Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Briza maxima
(large quaking grass)

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Datasheet

Briza maxima (large quaking grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Briza maxima
  • Preferred Common Name
  • large quaking grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Briza maxima is an annual grass native to southern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. It has been introduced to many countries as an ornamental species (it is also of value as a pasture plant) and has be...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) general habit of flowering plants.
TitleHabit
CaptionBriza maxima (large quaking grass) general habit of flowering plants.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2006
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) general habit of flowering plants.
HabitBriza maxima (large quaking grass) general habit of flowering plants.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2006
Briza maxima (large quaking grass); clusters of pendulous spikelets
TitleFlowering plants
CaptionBriza maxima (large quaking grass); clusters of pendulous spikelets
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2006
Briza maxima (large quaking grass); clusters of pendulous spikelets
Flowering plantsBriza maxima (large quaking grass); clusters of pendulous spikelets©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2006
Briza maxima (large quaking grass); single spikelet from a flower head, with approx.15 florets
TitleSingle spikelet
CaptionBriza maxima (large quaking grass); single spikelet from a flower head, with approx.15 florets
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014
Briza maxima (large quaking grass); single spikelet from a flower head, with approx.15 florets
Single spikeletBriza maxima (large quaking grass); single spikelet from a flower head, with approx.15 florets©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand-2014

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Briza maxima L.

Preferred Common Name

  • large quaking grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Briza dalmatica Gand.
  • Briza gracilescens Gand.
  • Briza microclada Gand.
  • Briza monspessulana Gouan
  • Briza montana Brouss.
  • Briza portenschlagii Gand.
  • Briza pulchella Kunth
  • Briza pulchella Kunth ex Steud.
  • Briza rubens Poir.
  • Briza rubra Lam.
  • Macrobriza maxima (L.) Tzvelev
  • Poa maxima (L.) Cav.

International Common Names

  • English: big quaking grass; blowfly grass; fairy bells; giant shivery grass; great quaking grass; greater quaking grass; lady's heart grass; large fairy bells; quaking grass; quivering grass; shaky grass; shell grass
  • Spanish: corazón de Jesús; ilusión de corazon grande; pastito de Dios; tembladera; templacera; templaderilla; templeque; zarcillitos
  • French: grande brize
  • Chinese: da ling feng cao

Local Common Names

  • Germany: grosses Zittergras
  • Italy: sonaghini
  • Japan: kobanso
  • Netherlands: groot siddergras; groot trilgras
  • South Africa: Bewertjies
  • Sweden: italienskt darrgräs
  • USA: rattlesnake grass

Summary of Invasiveness

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Briza maxima is an annual grass native to southern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. It has been introduced to many countries as an ornamental species (it is also of value as a pasture plant) and has become a common weed of waste places in, for example, Australia and parts of the USA; in Australia in particular it is reported as having a significant adverse impact on native species. It is also reported to affect native species and crops in Japan, and PIER (2014) indicates invasiveness in New Zealand, Hawaii, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala and Honduras, although without going into detail of the adverse affects caused.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Briza
  •                                 Species: Briza maxima

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Briza comprises about 23 species (Clayton et al, 2013), native to Europe, North Africa, Asia, and South America (some species have been carried to and become naturalised in other countries).

Two species besides B. maxima have become naturalised and to some extent invasive in many of the same countries. These are the perennial B. media and the annual B. minor, both of which have spikelets similar in appearance to those of B. maxima although they are much smaller.

Description

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The following description is slightly modified from Clayton et al. (2013):

Habit: Annual; caespitose. Culms erect, or decumbent; 10–60 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2–5 mm long. Leaf-blades 5–20 cm long; 3–8 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins scaberulous.

Inflorescence:  Inflorescence a panicle; comprising 3–12 fertile spikelets. Panicle open; obovate; 3–10 cm long; bearing few spikelets. Spikelets pendulous; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform; recurved; 5–20 mm long.

Fertile Spikelets: Spikelets comprising 7–20 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong, or ovate; laterally compressed; 14–25 mm long; 8–15 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes obscured by lemmas.

Glumes: Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume ovate; 5–7 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; without keels; 7–9 -veined. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume ovate; 5–7 mm long; 0.75 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 7–9 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse.

