Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Campanula rapunculus
(rampion)

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Datasheet

Campanula rapunculus (rampion)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Campanula rapunculus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • rampion
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Campanula rapunculus; Flowers. Çukurova University Campus, Adana, Turkey. May 2020.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCampanula rapunculus; Flowers. Çukurova University Campus, Adana, Turkey. May 2020.
Copyright©Zeynel Cebeci/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Campanula rapunculus; Flowers. Çukurova University Campus, Adana, Turkey. May 2020.
FlowersCampanula rapunculus; Flowers. Çukurova University Campus, Adana, Turkey. May 2020.©Zeynel Cebeci/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Campanula rapunculus; Flowers. Çukurova University Campus, Adana, Turkey. May 2020.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCampanula rapunculus; Flowers. Çukurova University Campus, Adana, Turkey. May 2020.
Copyright©Zeynel Cebeci/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Campanula rapunculus; Flowers. Çukurova University Campus, Adana, Turkey. May 2020.
FlowersCampanula rapunculus; Flowers. Çukurova University Campus, Adana, Turkey. May 2020.©Zeynel Cebeci/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Campanula rapunculus; Flower. Torà, Segarra, Catalonia, Spain. July 2013.
TitleFlower
CaptionCampanula rapunculus; Flower. Torà, Segarra, Catalonia, Spain. July 2013.
Copyright©Isidre blanc/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Campanula rapunculus; Flower. Torà, Segarra, Catalonia, Spain. July 2013.
FlowerCampanula rapunculus; Flower. Torà, Segarra, Catalonia, Spain. July 2013.©Isidre blanc/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Campanula rapunculus; Flowers. Hockenheim, Germany. June 2016.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCampanula rapunculus; Flowers. Hockenheim, Germany. June 2016.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by AnRo0002/via Wikimedia Commons
Campanula rapunculus; Flowers. Hockenheim, Germany. June 2016.
FlowersCampanula rapunculus; Flowers. Hockenheim, Germany. June 2016.Public Domain - Released by AnRo0002/via Wikimedia Commons
Campanula rapunculus; Flowers. Beuvardes, Aisne, France. June 2006.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCampanula rapunculus; Flowers. Beuvardes, Aisne, France. June 2006.
Copyright©Olivier Pichard/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Campanula rapunculus; Flowers. Beuvardes, Aisne, France. June 2006.
FlowersCampanula rapunculus; Flowers. Beuvardes, Aisne, France. June 2006.©Olivier Pichard/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Campanula rapunculus; Flower buds, flowers and seedheads. Losar de la Vera, Cáceres, Spain. June 2019.
TitleFlowers and Seedheads
CaptionCampanula rapunculus; Flower buds, flowers and seedheads. Losar de la Vera, Cáceres, Spain. June 2019.
Copyright©Luis Fernández García/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Campanula rapunculus; Flower buds, flowers and seedheads. Losar de la Vera, Cáceres, Spain. June 2019.
Flowers and SeedheadsCampanula rapunculus; Flower buds, flowers and seedheads. Losar de la Vera, Cáceres, Spain. June 2019.©Luis Fernández García/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Campanula rapunculus; Flowers. Hockenheim, Germany. June 2016.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCampanula rapunculus; Flowers. Hockenheim, Germany. June 2016.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by AnRo0002/via Wikimedia Commons
Campanula rapunculus; Flowers. Hockenheim, Germany. June 2016.
FlowersCampanula rapunculus; Flowers. Hockenheim, Germany. June 2016.Public Domain - Released by AnRo0002/via Wikimedia Commons
Campanula rapunculus; Flowers. Lorchhausen, Germany. July 2013.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCampanula rapunculus; Flowers. Lorchhausen, Germany. July 2013.
Copyright©Robert Flogaus-Faust/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY 4.0
Campanula rapunculus; Flowers. Lorchhausen, Germany. July 2013.
FlowersCampanula rapunculus; Flowers. Lorchhausen, Germany. July 2013.©Robert Flogaus-Faust/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY 4.0
Campanula rapunculus; Flowers.July 2019.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCampanula rapunculus; Flowers.July 2019.
Copyright©Danny S./via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Campanula rapunculus; Flowers.July 2019.
FlowersCampanula rapunculus; Flowers.July 2019.©Danny S./via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Campanula rapunculus; Stem and leaves detail. Unterfranken, Germany. June 2008.
TitleStem and leaves
CaptionCampanula rapunculus; Stem and leaves detail. Unterfranken, Germany. June 2008.
Copyright©Fornax/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Campanula rapunculus; Stem and leaves detail. Unterfranken, Germany. June 2008.
Stem and leavesCampanula rapunculus; Stem and leaves detail. Unterfranken, Germany. June 2008.©Fornax/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Campanula rapunculus; Seedheads. Hockenheim, Germany. June 2016.
TitleSeedheads
CaptionCampanula rapunculus; Seedheads. Hockenheim, Germany. June 2016.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by AnRo0002/via Wikimedia Commons
Campanula rapunculus; Seedheads. Hockenheim, Germany. June 2016.
SeedheadsCampanula rapunculus; Seedheads. Hockenheim, Germany. June 2016.Public Domain - Released by AnRo0002/via Wikimedia Commons
Campanula rapunculus; Wild habit. Balkan Botanic Garden of Kroussia, Greece. May 2018.
TitleWild habit
CaptionCampanula rapunculus; Wild habit. Balkan Botanic Garden of Kroussia, Greece. May 2018.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Campanula rapunculus; Wild habit. Balkan Botanic Garden of Kroussia, Greece. May 2018.
Wild habitCampanula rapunculus; Wild habit. Balkan Botanic Garden of Kroussia, Greece. May 2018.©Krzysztof Ziarnek/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Campanula rapunculus L.

