Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Cenchrus biflorus
(Indian sandbur)

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Datasheet

Cenchrus biflorus (Indian sandbur)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cenchrus biflorus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Indian sandbur
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. biflorus is an annual grass native throughout tropical Africa into Pakistan and India. It has been introduced outside of its native range into southern Africa, North America and Australia. C. biflorus ...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cenchrus biflorus Roxb.

Preferred Common Name

  • Indian sandbur

Other Scientific Names

  • Cenchrus annularis Andersson
  • Cenchrus barbatus Schumach.
  • Cenchrus catharticus Delile
  • Cenchrus leptacanthus A.Camus
  • Cenchrus niloticus Fig. & De Not.
  • Cenchrus perinvolucratus Stapf & C.E.Hubb.
  • Cenchrus rajasthanensis Kanodia & P.C.Nanda

International Common Names

  • English: birdwood grass

Local Common Names

  • : wezzeg
  • Australia: gallon’s curse
  • Brazil: capim-carrapicho
  • France: cram-cram
  • India: anjan grass; bhurat
  • Namibia: kandjata; kangamba; rukwangali; thimbukushu
  • Sudan: abu sha'ar; haskanit

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. biflorus is an annual grass native throughout tropical Africa into Pakistan and India. It has been introduced outside of its native range into southern Africa, North America and Australia. C. biflorus is used as a forage and famine crop but more recently it has been recognised as an invasive species. The retrorsely barbed bristles are readily spread in animal fur and can seriously reduce the value of animal hides, while the barbs can damage the mouths of grazing animals. In addition to this, it is possible for this species to dominate disturbed areas and suppress the growth of native biodiversity. C. biflorus is reported as an agricultural weed in a number of countries including Niger, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and Senegal.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Cenchrus
  •                                 Species: Cenchrus biflorus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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C. biflorus is one of around 25-35 species in the genus and belongs to the Poaceae family (Peerzada et al., 2016). It was named in 1820 and although a few synonyms have been applied and used since then, especially C. barbatus, there are none now in current use.

The genus name Cenchrus is derived from the Greek word ‘Kenchros’ which means millet and the name biflorus means two flowers (Peerzada et al., 2016).

Description

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C. biflorus is a loosely tufted, annual grass, with ascending stems (culms) up to 1 m tall. Leaves alternate, simple and entire; ligule a line of hairs; blade linear, flat, 2–25(–35) cm × 2–7(–10) mm, apex filiform. Inflorescence a spike-like panicle 2–15 cm × 9–12 mm, with 1–3 spikelets enclosed by an involucre of prickly bristles; rachis angular, sinuous; involucre ovoid, 4–11 mm long with numerous spines, inner spines erect, fused at base, retrorsely hairy on the pungent, recurving apex, outer spines shorter, spreading. Spikelet lanceolate 3.5–6 mm long, acute, consisting of two glumes and usually two florets; glumes shorter than spikelet; lower floret male or sterile, its lemma as long as spikelet, membranous, upper floret bisexual, its lemma as long as spikelet, thinly leathery; stamens three, ovary superior, glabrous, with two hairy stigmas. Fruit a dorsally compressed caryopsis (grain), 2–2.5 mm × 1.5–2 mm (PROTA, 2015).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Grass / sedge
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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C. biflorus is native throughout tropical Africa, extending eastwards through Arabia and Iran to Pakistan and India. It has however been introduced outside of its native range for example into southern Africa, North America and Australia.

