Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cardamine flexuosa
(wavy bittercress)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2020. Cardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.112949.20203483047

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Cardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cardamine flexuosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wavy bittercress
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Cardamine flexuosa is a fast-growing herb that often behaves as a weed in both disturbed and undisturbed sites. It is native to Europe and found throughout much of Asia, and has naturalized in North and South America, South Africa and Aus...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress); habit. In a beech forest nr. Szczecin, NW Poland. April 2018.
TitleHabit
CaptionCardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress); habit. In a beech forest nr. Szczecin, NW Poland. April 2018.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress); habit. In a beech forest nr. Szczecin, NW Poland. April 2018.
HabitCardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress); habit. In a beech forest nr. Szczecin, NW Poland. April 2018.©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress); habit. In a beech forest nr. Szczecin, NW Poland. April 2018.
TitleHabit
CaptionCardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress); habit. In a beech forest nr. Szczecin, NW Poland. April 2018.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress); habit. In a beech forest nr. Szczecin, NW Poland. April 2018.
HabitCardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress); habit. In a beech forest nr. Szczecin, NW Poland. April 2018.©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cardamine flexuosa With.

Preferred Common Name

  • wavy bittercress

Other Scientific Names

  • Barbarea arisanensis (Hayata) S.S.Ying
  • Cardamine arisanensis Hayata
  • Cardamine decurrens Zoll. & Moritzi
  • Cardamine drymeja Schur
  • Cardamine duraniensis Revel ex Des Moul.
  • Cardamine hamiltonii G.Don
  • Cardamine konaensis H.St.John
  • Cardamine muscosa Vahl ex DC.
  • Cardamine nasturtioides D.Don
  • Cardamine occulta Hornem.
  • Cardamine setigera Tausch
  • Cardamine sylvatica Link
  • Cardamine zollingeri Turcz.
  • Nasturtium obliquum Zoll.
  • Pteroneurum decurrens Blume

International Common Names

  • English: wavy-leaved bittercress; wood bittercress; woodland bittercress
  • Chinese: wan qu sui mi ji

Local Common Names

  • Japan: tanetsuke-bana

Summary of Invasiveness

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Cardamine flexuosa is a fast-growing herb that often behaves as a weed in both disturbed and undisturbed sites. It is native to Europe and found throughout much of Asia, and has naturalized in North and South America, South Africa and Australia. This species flowers vigorously and forms dense understorey root mats that alter successional processes and displace native plant species. C. flexuosa is a common agricultural weed in paddy fields, crop gardens and orchards and a common weed of gardens, greenhouses and lawns. It is listed as invasive in Myanmar, the Philippines, Hawaii, Cook Islands, South Georgia and the Sandwich Islands and the Bahamas.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Capparidales
  •                         Family: Brassicaceae
  •                             Genus: Cardamine
  •                                 Species: Cardamine flexuosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Cardamine comprises between 230 and 250 species of herbs distributed worldwide. The species Cardamine flexuosa was originally described from Great Britain and there are no doubts about its circumscription within Europe, except for occasional misidentifications as C. hirsuta. C. flexuosa is considered one of the most variable species within the family Brassicaceae, especially with respect to stem direction, plant height, density of indumentum, flower size, degree of zigzagging of the raceme rachis, orientation of fruiting pedicels and, most dramatically, number, shape, size, base (sessile vs. petiolulate) and margin of lateral leaf lobes (Lihová et al., 2006; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019).

Description

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The following is adapted from Flora of China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019). Herbs annual or biennial, (6-) 10-50 cm tall, sparsely to densely hirsute basally or throughout, or glabrous. Stems erect, ascending, or decumbent, simple or branched, flexuous or straight. Basal leaves not rosulate, often withered by anthesis, petiolate; leaf blade (2-)4-10(-14) cm, lyrate; terminal lobe reniform, broadly ovate, or suborbicular, repand or 3-5-lobed; lateral lobes, (1 or) 2-6(or 7) on each side of midvein, petiolulate or subsessile, oblong, ovate, or elliptic, smaller than terminal lobe, entire, repand, crenate, or 3(-5)-lobed. Cauline leaves 3-15, including petiole (2-) 3.5-5.5(-7) cm; petiole base not auriculate; terminal lobe 3-5-lobed; lateral lobes 2-7 on each side of midvein, suborbicular, ovate, oblong, oblanceolate, or linear, similar to or slightly smaller than terminal lobe, sessile or shortly petiolulate, entire, repand, dentate, or 3(-5)-lobed. Fruiting pedicels divaricate or ascending, (5-)6-14(-17) mm, slender. Sepals oblong, 1.5-2.5 × 0.7-1 mm. Petals white, spatulate, 2.5-4(-5) × 1-1.7 mm. Stamens 6, rarely 4 and lateral pair absent; filaments 2-3 mm; anthers ovate, 0.3-0.5 mm. Ovules 18-40 per ovary. Fruit linear, (0.8-) 1.2-2.8 cm × 1-1.5 mm; valves glabrous, torulose; style 0.3-1(-1.5) mm. Seeds brown, oblong or subquadrate, 0.9-1.5 × 0.6-1 mm, narrowly margined or not.

