Campanula rapunculus (rampion)
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Campanula rapunculus L.
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Campanula verruculosa Hoffmannsegg & Link
International Common Names
- Spanish: campanillas de todo el año; rapinchos; raponce; raponchigo; rapónchigo; rapuncio; ruiponce
- French: campanule raiponce; raiponce; rave sauvage
Local Common Names
- : dzvonyky ripchasti
- Russian: kolokolchik rapuntsel; kolokolchik repchatiy
- Albania: lule këmbane fitemë; lulekambanë
- Bulgaria: korenoplodanata kambanka; rapuntsel; repovidno zv'nchye
- Croatia: mrkvasta zvončika
- Czech Republic: zvonek řepka
- Denmark: rapunsel-klokke
- Germany: Rapunzelglockenblume; Rübenrapunzel
- Greece: kampanoúla
- Hungary: raponcharangvirág
- Israel: pa'amonit kippachat
- Italy: campanula commestibile; campanula raponzolo; raperonzolo; raponzolo
- Netherlands: rapunzelklokje
- Norway: rankklokke
- Poland: dzwonek rapunkul
- Portugal: campaínhas-rabanete; campaninha-rabanete; campânula; espera-do-campo; raponcio; rapôncio; rapúncio
- Romania: clopoței
- Serbia: repasti zvoncić; repušac
- Slovakia: zvonček repka; zvonček repkový
- Slovenia: repuščeva zvončica
- Sweden: rapunkelklocka
- Turkey: çan çiçeği; firenk salatası
- UK: rampion bellflower
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Campanulales
- Family: Campanulaceae
- Genus: Campanula
- Species: Campanula rapunculus
DescriptionTop of page
The following description is from Tutin et al. (1976):
Herbaceous annual or biennial with stems up to 100 cm, erect, glabrous to slightly hirsute. Taproot napiform. Basal leaves obovate, obtuse to acuminate, petiolate; cauline leaves linear-lanceolate. Flowers sessile or pedicellate in a branched inflorescence. Calyx teeth very long, erect, setiform. Corolla 10-20 mm, white or pale blue, lobed one third to base, infundibuliform, a little longer than the calyx teeth. Capsule obconical. A morphologically variable species.
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
Campanula rapunculus is present in western Asia, northern Africa and in most of Europe, except Iceland, Ireland and Norway. It has been introduced in Denmark, southern Sweden and Great Britain. This species was once widely grown in Europe for its leaves, which were used like spinach, and its parsnip-like root, which was used like a radish. Naturalized as a garden escape in New Zealand (iNaturalistNZ, 2020).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
Habitat ListTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page
A field study in Germany found that the main pollinators are oligolectic bees of the genus Chelosoma (Schlindwein et al., 2005).
Physiology and Phenology
C. rapunculus has an autumn-winter cycle of growth with seedling emergence following late summer rainfall. The leaf rosette and tuberized taproot develop during the autumn/early winter. Flowering and fruiting followed by senescence and death occurs in June-July of the following year. If flowering is prevented to allow harvesting of the leaf rosette, plants may survive up to 3 years. Anatomical studies have shown that the tuberous root is developmentally part stem, part root (Bencivenga and Romano, 1984).
Found in dry meadows, roadsides and along hedgebanks across Europe and the UK (Turner et al., 2011). Although tolerant of poor soils (Bretzel et al., 2009), it grows best in well drained, rich sandy-loam soils which are neutral or alkaline with a pH of 4.8-7.5. Will grow in sun or partial shade and is fairly cold tolerant (Ferns, 2020).