There is a record of C. biflorus in France and Portugal (GBIF, 2015) however these were based on Elymus caput-medusae  that was treated as a synonym of C. biflorus and is therefore incorrect as it is a synonym for Taeniatherum caput-medusae.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
-GujaratWidespreadNativeMunde et al., 2012
-HaryanaPresentNativeSharma, 1991
-RajasthanWidespreadNativeChandawat et al., 2004
PakistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Saudi ArabiaWidespreadNativeGBIF, 2015
YemenPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
AngolaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
BeninPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
BotswanaPresentIntroduced1976 Invasive Makhabu and Marotsi, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2015
Burkina FasoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
CameroonPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
Cape VerdePresentIntroducedRustan and Brochmann, 1983
ChadPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeGBIF, 2015
Equatorial GuineaPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
EritreaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
EthiopiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
GabonPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
GambiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
GhanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
GuineaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Guinea-BissauPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
KenyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
MadagascarPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
MaliPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
MauritaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
MoroccoPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
MozambiquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
NamibiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
NigerPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
NigeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
SenegalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
SomaliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
South AfricaPresentIntroduced1965USDA-ARS, 2015
SudanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
TanzaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
-ZanzibarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
TogoPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
ZambiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
ZimbabwePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015

North America

USAPresentIntroduced1930USDA-NRCS, 2015
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2015
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedPeerzada et al., 2016
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedPeerzada et al., 2016
-New YorkPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2015

Europe

SpainLocalisedIntroducedGBIF, 2015

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015; GBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015; GBIF, 2015
NauruPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015

History of Introduction and Spread

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There are two papers describing C. biflorus as newly recorded in Cape Verde, the earlier presumably being the more reliable (Rustan et al., 1983/1984). Elsewhere some of the earliest records are for 1965 in South Africa (it was not included in Chippindall, 1955) and 1976 in Botswana (GBIF, 2015). Bond et al. (2002) used molecular methods to try and establish the origin of the invasive populations in the Kalahari and found they were not closely related to those in the north of the country, adjacent to the Namibia border but must have originated from further afield. There was a surprising match with material from Burkina Faso but this seemed an unlikely source.

C. biflorus was introduced into North America and Australia for use as a forage species, due to its rapid growth and high nutritive value (Peerzada et al., 2016). It was reported as present in Hawaii however, it is no longer present (Akamine, 1944).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Botswana 1976 Yes GBIF (2014); GBIF (2015)
South Africa 1965 Yes GBIF (2014); GBIF (2015)
USA 1930 GBIF (2014); GBIF (2015)

Risk of Introduction

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C. biflorus is a prolific producer of seeds which are readily dispersed into new areas by attaching to animals, humans and machinery. This spread occurs over a local scale. It was however introduced into new countries as a forage and famine crop. However, the invasive potential of this species has now been realised and introductions are less likely.

Habitat

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C. biflorus is mostly found in dense clumps in semi-arid and arid regions usually on dry sandy soils on old farmland and waste places and in cultivated, overgrazed or otherwise disturbed areas. It grows in areas with low rainfall, below 600 mm per annum, up to 1300 m altitude (Peerzada et al., 2016; Useful Tropical Plants, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Arid regions Principal habitat Natural
Arid regions Principal habitat Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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C. biflorus occurs as a weed in a wide range of crops, including Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet) (Munde et al., 2012), Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle) (El-Naim and Ahmed, 2010) and species of Sesamum indicum (sesame) (Chandawat, 2004).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle)MalvaceaeOther
Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet)PoaceaeMain
Sesamum indicum (sesame)PedaliaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number of C. biflorus has been variously reported as n = 15, 16, 17, 18 and 24 (PROTA, 2015; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015), with n = 17 being the most frequently observed for this and related species. Bond et al. (2002) found populations in Botswana to be genetically highly variable. Abbasi and Malik (1970) report that C. biflorus may hybridise with C. pennisetiformis (both species having n = 17) but it is not clear whether this is common in nature. The hybrids resemble C. setigerus [C. setiger] but have highly sterile pollen and show poor seed set. It is closely related to Pennisetum, which differs in non-spiny inner involucral bristles free to the base.

Reproductive Biology

C. biflorus reproduces by producing a larger number of seeds (thousands of seeds per square metre) (Peerzada et al., 2016). The optimum temperature for germination of C. biflorus is 35°C (Brink and Belay, 2006) and germination is then generally rapid (Elberse and Breman, 1990). Germination is stimulated by nitroglycerine 0.1 to 100 mM, by isosorbide mono-nitrate at 10 and 100 mM, while potassium nitrate is only stimulatory at ‘high concentrations’ (Shuakat and Siddiqui, 2005).