Plant Type

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Annual
Biennial
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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Cardamine flexuosais is native to Europe where it is widely distributed. It can be found naturalized in Africa, Asia, Australia, North, Central and South America, the West Indies, the Pacific region, on the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the Sandwich Islands (Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, 2019; ISSG, 2019; GRIIS, 2019; PIER, 2019; USDA-ARS, 2019).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Feb 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
MoroccoPresentSources differ as to whether it is native or introduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced1944

Antarctica

South Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroduced
BhutanPresentIntroduced
ChinaPresentIntroduced
-AnhuiPresentIntroduced
-BeijingPresentIntroduced
-FujianPresentIntroduced
-GansuPresentIntroduced
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced
-GuizhouPresentIntroduced
-HainanPresentIntroduced
-HebeiPresentIntroduced
-HeilongjiangPresentIntroduced
-HenanPresentIntroduced
-HubeiPresentIntroduced
-HunanPresentIntroduced
-Inner MongoliaPresentIntroduced
-JiangsuPresentIntroduced
-JiangxiPresentIntroduced
-LiaoningPresentIntroduced
-NingxiaPresentIntroduced
-QinghaiPresentIntroduced
-ShaanxiPresentIntroduced
-ShandongPresentIntroduced
-ShanghaiPresentIntroduced
-ShanxiPresentIntroduced
-SichuanPresentIntroduced
-TianjinPresentIntroduced
-XinjiangPresentIntroduced
-YunnanPresentIntroduced
-ZhejiangPresentIntroduced
Hong KongPresentIntroduced1860
IndiaPresentIntroduced
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroduced
LaosPresentIntroduced
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced
MyanmarPresentIntroducedInvasive
NepalPresentIntroduced
North KoreaPresentIntroduced1863
PakistanPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedInvasive
South KoreaPresentIntroduced1863
TaiwanPresentIntroduced1963
ThailandPresentIntroduced
VietnamPresentIntroduced

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNative
AustriaPresentNative
BelarusPresentNative
BelgiumPresentNative
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentNative
BulgariaPresentNative
CroatiaPresentNative
CzechiaPresentNative
DenmarkPresentNative
FinlandPresentNative
FrancePresentNative
-CorsicaPresentNative
GermanyPresentNative
HungaryPresentNative
IcelandPresentIntroduced1931
IrelandPresentNative
ItalyPresentNative
LatviaPresentNative
LithuaniaPresentNative
MontenegroPresentNative
NetherlandsPresentNative
North MacedoniaPresentNative
NorwayPresentNative
PolandPresentNative
PortugalPresentNative
RussiaPresentNative
SerbiaPresentNative
SlovakiaPresentNative
SpainPresentNative
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced
SwedenPresentNative
SwitzerlandPresentNative
UkrainePresentNative
United KingdomPresentNative

North America

BahamasPresentIntroducedInvasive
CanadaPresentIntroduced
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentIntroduced
-OntarioPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroduced
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroduced
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced
PanamaPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-IndianaPresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresentIntroduced
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced
-MichiganPresentIntroduced
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-OhioPresentIntroduced
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced1957
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedWeed
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedWeed
-TasmaniaPresentIntroducedWeed
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedWeed
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresentIntroducedWeed

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroduced
Falkland IslandsPresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced

