Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Argemone ochroleuca
(pale Mexican pricklypoppy)

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Datasheet

Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Argemone ochroleuca
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pale Mexican pricklypoppy
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. ochroleuca is an annual herb native to Central America. It has been introduced into Australia, Africa, tropical Asia, New Zealand and a number of oceanic islands where it has become invasive. It is most comm...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); flowering habit. South West Rocks, Australia. September, 2014.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionArgemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); flowering habit. South West Rocks, Australia. September, 2014.
Copyright©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); flowering habit. South West Rocks, Australia. September, 2014.
Flowering habitArgemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); flowering habit. South West Rocks, Australia. September, 2014.©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); flowering habit. South West Rocks, Australia. September, 2014.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionArgemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); flowering habit. South West Rocks, Australia. September, 2014.
Copyright©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); flowering habit. South West Rocks, Australia. September, 2014.
Flowering habitArgemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); flowering habit. South West Rocks, Australia. September, 2014.©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); fruit. South West Rocks, Australia. September, 2014.
TitleFruit
CaptionArgemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); fruit. South West Rocks, Australia. September, 2014.
Copyright©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); fruit. South West Rocks, Australia. September, 2014.
FruitArgemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); fruit. South West Rocks, Australia. September, 2014.©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); rosette. South West Rocks, Australia. August, 2006.
TitleRosette
CaptionArgemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); rosette. South West Rocks, Australia. August, 2006.
Copyright©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); rosette. South West Rocks, Australia. August, 2006.
RosetteArgemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); rosette. South West Rocks, Australia. August, 2006.©Harry Rose/'Macleay Grass Man'/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Argemone ochroleuca Sweet

Preferred Common Name

  • pale Mexican pricklypoppy

Other Scientific Names

  • Argemone barclayana Penny ex Loudon
  • Argemone intermedia Sweet
  • Argemone mexicana var. ochroleuca Sweet) Lindl.
  • Argemone ochroleuca var. stenophylla (Prain) Shinners
  • Argemone sulphurea Sweet ex Loudon
  • Argemoneochroleuca subsp. ochroleuca

International Common Names

  • English: burweed; devil's fig; Mexican poppy; Mexican thistle; prickly Mexican poppy; prickly poppy; white Mexican poppy; white thistle; white-flower Mexican poppy; yellow poppy
  • Spanish: chicalote

Local Common Names

  • : witblom-bloudissel

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. ochroleuca is an annual herb native to Central America. It has been introduced into Australia, Africa, tropical Asia, New Zealand and a number of oceanic islands where it has become invasive. It is most common in disturbed areas such as roadsides, mining dumps, rabbit warrens, recently cultivated paddocks, degraded land and over-grazed pastures. This species produces a large number of seed which can be accidentally introduced into new areas as a seed contaminant. It is often a problem in agricultural land but also has the potential to outcompete native species and decrease biodiversity. A. ochroleuca is toxic to humans and livestock and has thorny spines which can cause injury.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Papaverales
  •                         Family: Papaveraceae
  •                             Genus: Argemone
  •                                 Species: Argemone ochroleuca

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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A. ochroleuca belongs to the Papaveraceae family. This family, informally known as the poppy family, contains about 44 genera and approximately 770 species which are widely distributed throughout the temperate and subtropical climates, but almost unknown in the tropics. The genus Argemone contains around 30 species, all with prickly stems, leaves and capsules (Schwarzbach and Kadereit, 1999).

Two subspecies are recognised, A. ochroleuca subsp. ochroleuca and subsp. stenopetala (Rose) Ownbey (The Plant List, 2013).

The common name Mexican poppy is also used for the closely related and invasive species A. mexicana, and such, the common name 'pale Mexican pricklypoppy' (USDA-NRCS, 2016) may be preferred.

Description

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The following description is taken from Flora of Pakistan (2015).

A prickly glaucous herb, usually 35-40 cm tall; young stem whitish purple or violaceous, fading with age; prickles 6-9 mm long, with broader base. Leaves sessile, amplexicaul, basal leaves forming a rosette, upper alternate, variegated with white, 10-30 cm long, 4-10 cm broad, sinuate-pinnatifid; segments incised dentate, with sharp yellowish spines on the margin, midrib and the veins beneath; midrib and the veins on the lower side purplish blue; Flowers solitary axillary, white or creamish white, becoming yellowish on fading, 2.5-3 cm across, sessile or on a short pedicel, subtended by 2-3 foliaceous bracts; bracts 2-4 cm long c. 5 mm broad. Sepals 3, obovate oblong, with horn as long as the body, 8-10 mm long, 5-7 mm broad. Petals 6, obovate, 2.8-3 cm long, c. 1.8 mm broad. Stamens 7-10 mm long; anthers oblong, recurved. Ovary ovate, 8-10 mm long, 5 mm broad, covered with long pointed spines. Stigma deeply dissected, 5 lobed, reddish brown with an obscure style. Capsule oblong, 3-4 cm long, 1.5-2 cm broad, (with a prominent, 1-2 mm long style) covered with sharp, erect prickles. Seeds black, rounded, 1.5-2 mm in diameter, with fine reticulae.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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A. ochroleuca is native to Central America (Mexico) and has been introduced and naturalized in Australia, Africa, tropical Asia, New Zealand and some Oceanic Islands with warm climates. A. ochroleuca is reported as invasive in parts of Australia and Tanzania  (Henderson, 2002).