Physiology and Phenology

Along with other species of the genus, C. biflorus has C4 physiology (Sankhla et al., 1975). Development is rapid and flowering may occur within 3-4 weeks (PROTA, 2015). It has a short growing season and in its native range, flowering occurs from July to September (Peerzada et al., 2016).

Longevity

C. biflorus is a short-lived annual, often living only for 2-4 months, though it may persist longer under shade (Akpo and Grouzis, 1993). Longevity of the seeds is not known.

Associations

C. biflorus is associated with the leguminous gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal) in the Sahel of northern Africa (FAO, 2015).

In Niger it has been shown to be associated with endomycorrhyzae, including Glomus aggregatum [Rhizophagus aggregatus] and G. mosseae [Funneliformis mosseae] (Haougui et al., 2013) and also with G. versiforme [Diversispora versiformis] (Putten et al., 2007).

Nutrition

Seeds of C. biflorus contain approximately 3% fat and 21% protein although it has not been fully developed for cultivation (Parazadar et al., 2016).

Environmental Requirements

C. biflorus requires high temperatures for germination and full sunshine for optimum growth. It tends to benefit from trampling and over-grazing, e.g. in Senegal (Valenza, 1981). It is often found on dry, well drained, sandy soils up to 1,300 m in altitude with a pH of 5.5-7 (Peerzada et al., 2016; Useful Tropical Plants, 2016). It grows in areas with a mean annual rainfall of 250-650 mm (Useful Tropical Plants, 2016) but does not grow in seasonally waterlogged areas. It can tolerate high temperatures and droughts and is found in areas without frosts (Peerzada et al., 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 30

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration36number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall250650mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector Transmission

Seeds of C. biflorus are predominantly spread by attachment to grazing animals and perhaps birds.

Accidental Introduction

Accidental introduction may readily occur through attachment to clothing.

Intentional Introduction

C. biflorus is regarded as a nutritious grass for grazing and may be deliberately introduced to areas unsuitable for less drought-tolerant species.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal production Yes
Breeding and propagation Yes Yes
Crop production Yes Yes
Disturbance Yes
Forage Yes Yes
Seed trade Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes Yes
Livestock Yes
Mulch, straw, baskets and sod Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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C. biflorus is a dominant agricultural weed. It can be aggressive in its growth and when grown with other grasses, may replace them (Useful Tropical Plants, 2016). C. biflorus occurs as a weed in a wide range of crops, including Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet) (Munde et al., 2012), and Sesamum indicum (sesame) (Chandawat, 2004). It is also a problem in Hibiscus sabdarfifa in Sudan (El-Naim and Ahmed, 2010) and of a range of crops in Niger (de Fabrègues, 1992). It is also a major weed of irrigated wheat (species of Triticum) in Nigeria (Okafor, 1987), of groundnuts in Senegal (Nicou, 1961) and in a range of crops in Saudi Arabia (Chaudhary et al., 1981). The costs associated with control are however are unknown.

Environmental Impact

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C. biflorus may become dominant under dry, overgrazed conditions. It is abundant in Sudan, the Sahel and southern Sahara, where it may form massive stands which alter biodiversity (FAO, 2015; Flora Zambesiaca, 2015; PROTA, 2015).

In Rajasthan, India, C. biflorus is seen as an important food plant for the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) (Sinha and Chandra 1987). In Senegal it is an important food plant for the Senegalese locust (Oedaleus senegalensis) (Chandra, 1982/1983) and in Mali for the Africa migratory locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) (Ohabuike, 1979).

Social Impact

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It is possible for the inflorescence of C. biflorus to injure humans and grazing animals (Useful Tropical Plants, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Fast growing
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses

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Economic Value

C. biflorus is considered a valuable forage grass in the Sahel; it is mainly browsed in the juvenile stage and when the grains have fallen off. It can be cut several times during the rainy season and made into hay or silage. The spiny involucres are sufficiently softened by ensiling to make consumption of the whole plant possible. C. biflorus persists until the end of the dry season and thus is important as a reliable source of fodder. Also in India the plant is used as a fodder and it is sown against desertification and in northern Australia as forage (PROTA, 2015).