Preferred Common Name

  • rampion

Other Scientific Names

  • Campanula verruculosa Hoffmannsegg & Link

International Common Names

  • Spanish: campanillas de todo el año; rapinchos; raponce; raponchigo; rapónchigo; rapuncio; ruiponce
  • French: campanule raiponce; raiponce; rave sauvage

Local Common Names

  • : dzvonyky ripchasti
  • Russian: kolokolchik rapuntsel; kolokolchik repchatiy
  • Albania: lule këmbane fitemë; lulekambanë
  • Bulgaria: korenoplodanata kambanka; rapuntsel; repovidno zv'nchye
  • Croatia: mrkvasta zvončika
  • Czech Republic: zvonek řepka
  • Denmark: rapunsel-klokke
  • Germany: Rapunzelglockenblume; Rübenrapunzel
  • Greece: kampanoúla
  • Hungary: raponcharangvirág
  • Israel: pa'amonit kippachat
  • Italy: campanula commestibile; campanula raponzolo; raperonzolo; raponzolo
  • Netherlands: rapunzelklokje
  • Norway: rankklokke
  • Poland: dzwonek rapunkul
  • Portugal: campaínhas-rabanete; campaninha-rabanete; campânula; espera-do-campo; raponcio; rapôncio; rapúncio
  • Romania: clopoței
  • Serbia: repasti zvoncić; repušac
  • Slovakia: zvonček repka; zvonček repkový
  • Slovenia: repuščeva zvončica
  • Sweden: rapunkelklocka
  • Turkey: çan çiçeği; firenk salatası
  • UK: rampion bellflower

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Campanulales
  •                         Family: Campanulaceae
  •                             Genus: Campanula
  •                                 Species: Campanula rapunculus

Description

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The following description is from Tutin et al. (1976):

Herbaceous annual or biennial with stems up to 100 cm, erect, glabrous to slightly hirsute. Taproot napiform. Basal leaves obovate, obtuse to acuminate, petiolate; cauline leaves linear-lanceolate. Flowers sessile or pedicellate in a branched inflorescence. Calyx teeth very long, erect, setiform. Corolla 10-20 mm, white or pale blue, lobed one third to base, infundibuliform, a little longer than the calyx teeth. Capsule obconical. A morphologically variable species.

Plant Type

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Biennial
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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Campanula rapunculus is present in western Asia, northern Africa and in most of Europe, except Iceland, Ireland and Norway. It has been introduced in Denmark, southern Sweden and Great Britain. This species was once widely grown in Europe for its leaves, which were used like spinach, and its parsnip-like root, which was used like a radish. Naturalized as a garden escape in New Zealand (iNaturalistNZ, 2020).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

A field study in Germany found that the main pollinators are oligolectic bees of the genus Chelosoma (Schlindwein et al., 2005).

Physiology and Phenology

C. rapunculus has an autumn-winter cycle of growth with seedling emergence following late summer rainfall. The leaf rosette and tuberized taproot develop during the autumn/early winter. Flowering and fruiting followed by senescence and death occurs in June-July of the following year. If flowering is prevented to allow harvesting of the leaf rosette, plants may survive up to 3 years. Anatomical studies have shown that the tuberous root is developmentally part stem, part root (Bencivenga and Romano, 1984). 