There is some dispute with regards to the status of A. ochroleuca in Arizona with some sources reporting it as native (USDA-NRCS, 2015) and others as introduced (Patel, 2013).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Reddy and Chiranjibi, 2007
-GujaratPresentIntroduced2013 Invasive Patel, 2013; Patel et al., 2013
-HaryanaPresentIntroducedFlora of Pakistan, 2015
-Indian PunjabPresentIntroducedBir and Sidhu, 1980
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedKarihaloo et al., 1981
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedBabu et al., 2006
-MaharashtraPresentIntroduced2001 Invasive Diwakar et al., 2002
NepalPresentIntroducedSiwakoti and Varma, 1995
PakistanPresentIntroducedFlora of Pakistan, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedParsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroducedMoussa, 2012; GBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
YemenPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015

Africa

BotswanaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
EgyptPresentIntroducedBoulos and El-Hadidi, 1984
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Karlsson et al., 2003
LesothoPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
MadagascarPresentIntroducedParsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
MauritiusPresentIntroduced Invasive Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; PIER, 2016
MoroccoPresentIntroducedParsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
NamibiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
RéunionPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
South AfricaPresentIntroducedJarosík et al., 2011; USDA-ARS, 2015Kruger National Park
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
SwazilandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Henderson, 2002

North America

MexicoWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015Baja Sur, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Colima, Federal District, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Nayarit, Puebla, Queretaro, Tlaxcala, Veracruz
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2015Some dispute as to whether native or introduced

Central America and Caribbean

NicaraguaPresentIntroducedParsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedParsons and Cuthbertson, 2001

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1977; Krause, 1989; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001

Europe

GermanyPresentIntroducedMowat, 1964
PortugalPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
SpainPresentIntroducedLorenzo Cáceres JMSde, 2015

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; USDA-ARS, 2015
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced Invasive Wilson, 2001; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015
-TasmaniaPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive Webb et al., 1988; USDA-ARS, 2015

History of Introduction and Spread

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There is little information with regards to the history of introduction of A. ochroleuca, however, its spread is thought to be related to human activities such as site disturbance and overgrazing.

A. ochroleuca was first recorded near Sydney Australia in 1845 and believed to have been accidentally introduced as a contaminant of wheat seed (Reseigh and Shepherd, 2010).

In China, A. ochroleuca was reported in Maharashtra in 2001 (Diwakar et al., 2002) then in 2013 it was recorded in Gujarat (Patel, 2013; Patel et al., 2013), which may indicate relatively recent spread.

 

Risk of Introduction

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A. ochroleuca produces a large number of seed which can be accidentally introduced into new areas as a seed contaminant. However, the widespread introduction of A. ochroleuca across temperate and subtropical regions means that in most countries where invasion is possible, the species has already been introduced.

Habitat

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A. ochroleuca is found in a wide range of temperate to tropical and arid to humid environments, however it is most common in semi, sub-tropical and warmer temperate regions. It is a weed of roadsides, railway lines, sandy streambeds, river flats, waste areas, disturbed sites, gardens, pastures, crops and fallows. It is now a principal invasive common weed of many vegetable and crop fields and in various countries (Holm et al., 1977). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

A. ochroleuca is a tetraploid (2n= 56) whereas A. mexicana is a diploid species (2n=56). There is evidence of probable hybridization between these two species since there was an occurrence of 5% of triploids (2n= 42) recorded in a population of A. ochroleuca (Chaturvedi et al., 1999).

Reproductive Biology

A. ochroleuca reproduces by producing a large numbers of seed; up to 400 seed can be produced per pod and 20,000 per plant (Northern Territory Government, 2015). These seeds may be spread by water or in contaminated agricultural produce (e.g. grain, pasture seeds and fodder). Seeds have a dormancy period of up to a few months and may remain in the soil seed bank for up to seven years (Northern Territory Government, 2015).

Physiology and Phenology

A.ochroleuca is an annual or short lived perennial species (Flora of North America, 2015).