Social Benefit

The grain of C. biflorus is edible and highly nutritious, being high in protein (210 g/kg) (Salih and Nour, 1992). It is considered a famine food in the Sahel and is collected as a wild cereal, e.g. by the Tuareg people. The leaves are eaten during famine in the Thar Desert in India. The grains are pounded and eaten raw, made into porridge, or mixed and cooked with other foods. The grain is also made into a drink. In Sudan it is made into bread and in Mauritania the ground grains are made into cakes. The grain is also a famine food in India, where it is eaten raw or used, mixed with pearl millet, to make bread. In normal years, it is mixed with sugar and ‘ghee’ and eaten as a children’s food (PROTA, 2015). It is used as a famine food in Rajasthan, India (Kumar, 2013).

The root is also an ingredient of traditional aphrodisiac prescriptions (PROTA, 2015).

Environmental Services

C. biflorus provides food for a number of locusts in India, Senegal and Mali (Chandra, 1982/1983; Ohabuike, 1979; Sinha and Diwakar, 2003). It is also a food source for migratory birds (Peerzada et al., 2016).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Human food and beverage

  • Seeds

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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C. biflorus is distinguished from most other species in the genus (e.g. C. ciliaris) and from Pennisetum spp., by having retrorsely barbed spines.

In Africa, C. biflorus might be confused with C. incertus [C. spinifex] but the latter has the inner bristles fused and forming a deep cup, rather than a flattened disc and the outer bristles flattened (Flora Zambesiaca, 2015).

In the Americas and India, C. biflorus is close genetically to C. echinatus (Chandra and Dubey, 2008) but is distinguished by having relatively few inner bristles, fused and forming a deep cup and very few, or no, outer bristles.

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

SPS Measures

C. biflorus is a restricted weed in New South Wales, Australia (NSW Department of Primary Industries, 2016).

Control

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

In Botswana, the growth of C. biflorus is suppressed by Lablab purpureus (Wandera and Abdullahi, 2008).

Physical/Mechanical Control

As an annual grass, C. biflorus is readily controlled by hoeing and other mechanical means.

Chemical Control

In a pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) stand in Gujarat, India, C. biflorus was controlled by using atrazine (Munde et al., 2012). It has also been controlled by alachlor and pendimethalin in sesame (Sesamum sp.) (Chandawat et al., 2004), by fluchloralin in mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia) (Shekhawat et al., 2004) and by trifluralin, alachlor and chloramben in mung bean (V. radiata) and Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (Daulay and Singh, 1982). Haloxyfop has proved selective control in a L. purpureus cover-crop. Glyphosate has also been used to kill C. biflorus, however, it also kills native vegetation allowing for re-infestation from soil seedbank.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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More information on the biology and ecology of C. biflorus is required to give a better understanding of this species. For example, studies could be conducted looking at seed germination and viability, etc.

References

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Abbasi Z; MALIK A, 1970. Interspecific hybridization in the two species of Cenchrus, C. pennisetiformis x C. bifloras. In: Proceedings of the 21st-22nd Pakistan Science Conference, Rajshahi 1970, Part III, Abstracts. Lahore, W. Pakistan, Association for Advancement of Science, D8.

Akamine EK, 1944. Germination of Hawaiian range grass seeds. HAWAII Agricultural Experiment Station. Tech. Bull, 2 pp.

Akpo LE; Grouzis M, 1993. Comparative study of the phenology of herbaceous plants under tree cover and in the open in the Sahelian region. (Étude comparée de la phénologie de la végétation herbacée sous et hors couvert ligneux en milieu Sahélien.) Webbia, 47(2):387-401.

Baskin CC; Baskin JM, 2014. Seeds ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination, Second edition. San Francisco, California, USA: Academic Press, 1600 pp.