Habitat

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Cardamine flexuosa can be naturalized in wet fields, disturbed areas, clearings, grasslands, dry shrublands and along roadsides and stream beds. It is also a weed of greenhouses, cultivation fields, gardens, lawns and bush remnants (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019). On South Georgia, C. flexuosa colonizes disturbed ground and invades native vegetation including ‘tussac and Festuca’ and wet flush vegetation with Acaena magellanica (Osborne et al., 2009). In the UK this species grows in marshes, along stream-sides and on cultivated ground (Stace, 1997).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Cardamine flexuosa is an agricultural weed in paddy fields, crop fields and orchards (Kudoh et al., 1993).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Cardamine flexuosa is an allotetraploid species (2n = 32) (Mandáková et al., 2014). According to Lihová et al. (2006), naturalized populations of C. flexuosa comprise two taxa of different polyploid origins and evolutionary histories: the tetraploid C. flexuosa (2n = 32), native to Europe, and the octoploid taxon informally referred to as "Asian” C. flexuosa (2n = 64) originating in eastern Asia.

Reproductive Biology

Flowers of C. flexuosa are very small, white and bisexual. It is an autogamous species (Mandáková et al., 2014).

Physiology and Phenology

In China, C. flexuosa has been recorded flowering from February to May and fruiting from April to July (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019). In North America, this species often produces flowers from April to July (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019).

Longevity

Cardamine flexuosa grows as an annual, biennial (overwintering annual) or short-lived perennial herb (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019).

Environmental Requirements

Cardamine flexuosa grows well in damp places at elevations ranging from near sea level up to 3600 m. It is adapted to grow in a wide range of soil types and acidities but requires moist or wet conditions. It prefers shade or semi-shade habitats (Useful Tropical Plants, 2019; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019; ISSG, 2019).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
60 55

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 5 20

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Plasmodiophora brassicae Pathogen Plants|Roots not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae has been reported on C. flexuosa in Japan (Tanaka et al., 1993; Tanaka et al., 2006).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Cardamine flexuosa spreads by seeds; seed pods explode when ripe. Seeds can remain viable in the ground for up to 7 years (Varnham, 2006; ISSG, 2019).

Accidental Introduction

Cardamine flexuosa has been possibly transported as a contaminant in stores or footwear. Seeds are sticky when wet and can be easily spread adhered to clothing or animals (ISSG, 2019). On South Georgia, this species was accidentally introduced in 2000, probably by vehicles brought in during building works at King Edward Point, and has since been invading native vegetation as well as disturbed areas around the settlement. It flowers and fruits prolifically, producing viable seeds easily dispersed by humans and wildlife. It has a high invasive potential on South Georgia (Osborne et al., 2009).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionAgricultural weed in rice fields, crops and orchards Yes Yes Kudoh et al. (1993)
DisturbanceWeed in disturbed sites Yes Yes Flora of China (2019)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeWeed in gardens and lawns Yes Yes ISSG (2019)
Garden waste disposalWeed in gardens and lawns Yes Yes ISSG (2019)
Medicinal useLeaves and stems used in traditional medicine Yes Yes Flora of China (2019)
Nursery tradeGrows as a weed in greenhouses Yes Yes ISSG (2019)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsSeeds sticky when wet, adheres to clothes and footwear Yes Yes ISSG (2019)
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesWeed in gardens, greenhouses and lawns. Seeds unintentionally dispersed as contaminant Yes Yes ISSG (2019)
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds as contaminant Yes Yes ISSG (2019)
Host and vector organismsSeeds sticky when wet, easily dispersed on animals Yes Yes ISSG (2019)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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In Japan, C. flexuosa is often found as an agricultural weed in paddy fields, crop fields and orchards (Kudoh et al., 1993). C. flexuosa is one of of the most prolific and costly weeds of the container nursery industry of the United States (Post et al., 2011). 

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Cardamine flexuosa is grown as a medicinal plant. Leaves and roots are consumed raw or cooked (Useful Tropical Plants, 2019; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019).

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Cardamine flexuosa looks similar to C. parviflora and C. hirsuta.  In fact, a recent revision found that most of the specimens previously identified as C. hirsuta across Asia and Africa belong to C. flexuosa (Lihová et al., 2006). These species can be separated using the key described in Flora of China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

For small infestations, manual removal of  of Cardamine flexuosa appears to be the most effective form of control (Osborne et al., 2009). On South Georgia, weed matting and flame weeding are recommended as means of eradicating C. flexuosa; the latter should kill seeds on the soil surface as well as shallow-rooted plants (Osborne et al., 2009)

Chemical Control

Cardamine flexuosa is resistant to many types of herbicides (ISSG, 2019).

