C. chinense is a rapidly growing shrub that can be found planted in gardens and has the potential to rapidly invade pastures, forest edges, roadsides, and waste grounds. This species prefers to grow in moist environments, full sunlight, with fertile soils, but it can tolerate shade and grow in disturbed areas. In Hawaii, it can be found forming dense canopies in pastures, along streams, and along forest edges, shading out the understory (Motooka et al., 2003). In Fiji, C. chinense is cultivated as an ornamental from near sea level to an elevation of about 900 m, and it is a common element in thickets, coconut plantations, and along roadsides (Smith, 1991).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

There are no specific genetic studies on this species. However, for many Clerodendrum species, studies available indicate that they are polyploids with a high chromosome number (2n = 46, 48, or 52; Yuan et al., 2010). 

Reproductive Biology

Species in the genus Clerodendrum have an unusual pollination syndrome which avoids self-pollination. The mating system in this genus combines dichogamy and herkogamy. Clerodendrum species have flowers that are protandrous. In these flowers, the stamens and the style are curled upwards tightly inside the flower bud. When the flowers open, the filaments and style start uncoiling. While the filaments project to the centre, the style continues to bend down towards the lower side of the flower. This is the functional male phase. After pollen has been released, the filaments curl back sideways and the style with its receptive stigma (female phase) projects back to the centre, taking the position occupied by the stamens in the male phase (Yuan et al., 2010). 

Physiology and Phenology

C. chinense has been collected in flower throughout the year in the West Indies (Smithsonian US Herbarium). In North America, the flowering phase has been reported from late spring to early summer. 

Longevity

C. chinense is a rapidly growing perennial shrub. 

Environmental Requirements

C. chinense grows in moist environments (annual rainfall greater than 1000 mm) in tropical and sub-tropical climates. This species prefers to grow in areas with full sunlight exposure and fertile soils (pH 5-7). However, C. chinense is also a shade-tolerant and thus it is able to grow in the understory.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline
  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Phyllocharis undulata Herbivore Adults to genus Hawaii and Pacific Islands

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Phyllocharis undulata is a species of leaf-eater beetle found in Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java, Lombok and Timor. This species feeds on various species of Clerodendrum, including C.inerme, C. chinense, and C. calamitosum. It has been considered as a biological control agent against C. chinense (Julien, 1992). Further studies are needed to determine if this beetle species is adequately host-specific and the viability of its application as a biological control agent.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. chinense is primarily dispersed by root suckers. These root suckers can grow rapidly and when they find suitable environmental conditions they develop and establish new trees. Seeds and fruits are rarely produced (Liogier, 1995).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Medicinal useUse in traditional Chinese medicine Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
Ornamental purposesCommon in gardens Yes Yes PIER, 2012

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSpecies produces root suckers Yes
MailSold in the nursery and landscape trade Yes Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes PIER, 2012
Soil, sand and gravel Yes Yes PIER, 2012

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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C. chinense has been identified as an invasive weed. This is a very aggressive shrub that grows rapidly and form dense thickets along roadsides, waste grounds, streams, and forest edges. The invasive nature of this species has allowed it to become dominant in areas where it was planted and consequently it has the potential to out-compete native vegetation.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Loss of medicinal resources
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Roots and leaves of C. chinense have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, asthma, and inflammatory diseases. 

This species is still sold in the nursery and landscape trade. People frequently utilize this plant in gardens because it is attractive to bees, butterflies, and birds.

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Mechanical control is difficult: continual slashing will slow spread but not prevent it. Vertical barriers in the soil may prevent further spread if deep enough (PIER, 2012).

Biological Control

The chrysomelid beetle Phyllocharis undulata is a prospective biocontrol agent (Julien, 1992; PIER, 2012). Further studies in this area are needed.

Chemical Control

The use of chemicals to control C. chinense has to be performed very carefully. Herbicides containing triclopyr butoxyethyl ester are suggested as possible herbicides for Western Samoa. Work carried out in Western Samoa has shown that metsulfuron-methyl ester produces effective control. It has been recommended that the plants be cut and the new growth sprayed with herbicide (Waterhouse, 1993). Young plants can be sprayed with a herbicide such as 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid butoxyethyl ester (PIER, 2012). Motooka et al. (2003) suggested that hormone-type herbicides in timely repeat applications will control this weed.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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1) Studies on environmental requirements for establishment.

2) Genetic studies to determine variability.

3) Studies assessing the impact of this exotic species on native plants are needed.

4) Recommendations for management and control (biological and chemical control) in invaded areas.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams CD, 1972. Flowering Plants of Jamaica. University of the West Indies, 267.

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Britton NL; Millspaugh CF, 1920. The Bahama Flora. New York, USA: NL Britton & CF Millspaugh.

Britton NL; Wilson P, 1925. Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico & Virgin Islands, Volume 6

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Davidse G; Sousa Sánchez M; Knapp S; Chiang Cabrera F, 2012. Rubiaceae a Verbenaceae. Flora Mesoamericana, 4:1-533.

Englberger K, 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: A guide for identification and public awareness. Kolonia, Federated States of Micronesia: Conservation Society of Pohnpei, 29 pp.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

González-Torres LR; Rankin R; Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants of Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

Idárraga-Piedrahita A; Ortiz RDC; Callejas Posada R; Merello M, 2011. [English title not available]. (Flora de Antioquia.) Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia:939 pp.

Julien MH ed., 1992. Biological Control of Weeds. A World Catalogue of Agents and their Target Weeds, 3rd edition. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Julien MH, 1992. Biological Control of Weeds: a World Catalogue of Agents and their Target Weeds. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Julien MH; ed, 1992. Biological control of weeds: A world wide catalogue of agents and their target weeds. 3rd edition. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Liogier HA, 1995. Descriptive flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: Spermatophyta, Volume IV. Melastomataceae to Lentibulariaceae. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, UPR.

Motooka P; Castro L; Nelson D; Nagai G; Ching L, 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas; an identification and management guide. Manoa, Hawaii, USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii.

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Smith AC, 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: A new flora of Fiji. Lawai, Kauai, Hawai`i. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Volume 5, 626 pp.

Space JC; Flynn T, 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu, 34.

Space JC; Flynn T, 2002a. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service, 83 pp.

Space JC; Waterhouse B; Denslow J; Nelson D; Waguk EE, 2000. Invasive plant species on Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service, 43 pp.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Urban I, 1911. Verbenaceae. Symbolae Antillanae Seu Fundamenta Florae Indiae Occidentalis, 4(538).

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Velez I, 1950. Plantas Indeseables en los Cultivos Tropicales. Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial Universitaria.

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, Revised ed. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii Press.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. Biological control: Pacific prospects - supplement 2. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR, 138 pp.

Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2003. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Institute for Systematic Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/.

Yuan YW; Mabberley DJ; Steane DA; Olmstead RG, 2010. Further disintegration and redefinition of Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae): implications for the understanding of the evolution of an intriguing breeding strategy. Taxon, 59(1):125-133.

Zuloaga FO; Morrone O; Belgrano MJ; Marticorena C; Marchesi E, 2008. [English title not available]. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay).) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 107:1-3348.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams C D, 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies. 848 pp.

Britton N L, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: C. Scribner's Sons.

Britton N L, Millspaugh C F, 1920. The Bahama Flora. New York, USA: NL Britton & CF Millspaugh.

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

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Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Flora of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)http://www.hear.org/Pier/index.html
Plants of the Eastern Caribbeanhttp://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html
USDA Germplasm Resources Information Networkhttp://www.ars-grin.gov/

Contributors

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21/09/12 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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