Florets: Fertile lemma orbicular; auriculate at base; gibbous; 6–8 mm long; chartaceous; much thinner on margins; keeled; lightly keeled; keeled below; 7–9 -veined. Lemma surface glabrous, or pubescent; with capitate hairs. Lemma apex cuspidate. Palea orbicular; 0.5 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels winged; narrowly winged; ciliate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.

Flower: Lodicules 2. Anthers 3; 2–2.5 mm long. Ovary glabrous.

Fruit: Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 2.5 mm long. Embryo 0.25 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 0.5 length of caryopsis.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedeFloras, 2013Frequently cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
IsraelPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
JapanPresentIntroduced Invasive NIES, 2013
-HonshuPresentIntroducedNIES, 2013
-KyushuPresentIntroducedNIES, 2013
-ShikokuPresentIntroducedNIES, 2013
JordanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
LebanonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
PakistanPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013Lahore district
SyriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
TurkeyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
LibyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
MoroccoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
South AfricaPresentIntroducedParker-Allie et al., 2009
TunisiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
ZimbabweLocalisedIntroducedHyde et al., 2013High rainfall parts of Zimbabwe (1600 - 1710 mm)

North America

CanadaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-AlbertaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-OntarioPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-QuebecPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
USAPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2013; PIER, 2014Hawai'i, Kaui'i and Maui islands
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-MichiganPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-New YorkPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-OregonPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-VermontPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2013

Central America and Caribbean

GuatemalaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2013; PIER, 2014
HondurasPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2013; PIER, 2014
JamaicaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013

South America

ChilePresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2013; PIER, 2014Mainland and Juan Fernandez islands
ColombiaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2013; PIER, 2014

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
BulgariaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
CroatiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
CyprusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
DenmarkPresentIntroducedNOBANIS, 2013
FrancePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
GreecePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
ItalyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
PortugalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
SloveniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
SpainPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
UKPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-Channel IslandsPresentIntroducedBiological Records Centre, 2013First recorded in the wild in 1863 (Jersey). Increasing.

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
-Australian Northern TerritoryLocalisedIntroduced Invasive University of Queensland, 2013Southern parts
-New South WalesLocalisedIntroduced Invasive University of Queensland, 2013Eastern and southern parts
-QueenslandLocalisedIntroduced Invasive University of Queensland, 2013South-eastern and central parts
-South AustraliaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive University of Queensland, 2013In many parts
-TasmaniaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive University of Queensland, 2013Throughout
-VictoriaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive University of Queensland, 2013Throughout
-Western AustraliaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive University of Queensland, 2013South-western and western areas
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2013; PIER, 2014
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedUniversity of Queensland, 2013

History of Introduction and Spread

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The species has been spread to many countries as a garden ornamental and its flowers have often been used in dried flower arrangements. It has escaped to become a common weed of waste places in, for example, Australia and parts of the USA (Cal-IPC, 2005; University of Queensland, 2013). Its seed is still widely available from sources advertised on the internet, especially in the USA and Britain.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia 1848 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No CHAH (2014); Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2013) Probably introduced from Europe. Mount Barker Bal, South Australia
Denmark 1881 Yes No NOBANIS (2013) First record. 'Rare'
New Zealand 1864 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No THOMSON (1922) Probably introduced from Europe. ‘Two or three localities in the neighbourhood of Auckland’ by 1882.
UK Europe by 1633 Yes No Biological Records Centre (2013)

Risk of Introduction

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Seed of B. maxima is readily available through the internet, and its spread is likely to continue for this reason. Like many garden plants, it probably goes in and out of favour with gardeners; University of Queensland (2013), for example, says ‘it is not very common in cultivation any more’.

Habitat

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Weber (2003, quoted in PIER, 2014) describes the habitat of B. maxima as ‘Grass- and heathland, forests, riparian habitats, coastal beaches'. The same author goes on to say that its native habitats include hill slopes, coastal scrub and disturbed sites, and that ‘It forms dense, species-poor swards where invasive that impede the growth and regeneration of native plants.’

Sanz et al. (2011) describe the species as ‘one of the most characteristic species of the oligotrophic Mediterranean pastures’. In dry grassland in Italy (part of its native range), B. maxima occurs in communities on open xerophilous grasslands dominated by annual graminoids that develop on different substrata mainly in the coastal or subcoastal sectors of the peninsula (Burrascano et al. 2010).  In Israel, again in its native range, it is found in Mediterranean woodlands and shrublands, in semi-steppe shrublands, and in the montane vegetation of Mt. Hermon (Danin, 2013).

