Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Clerodendrum bungei
(rose glorybower)

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Datasheet

Clerodendrum bungei (rose glorybower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Clerodendrum bungei
  • Preferred Common Name
  • rose glorybower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. bungei is a deciduous shrub which occurs both within its native Asian range and beyond to temperate and tropical regions around the world as a result of both unintentional introduction and intentional introd...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Clerodendrum bungei (rose glorybower); habit, with flowers. Havana, Florida, USA. December, 2005.
TitleHabit, with flowers
CaptionClerodendrum bungei (rose glorybower); habit, with flowers. Havana, Florida, USA. December, 2005.
CopyrightPublic Doman - Photographed and released by David A. MacManus-2009
Clerodendrum bungei (rose glorybower); habit, with flowers. Havana, Florida, USA. December, 2005.
Habit, with flowersClerodendrum bungei (rose glorybower); habit, with flowers. Havana, Florida, USA. December, 2005.Public Doman - Photographed and released by David A. MacManus-2009

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Clerodendrum bungei Steud.

Preferred Common Name

  • rose glorybower

Other Scientific Names

  • Clerodendrum yatschuense H.J.P.Winkl.
  • Pavetta esquirolii H.Lév.
  • Volkameria bungei (Steud.) Lavallée

International Common Names

  • English: cashmere bouquet; glory bower; glory flower; Mexican hydrangea
  • Chinese: chou mu dan; xiu mu dan

Local Common Names

  • Germany: herrlicher Losstrauch
  • Japan: beni-bana-kusagi

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. bungei is a deciduous shrub which occurs both within its native Asian range and beyond to temperate and tropical regions around the world as a result of both unintentional introduction and intentional introduction for ornamental and medicinal uses. The species reproduces by both seeds and root suckers, which allow it to spread quickly and widely and form colonies, and is dispersed by humans and birds. It is known to be a cultivation escape in the USA, and is naturalized in many parts of the world including Japan, Mexico, and the USA. The species is included in the European invasive plants database (DAISIE, 2014) and the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Clerodendrum
  •                                 Species: Clerodendrum bungei

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Most members of the Lamiaceae genus Clerodendrum are native to the Old World tropics, but many have been cultivated and introduced as ornamentals elsewhere. The genus consists of approximately 400 species (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 1996; Armitage, 2001), although this number has now been reported to be closer to 180, as much taxonomic confusion in the past has resulted in thousands of misnamed and synonymous specimens (Wearn and Mabberly, 2011). The genus name Clerodendrum derives from the Greek words ‘kleros’, meaning ‘chance’, ‘lot’, or ‘fate’, and ‘dendron’, meaning tree, likely referring to the doubtful and variable medicinal qualities that have been associated with these shrubs, trees and climbers (Stearn, 1992; Armitage, 2001; Quattrocchi, 2012). The species name ‘bungei’ is in honor of the Russian collector and explorer Alexander von Bunge (1803-1890), who first described this species using the name Clerodendrum foetidum (Stearn, 1992). 

Description

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Deciduous shrub to 2 m tall, native to China. Oval leaves (to 30 cm long) with toothed edges are dark green above and fuzzy bronze-green beneath. Leaves are malodorous when crushed. Slender tube with abruptly spreading corolla, rosy red or pink flowers, each to 18 mm wide, fragrant, in loose clusters up to 20 cm across, from summer into autumn. Will form a spreading colony by suckering if not restrained. Has escaped gardens and naturalized from Texas to Georgia and Florida (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014).