Environmental Requirements

Found in dry meadows, roadsides and along hedgebanks across Europe and the UK (Turner et al., 2011). Although tolerant of poor soils (Bretzel et al., 2009), it grows best in well drained, rich sandy-loam soils which are neutral or alkaline with a pH of 4.8-7.5. Will grow in sun or partial shade and is fairly cold tolerant (Ferns, 2020).

Rainfall Regime

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Uniform

Uses

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Campanula rapunculus is cultivated or collected from the wild as a salad vegetable, but not used for this purpose as widely today as was formerly so in the past. The roots are mostly eaten in a fashion similar to radishes. Turner et al. (2011) noted that the roots have a pleasant sweet flavour reminiscent of walnuts. In central Italy taproot strips and leaves are eaten in a mixed salad with hard boiled eggs. The leaves are somewhat bitter and astringent (Guarrera, 2003). Ferns (2020) noted that young shoots may be blanched and eaten like asparagus. In an ethnobotanical study in Central Italy, Ranfa and Bodesmo (2017) noted that C. rapunculus is increasingly appearing in street markets and on local restaurant menus (e.g. pesto made from wild greens). Young leaves are also added to vegetable soups, e.g. minestrella prepared in Tuscany, Italy (Turner et al., 2011). Flowers or inflorescences are eaten raw in salads, used to make jam or else candied. A food ethnobotanical study undertaken across Italy found that C. rapunculus was used across northern (Lombardy and Liguria) and central (Tuscany and Umbria) regions (Ghirardini et al., 2007). In a survey of wild salad herbs, Benvenuti et al. (2017) conducted organoleptic testing and reported that the leaves received good scores due to their pronounced sweetness, softness and crunchiness (7.4 out of 10 with lettuce cv. Lollo as a control scoring 8.0).

In folk medicine the plant is eaten to reduce inflammation or fever. Also, it is considered to be antidiabetic as the roots contain a polysaccharide similar to inulin instead of starch making it a suitable food for diabetics (Guarrera, 2003). Ranfa and Bodesmo (2017) noted that C. rapunculus is used in Italy to treat inflammation in the mouth while the leaves are used to treat warts. Floral infusions are used as a gargle. Al-Qura'n (2008) reported that in Jordan, plants are used ethnomedicinally to treat mouth and throat diseases. In Serbia, the plant is valued medicinally for its inulin content (Marković et al., 2010). Zlatković and Bogosavljević (2014) also noted that the root and herbaceous parts were used to heal wounds in Serbia. Tümen et al. (2006) also noted the plant was used for wound healing in Turkey.

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • salad
  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant

References

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Al-Qura'n, S., 2008. Taxonomical and pharmacological survey of therapeutic plants in Jordan. Journal of Natural Products (India), 1, 10-26. http://www.journalofnaturalproducts.com/Volume1/03__JNP_Res_Paper-02-2008_s.pdf

Bacon, J. S. D., 1959. Carbohydrates of the rampion, Campanula rapunculus L.. Nature, 184, 1957. doi: 10.1038/1841957a0

Bencivenga, M., Romano, B., 1984. Some aspects of Campanula rapunculus L. biology. (Aspetti della biologia di Campanula rapunculus L). Rivista della Ortoflorofrutticoltura Italiana, 68(3), 235-247.

Benvenuti, S., Maggini, R., Pardossi, A., 2017. Agronomic, nutraceutical, and organoleptic performances of wild herbs of ethnobotanical tradition. International Journal of Vegetable Science, 23(3), 270-281. doi: 10.1080/19315260.2016.1258605

Benvenuti, S., Pardossi, A., 2016. Germination ecology of nutraceutical herbs for agronomic perspectives. European Journal of Agronomy, 76, 118-129. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/11610301

Bretzel, F., Pezzarossa, B., Malorgio, F., 2009. Study of herbaceous annual and perennial species native to Mediterranean area for landscape purposes. Acta Horticulturae, (No.813), 321-328. http://www.actahort.org

Chiltern Seeds, 2020. Campanula rapunculus, Rampion Bellflower, Bellflower. https://www.chilternseeds.co.uk/item_265j_campanula_rapunculus_seeds

Ferns, K., 2020. Campanula rapunculus. Temperate Plants Database. http://temperate.theferns.info/plant/Campanula+rapunculus