Where it has been introduced in Australia, it can be weedy in many situations: gardens, footpaths, disturbed sites, waste areas, roadsides, railway lines, grasslands, heathlands, open forests, riparian habitats and coastal habitats in temperate, sub-tropical and semi-arid regions (University of Queensland, 2013).

In the USA, where again it is introduced, it is known from scattered locations and in Oregon and California it invades coastal dune habitats (Snow, 2007).

In New Zealand it is again an introduced species and there it occurs ‘often near the coast on roadsides and sandy or shingly waste land’ (Edgar and Connor, 2010). In Britain, to which it was introduced many years ago, it is now found on dry banks, rocky places and cultivated ground in the Channel Islands and elsewhere as an escape from cultivation (Hubbard, 1984); the Biological Records Centre (2013) lists its habitats as ‘on dry, bare banks and field margins, in cultivated ground including gardens, bulb-fields, on sand dunes, sea-cliffs, rubbish tips, waste ground and wall-tops, and in pavement cracks’.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

2n= 14 (Hubbard, 1984).  

Reproductive Biology

B. maxima reproduces entirely by seed. Cal-IPC (2005) says that dense infestations can produce over 1000 viable seeds m-2.

Murray (1974) lists B. maxima as self-compatible, so seeds can be produced by either self- or cross-pollination.

Physiology and Phenology

B. maxima is a ‘cool season’ C3 grass whose photosynthetic pathways initially produce 3-carbon molecules (Waller and Lewis, 1979).

Parker-Allie et al. (2009) modelled the effects of climate change on the distribution of grasses in South Africa and found that B. maxima was likely to reduce its range by about 20% by the middle of the present century.

Sanz et al. (2011) tested the effects of enhanced ozone atmospheric levels and nitrogen enrichment (both important components of climate change around the Mediterranean) on the growth and phenology of B. maxima and found that although increasing ozone levels did not affect biomass parameters, they enhanced senescence, increased foliar fibre levels and shortened plant life span (by about 18%). Application of nitrogen, as ammonium nitrate solution, led to increased biomass and improved nutritive value due to a decrease in foliar fibre concentration. Nitrogen counterbalanced the ozone-induced increase in senescent biomass but did not modify ozone effects on nutritive quality.

Plants of B. maxima will regrow after being cut or otherwise damaged (Cal-IPC, 2005).

Longevity

Although the plants of B. maxima are annuals, emerging, fruiting and dying in less than a year, and most seeds germinate within a year or so, a few seeds (2.5% of those planted) can persist for about 3 years (Orscheg, 2002). Cal-IPC (2005) also reports that seeds can remain viable for 3 years or more.

Population Size and Structure

According to University of Queensland (2013)B. maxima can form dense swards of over 200 plants m-2. Most commonly, though, populations are less dense. Similarly, in California, Cal-IPC (2005) says ‘In some sites it can form dense, nearly pure stands, that displace other species, but this is unusual. Typically it is in a mixed community with other annual grasses and forbs.’

Cal-IPC (2005) also says of B. maxima, ‘Populations oscillate, but in general it does not expand much when in an area. Seems to be in most habitats that it can occupy. In the Bay Area, is locally spreading and is more abundant than it was years ago.’

Nutrition

Sanz et al. (2011) commented on the ‘characteristically low nutrient content’ of the soils of annual pastures on the Iberian Peninsula, and found that B. maxima responded strongly to nitrogen fertilisation.

Associations

In B. maxima’s native Italian dry grassland communities it is often found growing with Brachypodium distachyon (=Trachynia distachya), Hypochaeris achyrophorus, Stipa capensis, Tuberaria guttata, Trifolium scabrum, T. cherleri, and Saxifraga tridactylites (Burrascano et al. 2010).

In central California, Evens and Kentner (2006) noted that B. maxima is common in annual grass communities (with or without other non-native bromes like Bromus diandrus and Bromus hordeaceus), while other herbs such as Trifolium depauperatum, Lupinus species, Hypochaeris glabra and Iris macrosiphon are also present at low to abundant cover. It can occasionally form fairly pure stands, but this is unusual and it is commonly found in mixed communities with other grasses and forbs (Cal-IPC, 2005).