Rainfall RegimeTop of page
UsesTop of page
Campanula rapunculus is cultivated or collected from the wild as a salad vegetable, but not used for this purpose as widely today as was formerly so in the past. The roots are mostly eaten in a fashion similar to radishes. Turner et al. (2011) noted that the roots have a pleasant sweet flavour reminiscent of walnuts. In central Italy taproot strips and leaves are eaten in a mixed salad with hard boiled eggs. The leaves are somewhat bitter and astringent (Guarrera, 2003). Ferns (2020) noted that young shoots may be blanched and eaten like asparagus. In an ethnobotanical study in Central Italy, Ranfa and Bodesmo (2017) noted that C. rapunculus is increasingly appearing in street markets and on local restaurant menus (e.g. pesto made from wild greens). Young leaves are also added to vegetable soups, e.g. minestrella prepared in Tuscany, Italy (Turner et al., 2011). Flowers or inflorescences are eaten raw in salads, used to make jam or else candied. A food ethnobotanical study undertaken across Italy found that C. rapunculus was used across northern (Lombardy and Liguria) and central (Tuscany and Umbria) regions (Ghirardini et al., 2007). In a survey of wild salad herbs, Benvenuti et al. (2017) conducted organoleptic testing and reported that the leaves received good scores due to their pronounced sweetness, softness and crunchiness (7.4 out of 10 with lettuce cv. Lollo as a control scoring 8.0).
In folk medicine the plant is eaten to reduce inflammation or fever. Also, it is considered to be antidiabetic as the roots contain a polysaccharide similar to inulin instead of starch making it a suitable food for diabetics (Guarrera, 2003). Ranfa and Bodesmo (2017) noted that C. rapunculus is used in Italy to treat inflammation in the mouth while the leaves are used to treat warts. Floral infusions are used as a gargle. Al-Qura'n (2008) reported that in Jordan, plants are used ethnomedicinally to treat mouth and throat diseases. In Serbia, the plant is valued medicinally for its inulin content (Marković et al., 2010). Zlatković and Bogosavljević (2014) also noted that the root and herbaceous parts were used to heal wounds in Serbia. Tümen et al. (2006) also noted the plant was used for wound healing in Turkey.
Uses ListTop of page
Human food and beverage
- garden plant
ReferencesTop of page
Al-Qura'n, S., 2008. Taxonomical and pharmacological survey of therapeutic plants in Jordan. Journal of Natural Products (India), 1, 10-26. http://www.journalofnaturalproducts.com/Volume1/03__JNP_Res_Paper-02-2008_s.pdf
Benvenuti, S., Maggini, R., Pardossi, A., 2017. Agronomic, nutraceutical, and organoleptic performances of wild herbs of ethnobotanical tradition. International Journal of Vegetable Science, 23(3), 270-281. doi: 10.1080/19315260.2016.1258605
Benvenuti, S., Pardossi, A., 2016. Germination ecology of nutraceutical herbs for agronomic perspectives. European Journal of Agronomy, 76, 118-129. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/11610301
Bretzel, F., Pezzarossa, B., Malorgio, F., 2009. Study of herbaceous annual and perennial species native to Mediterranean area for landscape purposes. Acta Horticulturae, (No.813), 321-328. http://www.actahort.org
Chiltern Seeds, 2020. Campanula rapunculus, Rampion Bellflower, Bellflower. https://www.chilternseeds.co.uk/item_265j_campanula_rapunculus_seeds
Ferns, K., 2020. Campanula rapunculus. Temperate Plants Database. http://temperate.theferns.info/plant/Campanula+rapunculus
Genesys, 2020. Global Gateway to Genetic Resources. https://www.genesys-pgr.org
Ghirardini, M. P., Carli, M., Vecchio, N. del, Rovati, A., Cova, O., Valigi, F., Agnetti, G., Macconi, M., Adamo, D., Traina, M., Laudini, F., Marcheselli, I., Caruso, N., Gedda, T., Donati, F., Marzadro, A., Russi, P., Spaggiari, C., Bianco, M., Binda, R., Barattieri, E., Tognacci, A., Girardo, M., Vaschetti, L., Caprino, P., Sesti, E. (et al), 2007. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty-one local communities in Italy. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 3(22), (04 May 2007). http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/pdf/1746-4269-3-22.pdf
Gorini, F., 1978. Vegetable list. 4. Root vegetables. 4.8.Rampion (vegetable of secondary importance). (Schede orticole. 4. Ortaggi da radice. 4.8. Raponzolo o raperonzolo (ortaggio di importanza secondaria)). Informatore di Ortoflorofrutticoltura, 19(12), 7-8.