Genesys, 2020. Global Gateway to Genetic Resources. https://www.genesys-pgr.org

Ghirardini, M. P., Carli, M., Vecchio, N. del, Rovati, A., Cova, O., Valigi, F., Agnetti, G., Macconi, M., Adamo, D., Traina, M., Laudini, F., Marcheselli, I., Caruso, N., Gedda, T., Donati, F., Marzadro, A., Russi, P., Spaggiari, C., Bianco, M., Binda, R., Barattieri, E., Tognacci, A., Girardo, M., Vaschetti, L., Caprino, P., Sesti, E. (et al), 2007. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty-one local communities in Italy. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 3(22), (04 May 2007). http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/pdf/1746-4269-3-22.pdf

Gorini, F., 1978. Vegetable list. 4. Root vegetables. 4.8.Rampion (vegetable of secondary importance). (Schede orticole. 4. Ortaggi da radice. 4.8. Raponzolo o raperonzolo (ortaggio di importanza secondaria)). Informatore di Ortoflorofrutticoltura, 19(12), 7-8.

Guarrera, P. M., 2003. Food medicine and minor nourishment in the folk traditions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo and Latium). Fitoterapia, 74(6), 515-544. doi: 10.1016/S0367-326X(03)00122-9

Halevy, A., Weiss, D., Frank, S., 1990. Cultivating Campanula rapunculus (rampion), an Israeli wild flower. Hassadeh Quarterly, 1, 36-38.

iNaturalistNZ, 2020. Rampion (Campanula rapunculus). https://inaturalist.nz/taxa/82663-Campanula-rapunculus

Mabberley, D. J., 2017. Mabberley's plant-book: a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses, (Ed. 4) [ed. by Mabberley, D. J.]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.many pp. https://www.cambridge.org/gb/academic/subjects/life-sciences/botanical-reference/mabberleys-plant-book-portable-dictionary-plants-their-classification-and-uses-4th-edition

Marković, M., Mаtović, M., Pаvlović, D., Zlаtković, B., Marković, A., Jotić, B., Stаnkov-Jovаnović, V., 2010. Resources of medicinal plants and herbs collector’s calendar of Pirot County (Serbia). Biological Nyssana, 1(1-2), 9-21. http://tesla.pmf.ni.ac.rs/desavanja/aktuelna/8SimpozijumFlore/Biologica%20Nyssana/1-(1-2)-December-2010/BN01-01-02-Markovic-et-al.pdf

Ranfa, A., Bodesmo, M., 2017. An ethnobotanical investigation of traditional knowledge and uses of edible wild plants in the Umbria region, Central Italy. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality, 90, 246-258. https://ojs.openagrar.de/index.php/JABFQ/article/view/7146

Schlindwein, C., Wittmann, D., Martins, C. F., Hamm, A., Siqueira, J. A., Schiffler, D., Machado, I. C., 2005. Pollination of Campanula rapunculus L. (Campanulaceae): how much pollen flows into pollination and into reproduction of oligolectic pollinators?. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 250(3/4), 147-156. doi: 10.1007/s00606-004-0246-8

Stephens, J. M., 2015. Rampion - Campanula rapunculus L. In: University of Florida IFAS Extension Leaflet No. HS655 . Gainesville, USA: Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension.1 pp. https://www.growables.org/informationVeg/documents/Rampion.pdf

Turner, N. J., Łuczaj,Ł. J., Migliorini, P., Pieroni, A., Dreon, A. L., Sacchetti, L. E., Paoletti, M. G., 2011. Edible and tended wild plants, traditional ecological knowledge and agroecology. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 30(1/2), 198-225. doi: 10.1080/07352689.2011.554492

Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M., Webb, D. A., 1976. Flora Europaea: volume 4, Plantaginaceae to Compositae (and Rubiaceae), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.xxix + 505 pp.

Tümen, G., Malyer, H., Başer, K. H. C., Öz Aydin, S., 2006. Plants used in Anatolia for wound healing. In: Ethnobotany: at the junction of the continents and the disciplines. Proceedings of the IVth International Congress of Ethnobotany (ICEB 2005), Istanbul, Turkey, 21-26 August 2005 [ed. by Ertuĝ, Z. F.]. Istanbul, Turkey: Ege Yayinlari. 217-221. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/K_Husnu_Can_Baser/publication/259866097_Plants_used_in_Anatolia_for_wound_healing/links/00b4952e3767a175ce000000/Plants-used-in-Anatolia-for-wound-healing.pdf

Zlatković, B., Bogosavljević, S., 2014. Taxonomic and pharmacological valorization of the medicinal flora in Svrljiŝki Timok Gorge (eastern Serbia). Facta Universitatis Series Medicine and Biology, 16(2), 79-86. http://casopisi.junis.ni.ac.rs/index.php/FUMedBiol/article/download/545/pdf

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2011. Invasive Species Databases.,

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Principal Source

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Draft datasheet under review

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