Bond JM; Veenendaal EM; Hornby DD; Gray AJ, 2002. Looking for progenitors: a molecular approach to finding the origins of an invasive weed. Biological Invasions, 4(4):349-357.

Brink M; Belay G, 2006. Plant resources of tropical Africa I. Cereals and pulses. Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA Foundation, 297 pp.

Chandawat MS; Singh I; Rathore MS, 2004. Herbicidal management of weeds in sesame, Sesamum indicum Linn. Journal of Oilseeds Research, 21(1):95-97.

Chandra A; Dubey A, 2008. Evaluation of genus Cenchrus based on malondialdehyde, proline content, specific leaf area and carbon isotope discrimination for drought tolerance and divergence of species at DNA level. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 30(1):53-61.

Chandra S, 1982. Screening of some desert plants for feeding preference in Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss (Orthoptera: Acrididae, subfamily Oedipodinp). Plant Protection Bulletin, India, 34(3/4):15-17

Chaudhary SA; Parker C; Kasasian L, 1981. Weeds of central, southern and eastern Arabia. Tropica Pest Management, 27(2):181-190.

Chippindall LKA, 1955. Part 1. A Guide to the Identification of Grasses in South Africa. In: The Grasses and Pastures of South Africa [ed. by Meredith]., South Africa: Central News Agency, 1-527.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015. Australia's virtual herbarium. Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.ala.org.au/#tab_simpleSearch

Daulay HS; Singh KC, 1982. Chemical weed control in greengram and clusterbean. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 52(11):758-763.

Elberse WT; Breman H, 1990. Germination and establishment of Sahelian rangeland species. II. Effects of water availability. Oecologia, 85(1):32-40.

El-Naim AM; Ahmed SE, 2010. Effect of weeding frequencies on growth and yield of two Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) varieties under rain fed. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4(9):4250-4255. http://www.insipub.com/ajbas/2010/4250-4255.pdf

Fabrègues BP de, 1992. Observations on the ebb and flow of native grasses in the area of the Ekrafane Ranch, Sahel. In: Desertified grasslands: their biology and management. Papers presented at an International Symposium, London, 27, 28 February and 1 March 1991 [ed. by Chapman, G. P.]. London, UK: Academic Press, 37-46.

FAO, 2015. Grassland species profiles. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/AGPC/doc/Gbase/Default.htm

Flora Zambesiaca, 2015. Flora Zambesiaca online (eFloras). Richmond, Surrey, UK: Kew Databases. http://apps.kew.org/efloras/search.do

GBIF, 2015. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

Haougui A; Souniabe PS; Doumma A; Adam T, 2013. Evolution of populations of endomycorrhizal fungi on four vegetable weed sites in Maradi region of Niger. (Evolution des populations des champignons endomycorhiziens sur les adventices de quatre sites maraîchers de la région de Maradi au Niger.) International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 7(2):554-565. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijbcs/article/view/92414/81865

Kumar P, 2013. Some famine foods of arid land of Rajasthan. MFP (Minor Forest Products) News, 23(1):9-10.

Makhabu SW; Marotsi B, 2012. Changes in herbaceous species composition in the absence of disturbance in a Cenchrus biflorus Roxb. invaded area in Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana. International Journal of Ecology, Article ID 174813. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijeco/2012/174813/

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Munde SD; Aghav VD; Pagar RD; Patel JC, 2012. Effect of herbicides on weeds and yield of rainy season pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. emend. and Stuntz]. Crop Research (Hisar), 44(3):288-291. http://www.cropresearch.org

Nicou R, 1961. CCTA/FAO Symp. on Weed Control, Ibadan. 10 pp.

NSW Government Department of Primary Industries, 2016. NSW WeedWise. New South Wales, Australia: NSW Government. http://weeds.dpi.nsw.gov.au/

Ohabuike JE, 1979. The effects of selected food plants on growth and maturity of Locusta migratoria migratorioides (R. & F.). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 88(3):245-261.

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Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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25/03/2015 Original text by:

Chris Parker, consultant, Bristol, UK

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