References

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Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, 2019. Australian tropical rainforest plants edition 7. Trees, shrubs, vines, herbs, grasses, sedges, palms, pandans and epiphytes. http://www.canbr.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/RFK7/key/RFK7/Media/Html/index_rfk.htm

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of North America North of Mexico. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

GRIIS, 2019. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. http://www.griis.org/

ISSG, 2019. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) : Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Kudoh H, Ishiguri Y, Kawano S, 1993. Phenotypic variability in life history traits and phenology of field populations of Cardamine flexuosa and C. fallax (Cruciferae) in Honshu, Japan. Plant Species Biology, 8(1), 7-20.

Lihová, J., Marhold, K., Kudoh, H., Koch, M. A., 2006. Worldwide phylogeny and biogeography of Cardamine flexuosa (Brassicaceae) and its relatives. American Journal of Botany, 93(8), 1206-1221. doi: 10.3732/ajb.93.8.1206

Mandáková, T., Marhold, K., Lysak, M. A., 2014. The widespread crucifer species Cardamine flexuosa is an allotetraploid with a conserved subgenomic structure. New Phytologist, 201(3), 982-992. doi: 10.1111/nph.12567

Osborne J, Borosova R, Briggs M, Cable S, 2009. Survey for baseline information on introduced vascular plants and invertebrates. South Georgia: Introduced vascular plants. January 2009. Sandy, UK: Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.157 pp. https://www.kew.org/sites/default/files/2019-02/South%20Georgia%20Introduces%20Vascular%20Plants%202009_0.pdf

PIER, 2019. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Post, A. R., Ali, R., Krings, A., Xiang, J., Sosinski, B. R., Neal, J. C., 2011. On the identity of the weedy bittercresses (Cardamine: Brassicaceae) in United States nurseries: evidence from molecules and morphology. Weed Science, 59(1), 123-135. doi: 10.1614/WS-D-10-00063.1

Stace, C., 1997. New flora of the British Isles, (Ed. 2) . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.xxvii + 1130 pp.

Tanaka, S., Ito, S., Kameya-Iwaki, M., Katumoto, K., Nishi, Y., 1993. Occurrence and distribution of clubroot disease on two cruciferous weeds, Cardamine flexuosa and C. scutata, in Japan. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan, 34(4), 381-388.

Tanaka, S., Mizui, Y., Terasaki, H., Sakamoto, Y., Ito, S., 2006. Distribution of clubroot disease of a cruciferous weed, Cardamine flexuosa, in major isolated islands, Hokkaido and Okinawa in Japan. Mycoscience, 47(2), 72-77. doi: 10.1007/s10267-005-0273-5

USDA-ARS, 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Useful Tropical Plants, 2019. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

Varnham, K., 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. In: Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review . Peterborough, UK: Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC).http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660

Distribution References

Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, 2019. Australian tropical rainforest plants edition 7. Trees, shrubs, vines, herbs, grasses, sedges, palms, pandans and epiphytes. http://www.canbr.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/RFK7/key/RFK7/Media/Html/index_rfk.htm

CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Davidse GM, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F, 2015. Flora Mesoamericana. 2 (3) [ed. by Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S , Chiang Cabrera F]. Mexico City, Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. 1-347.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

GRIIS, 2019. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

Hwang KiSeon, Eom MinYong, Park SuHyuk, Won OkJae, Lee InYong, Park KeeWoong, 2015. Occurrence and distribution of weed species on horticulture fields in Chungnam province of Korea. Journal of Ecology and Environment. 38 (3), 353-360. DOI:10.5141/ecoenv.2015.036

ISSG, 2019. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Jørgensen P M, Nee M H, Beck S G, 2014. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 1741 pp.

Lihová J, Marhold K, Kudoh H, Koch M A, 2006. Worldwide phylogeny and biogeography of Cardamine flexuosa (Brassicaceae) and its relatives. American Journal of Botany. 93 (8), 1206-1221. DOI:10.3732/ajb.93.8.1206

Moultrie S, 2013. The Bahamas National Invasive Species Strategy 2013., Nassau, The Bahamas: Department of Marine Resources. 60 pp. http://www.friendsoftheenvironment.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Bahamas-Revised-NISS-2013-FINAL.pdf

PIER, 2019. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

USDA-ARS, 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2019. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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11/02/2020 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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