Halevy, A., Weiss, D., Frank, S., 1990. Cultivating Campanula rapunculus (rampion), an Israeli wild flower. Hassadeh Quarterly, 1, 36-38.
iNaturalistNZ, 2020. Rampion (Campanula rapunculus). https://inaturalist.nz/taxa/82663-Campanula-rapunculus
Mabberley, D. J., 2017. Mabberley's plant-book: a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses, (Ed. 4) [ed. by Mabberley, D. J.]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.many pp. https://www.cambridge.org/gb/academic/subjects/life-sciences/botanical-reference/mabberleys-plant-book-portable-dictionary-plants-their-classification-and-uses-4th-edition
Marković, M., Mаtović, M., Pаvlović, D., Zlаtković, B., Marković, A., Jotić, B., Stаnkov-Jovаnović, V., 2010. Resources of medicinal plants and herbs collector’s calendar of Pirot County (Serbia). Biological Nyssana, 1(1-2), 9-21. http://tesla.pmf.ni.ac.rs/desavanja/aktuelna/8SimpozijumFlore/Biologica%20Nyssana/1-(1-2)-December-2010/BN01-01-02-Markovic-et-al.pdf
Ranfa, A., Bodesmo, M., 2017. An ethnobotanical investigation of traditional knowledge and uses of edible wild plants in the Umbria region, Central Italy. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality, 90, 246-258. https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JABFQ/article/view/7146
Schlindwein, C., Wittmann, D., Martins, C. F., Hamm, A., Siqueira, J. A., Schiffler, D., Machado, I. C., 2005. Pollination of Campanula rapunculus L. (Campanulaceae): how much pollen flows into pollination and into reproduction of oligolectic pollinators?. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 250(3/4), 147-156. doi: 10.1007/s00606-004-0246-8
Stephens, J. M., 2015. Rampion - Campanula rapunculus L. In: University of Florida IFAS Extension Leaflet No. HS655 . Gainesville, USA: Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension.1 pp. https://www.growables.org/informationVeg/documents/Rampion.pdf
Turner, N. J., Łuczaj,Ł. J., Migliorini, P., Pieroni, A., Dreon, A. L., Sacchetti, L. E., Paoletti, M. G., 2011. Edible and tended wild plants, traditional ecological knowledge and agroecology. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 30(1/2), 198-225. doi: 10.1080/07352689.2011.554492
Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M., Webb, D. A., 1976. Flora Europaea: volume 4, Plantaginaceae to Compositae (and Rubiaceae), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.xxix + 505 pp.
Tümen, G., Malyer, H., Başer, K. H. C., Öz Aydin, S., 2006. Plants used in Anatolia for wound healing. In: Ethnobotany: at the junction of the continents and the disciplines. Proceedings of the IVth International Congress of Ethnobotany (ICEB 2005), Istanbul, Turkey, 21-26 August 2005 [ed. by Ertuĝ, Z. F.]. Istanbul, Turkey: Ege Yayinlari. 217-221. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/K_Husnu_Can_Baser/publication/259866097_Plants_used_in_Anatolia_for_wound_healing/links/00b4952e3767a175ce000000/Plants-used-in-Anatolia-for-wound-healing.pdf
Zlatković, B., Bogosavljević, S., 2014. Taxonomic and pharmacological valorization of the medicinal flora in Svrljiŝki Timok Gorge (eastern Serbia). Facta Universitatis Series Medicine and Biology, 16(2), 79-86. http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUMedBiol/article/download/545/pdf
CABI Data Mining, 2011. Invasive Species Databases.,
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Distribution MapsTop of page
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