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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The native range for C. bungei spans from China to northern India, but the species is known to have been introduced to Mesoamérica, Bolivia, Brazil (though it is not listed in the flora of Brazil by Forzza et al., 2010), Argentina, and Nicaragua (Flora Mesoamericana, 2014; Flora of Nicaragua, 2014). Introduction to northern South America may be limited; the species is not included, for example, in Funk et al.’s (2007) flora of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AnhuiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-FujianPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GansuPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuizhouPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HebeiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HenanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HubeiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HunanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-JiangsuPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-JiangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-NingxiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-QinghaiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ShandongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ShanxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
IndiaPresentNativeFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
JapanPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012Naturalised
TaiwanPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
VietnamPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana, 2014Chiapas
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
BoliviaPresentIntroducedBolivia Checklist, 2014; Flora Mesoamericana, 2014Chuquisaca
BrazilPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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The native range of C. bungei is temperate and tropical Asia, from China to northern India. It is reported as an introduced species to Japan and has since naturalized (Randall, 2012). In Europe, although the species is not listed in the Flora Europaea, it is currently listed in the EU’s alien invasive species database as having been unintentionally introduced to Italy in the sixteenth century (DAISIE, 2014). It is uncertain when C. bungei was introduced to the West Indies, but the species is present in Puerto Rico and Hispanola (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012) where it is now considered a garden thug and weed (Randall, 2012). The species may have been a relatively recent introduction or considered a non-significant one, as it was not included in Bello’s works of Puerto Rico (Bello Espinosa, 1881, Bello, 1883), Britton’s work on Bermuda (Britton, 1918) or in Britton and Wilson’s survey of Puerto Rico (Britton and Wilson, 1924).

Risk of Introduction

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C. bungei is listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds as an environmental weed, garden thug, and naturalised weed (Randall, 2012). It has been widely introduced as an ornamental beyond its native range of tropical Asia, and it reproduces by both seeds and root suckers which can spread as far as 6.1 m before sending up a stem (Riffle, 1998; Jarrett, 2003; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014).

The species was included on Florida’s 1999 Invasive Plant List as a Category II species, “species that have shown a potential to disrupt native plant communities” (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1999), but has since been removed from the list, suggesting its lower priority as an invasive threat in Florida. Although the species was reported as rarely found in Florida (Wunderlin and Hansen, 2003), a risk assessment conducted by the University of Florida in 2005 concluded C. bungei to be invasive to the USA.

Nesom (2009) reports this species as not invasive in Texas, placing it in a category described as “Trees, shrubs, subshrubs, and woody vines; relatively few in number, known from relatively few localities, usually in disturbed habitats, repeatedly introduced or perhaps merely long-persisting at some localities, not showing aggressively invasive tendencies, or perhaps incipiently invasive”.

Considering these factors and the invasive traits of distribution beyond its native range, vigorous spread by suckers and formation of colonies, this species may potentially pose a risk to native systems. 

Habitat

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In its native range of China, C. bungei occurs in waste places, hillsides and damp shady roadsides, as well as mixed forests on mountain slopes and along the sides of roads (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; PFAF, 2014). In Bolivia the species is found in forests in the Andes region (Bolivia Checklist, 2014).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The sporophytic count for this species is 104 (IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014).

Reproductive Biology

C. bungei flowers in late summer and autumn with seeds ripening in late autumn to early winter and usually germinating within 20-60 days at 20°C (Armitage, 2001; PFAF, 2014). In Nicaragua the species flowers in July (Flora of Nicaragua, 2014). Flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) (PFAF, 2014). Pollinators include butterflies, which are attracted to the clusters of fragrant pink or red flowers (Jarrett, 2003).

Environmental Requirements

The species is native to tropical and temperate regions of Asia. In China its elevation range is reportedly 1100- 2500 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). In Bolivia, where it has been introduced, the species occurs at elevations of 1000-1500 m (Bolivia Checklist, 2014) and in Nicaragua specimens have been collected at 100 m (Flora of Nicaragua, 2014).