In Australia, too, B. maxima is often associated with other grass species (University of Queensland, 2013).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Cal-IPC (2005) says that most seeds fall to the ground immediately beneath the plant. University of Queensland (2013) suggests that seeds can be dispersed by water or wind, or in mud attached to animals or vehicles.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Detrain and Pasteels (2000) found that the ant Messor barbarus sometimes favoured the seeds of B. maxima as a food source in south-east France, which means that ants may sometimes contribute to its spread but also reduce the amount of seed available for future germination and growth.

Accidental Introduction

Accidental introduction to new countries would be relatively unlikely, with modern phytosanitary regulations. However, escape from garden plantings or when dried flower displays are discarded could still occur.

University of Queensland (2013) says that seeds may be spread by mowers or slashers (of roadside vegetation) and that distant dispersal could result from movement of agricultural products such as hay or other fodder.

Intentional Introduction

B. maxima has already been introduced as an ornamental to many countries and this is likely to continue in countries where it has not yet naturalized, especially since its seeds are readily available through the internet.

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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The species is palatable to livestock so where it occurs in grazed pasture it is probably as valuable as other annual grass species in the same community. Many garden seed companies advertise B. maxima seed on their websites, so trade in this species appears to be flourishing.

In some areas of Japan, B. maxima competes with crop plants (NIES, 2013). In Spain it is a component of the weed flora in olive groves (Saavedra and Pastor, 1996).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Cal-IPC (2005) indicates that the overall effect of B. maxima in California is ‘Limited’. Like most other annual grasses it can increase fire risk.

In Australia, University of Queensland (2013) reports that it is a significant environmental weed in Victoria and Western Australia and an environmental weed in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. It invades grasslands, grassy woodlands, heathlands, granite outcrops, open forests, riparian habitats and coastal habitats. Its dense swards impede the growth and regeneration of native plants and significantly decrease species richness. In the southern parts of Western Australia it is listed as a weed of wetlands and aquatic habitats. It is also present in conservation areas (e.g. Gramatan Avenue Heathland Sanctuary in suburban Melbourne) and rehabilitation areas (e.g. in box-ironbark forests in the goldfields region) in Victoria.

Impact on Biodiversity

University of Queensland (2013) states that: ‘The remnant plant communities that are home to the threatened Eltham copper butterfly (Paralucia pyrodiscus lucida [also known as Paralucia aenea ssp. lucida]), which is found only in a few sites in Victoria, are under threat by invasion from environmental weeds including this species. B. maxima is also one of the weeds competing with sweet bursaria (Bursaria spinosa), the native food plant of this rare butterfly. It also thought to be reducing regeneration of the threatened whipstick westringia (Westringia crassifolia) in Victoria.’ McMahon (1991) comments that ‘When B. maxima cover is >10% it can cause approx. 75% reduction in the richness of native vegetation in Victoria.’

In some areas of Japan, B. maxima competes with native plants (NIES, 2013).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Chorizanthe howelliiNational list(s) National list(s)CaliforniaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesCal-IPC, California Invasive Plant Council
Paralucia pyrodiscus lucidaNational list(s) National list(s)VictoriaUniversity of Queensland, 2013
Westringia crassifoliaNational list(s) National list(s)VictoriaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUniversity of Queensland, 2013
Platanthera yadonii (Yadon's piperia)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

B. maxima is clearly of value in its native environment for grazing of cattle (Sanz et al., 2011). It also provides fodder for grazing animals where it has become naturalized in grazed grasslands in Australia and California. Many garden seed companies advertise B. maxima seed on their websites, so trade in this species, presumably for ornamental purposes, appears to be flourishing.

Social Benefit

Reports from several countries about the use of B. maxima as an attractive ornamental grass both in gardens and in dried flower arrangements presumably mean that it has given pleasure to householders and gardeners over the years (Hubbard, 1984; PIER, 2014; University of Queensland, 2013).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Other species of Briza are similar in general appearance to B. maxima, but those most likely to be encountered outside South America are B. minor and B. media, both of which have a larger number (more than 15) of spikelets in the seed head and much smaller spikelets (3-5 mm long) than B. maxima, which almost always has 12 or fewer shield-shaped spikelets, each 7-25 mm long and 6-15 mm wide.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Hand pulling of isolated plants before seed set and safe disposal of the removed material could be useful as a control measure in small new infestations (Western Australian Herbarium, 2013). Ploughing followed by oversowing of more desirable species may give longer-term control in denser infestations.