C. bungei  is one of the hardier members of the genus, tolerating a minimum temperature of 15°F (-9°C) (Armitage, 2001). The species prefers well-drained, moist soil but is tolerant of most soil types, light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils with acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) pH (Jarrett, 2003; PFAF, 2014). It can tolerate full sun and partial shade, and is fairly tolerant of drought (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014). Like other members of the genus Clerodendrum, C. bungei has low tolerance of salt (Jarrett, 2003).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -10

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. bungei and C. speciosissimum are among the several members of this genus that produce root suckers and are considered invasive (Armitage, 2001; Jarrett, 2003; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014). The species reproduces by both seeds and adventitious shoots and may be spread by bird dispersal, as in the case of the New Zealand pigeon (McEwan, 1978). It is also intentionally dispersed as an ornamental, although in some US states it has been banned from sale. 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionSpecies is a weed of cultivated areas and can spread by portions of roots within soil Yes Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escapeGrown as an ornamental and has been known to escape cultivation Yes Yes
Medicinal useUsed for traditional medicine in China Yes Duke, 2014

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Machinery and equipmentCan spread by portions of roots transplanted on wheels of vehicles or within soil Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelCan spread by portions of roots within contaminated soil Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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C. bungei is known among gardeners for its bright red or pink clustered flowers, but also its vigorous growth and rapid spread, and has been recommended to be confined to pots to prevent spread (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014). It has been known to escape cultivation, which in turn can lead to overrun gardens, since its root suckers can quickly form thickets and crowd out other plants. The species had previously been included in the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant List (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1999) as a Category II species, but has since been removed from the list, suggesting the species has a relatively lower negative impact on the environment than other invasive species in Florida. Despite this, the species is not recommended for ornamental use due to its invasive characteristics and likeliness of escape. 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Monoculture formation
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rooting

Uses

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C. bungei has been introduced to the Neotropics for use as an ornamental. Like many members of the Clerodendrum genus, this species has been used for traditional medicine treatments in its native range of China, including a variety of aches, infections and skin problems (Duke, 2014).

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Ornamental

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

Prevention and Control

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To minimize cultivation escape of this species, plants should be grown within pots or within a conservatory (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 1996. Flora of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 78:1-581.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Armitage AM, 2001. Armitage's manual of annuals, biennials, and half-hardy perennials. Portland, OR, USA: Timber Press.

Bello D, 1883. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Segunda parte. Monoclamídeas.) Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 12:103-130.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Bolivia Checklist, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Britton NL; Wilson P, 1924. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin islands, Volume V, Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences, New York.

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Duke J, 2015. Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases online resource. Beltsville, USA: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1999. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council's 1999 List of Invasive Plant Species. http://www.fleppc.org/list/list.htm

Floridata, 2014. FLORIDATAbase website. Tallahassee, Florida, USA: Floridata.com. http://www.floridata.com/

Forzza R, 2010. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN

Jarrett A, 2003. Ornamental Tropical Shrubs. Pineapple Press Inc., 167 pp.

McEwan WM, 1978. The food of the New Zealand pigeon. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 1:99-108.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx

Nesom GL, 2009. Assessment of invasiveness and ecological impact in non-native plants of texas. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 3(2):971-991.

PFAF, 2014. Plants for a future. http://www.pfaf.org

Quattrocchi U, 2012. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology [ed. by Quattrocchi, U.]. London, UK: CRC Press Inc., 3960 pp.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Riffle RL, 1998. The tropical look: an encyclopaedia of landscape plants for worldwide use. London, UK: Thames and Hudson Ltd., 428 pp.

Rueda RM, 1993. The genus Clerodendrum (Verbenaceae) in Mesoamerica. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 80(4):870-890.

Stearn WT, 1992. Stearns dictionary of plant names for gardeners: A handbook on the origin and meaning of the botanical names of some cultivated plants. London, UK: Cassell.

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Wearn JA; Mabberley DJ, 2011. Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae) in Borneo. Systematic Botany, 36(4):1050-1061. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1600/036364411X605056

Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2003. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Institute for Systematic Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global Compendium of Weedshttp://www.hear.org/gcw/

Contributors

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22/8/2014 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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