Biological Control

This is unlikely to be used, since many other more desirable grasses could also be adversely affected.

Chemical Control

The Western Australian Herbarium (2013) suggest treating young plants at the 3-5 leaf stage with fluazifop -- this herbicide kills grasses but does not affect broadleaf plants. Other grass-killing herbicides like haloxyfop behave similarly. B. maxima is susceptible to broad spectrum herbicides like glyphosate, but it will recover from seeds buried in the soil. DiTomaso et al. (2013) also indicate susceptibility to clethodim, fluazifop, hexazinone, imazapic, imazapyr, sethoxydim and sulfometuron.

Grazing

B.maxima is known to be eaten in South Africa by the rare geometric tortoise Psammobates geometricus (Balsamo et al., 2004). It is also readily eaten by cattle and sheep in pastures where it occurs.

References

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Balsamo RA, Hofmeyr MD, Henen BT, Bauer AM, 2004. Leaf biomechanics as a potential tool to predict feeding preferences of the geometric tortoise Psammobates geometricus. African Zoology, 39(2):175-181.

Biological Records Centre, 2013. Online Atlas of the British and Irish flora. Wallingford, UK: Biological Records Centre. http://www.brc.ac.uk/plantatlas/

Burrascano S, Caccianiga M, Gigante D, 2010. Dry grasslands habitat types in Italy. Bulletin of the European Dry Grassland Group, 9:3-10. http://www.edgg.org/publ/bulletin/Bulletin_EDGG_09.pdf

Cal-IPC (California Invasive Plant Council), 2005. Cal-IPC Plant Assessment Form for Briza maxima. Berkeley, California, USA: California Invasive Plant Council. http://www.cal-ipc.org/paf/site/paf/272

Clayton WD, Vorontsova MS, Harman KT, Williamson H, 2013. GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013. Australia's virtual herbarium. Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.ala.org.au

Danin A, 2013. Flora of Israel online. Jerusalem, Israel: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. http://flora.huji.ac.il/browse.asp

Detrain C, Pasteels JM, 2000. Seed preferences of the harvester ant Messor barbarus in a Mediterranean mosaic grassland (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology, 35(1):35-48; 23 ref.

DiTomaso JM, Kyser GB, Oneto SR, Wilson RG, Orloff SB, Anderson LW, Wright SD, Roncoroni JA, Miller TL, Prather TS, Ransom C, Beck KG, Duncan C, Wilson KA, Mann JJ, 2013. Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States. Davis, California, USA: Weed Research and Information Center, University of California, 544 pp.

Edgar E, Connor HE, 2010. Flora of New Zealand - Vol. V: Gramineae, Ed.2 [ed. by Edgar, E.\Connor, H. E.]. Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Whenua Press, Landcare Research, xlii + 23 + 650 pp.

eFloras, 2013. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Evens J, Kentner E, 2006. Classification of Vegetation Associations from the Mount Tamalpais Watershed, Nicasio Reservoir, and Soulajule Reservoir in Marin County, California. Final Report. Sacramento and Corte Madera, California, USA: Californian Native Plant Society and Marin Municipal Water District, iv + 304 pp. http://www.cnps.org/cnps/vegetation/pdf/mmwd_vegetation_report_2006_06.pdf

Hubbard CE, 1984. Grasses, a guide to their structure, identification, uses and distribution in the British Isles (Third edition). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books Ltd, 476 pp.

Hyde MA, Wursten BT, Ballings P, Coates Palgrave M, 2013. Flora of Zimbabwe. http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw

McMahon ARG, 1991. Control of annual grasses with particular reference to Briza maxima. Plant Protection Quarterly, 6(3):129.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Murray BG, 1974. Breeding systems and floral biology in the genus Briza. Heredity, 33(2):285-292.

NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies), 2013. Invasive Species of Japan. http://www.nies.go.jp/biodiversity/invasive/index-en.html

NOBANIS, 2013. North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species. http://www.nobanis.org/

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09/04/13: Original text by:

Ian Popay, consultant, New Zealand, with the support of Landcare Research.

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