The phenological stages of A. ochroleuca are initiated at the beginning of fall, winter, spring and summer seasons. Phenological stages that will be assigned are leaf growth, stem growth, floral buds developing, flowering, seed development, seed ripening and seed dissemination or death (West and Wein, 1971). In Australia, provided that sufficient moisture is present, seeds can germinate all year round (Northern Territory Government, 2015) and flowering and fruiting occurs in the spring through to autumn (Flora of North America, 2015).

Environmental Requirements

A. ochroleuca tolerates a wide range of climates, including tropical, temperate and dry.

A. ochroleuca can also grow on a wide range of soil types but is most common on sandy soils. In Australia, it has been suggested that P. quadrifida prefers soils which can retain water throughout the summer months (Northern Territory Government, 2015). A. ochroleuca grows well in nutrient poor soils and often does better in areas where phosphorus is limiting, whereas A. mexicana is better suited to grow in areas deficient in nitrogen (Ramakrishnan and Gupta, 1972). Neither species have obvious restrictions to certain agronomic or environmental conditions (Karlsson et al., 2003).

According to Flora of North America (2015), it is present at altitudes of 0-2250 m. However in Australia, A. ochroleuca is found from sea level up to 2900 m in altitude (Herbiguide, 2015).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Agrosoma bispinella Herbivore Leaves Julien et al., 2012
Agrosoma syklis Herbivore Leaves Julien et al., 2012
Atrazonotus umbrosus Herbivore Fruits/pods Julien et al., 2012
Conotrachelus leucophaeatus Herbivore Whole plant Julien et al., 2012
Deightoniella argemonensis Pathogen Leaves Julien et al., 2012
Languria convexicollis Herbivore Whole plant Julien et al., 2012
Languria sanguinicollis Herbivore Whole plant Julien et al., 2012
Largus cinctus Herbivore Leaves not specific Julien et al., 2012
Lygus mexicanus Herbivore Whole plant not specific Julien et al., 2012
Omophoita octomaculata Herbivore Leaves Julien et al., 2012
Passalora guanicensis Pathogen Leaves Julien et al., 2012
Sirocalodes wickhami Herbivore Fruits/pods/Whole plant Julien et al., 2012

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Natural enemy surveys in Mexico found 23 different species of insect on A. ochroleuca (Julien et al., 2012). The species successfully identified can be found in the Natural Enemies table. More details, including preliminary identifications to genus of those species not identified to species level, can be found in Julien et al. (2012).

The pathogens Cercosporidium guanicence [Passalora guanicensis] and Deightoniella argemonensis have also been identified from this species (Julien et al., 2012).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

A. ochroleuca reproduces by producing a large number of seed which may fall naturally to the ground (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2011). In Australia, the majority of seed is dispersed by flood waters (Northern Territory Government, 2015). It is also possible for the whole plant to break off at the base which can be blown by the wind into new areas (Queensland Government, 2015).

Vector Transmission

Seeds of A. ochroleuca may be dispersed to new locations by birds after ingestion and by the adherence of seeds to livestock (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2011).

Accidental Introduction

The large number of seed may contaminate agricultural produce (e.g. grain, pasture seeds and fodder) and could therefore be accidentally introduced into new locations (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2011). Seeds may also adhere to machinery and boots for example and disperse locally.

Intentional Introduction

A. ochroleuca has been intentionally introduced into a number of countries for ornamental purposes (BioNet-EAFRINET, 2011).

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Host and vector organisms Yes BioNet-EAFRINET, 2011
Water Yes Northern Territory Government, 2015
Wind Yes Queensland Government, 2015

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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In Queensland and New South Wales, Australia, A. ochroleuca is regarded as a major weed of crops (Queensland Government, 2015). It has been shown to reduce the yield of many cereals (Rawson and Bath, 1980) and has an effect on Arachis hypogaea (groundnut), Gossypium herbacium (cotton), Medicago sativa (lucerne), Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Zea mays (maize).

Seeds of this species may also become tangled in the wool of sheep, reducing its economic value (Reseigh and Shepherd, 2010).

Environmental Impact

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A. ochroleuca can grow and persist in disturbed areas where it can compete and potentially displace native biodiversity (van der Westhuizen and Mpedi, 2011). The formation of dense stands, as seeds fall locally, also affects wildlife and decreases biodiversity (HEAR, 2015).

Social Impact

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A. ochroleuca is extremely poisonous to livestock and humans, but accounts of livestock poisoning are rare because animals generally avoid it. The main danger to livestock, horses and poultry usually comes from fodder and other stock feeds that have become contaminated with its leaves or seeds (Northern Territory Government, 2015). It is very prickly nature also means it can cause injury to humans and livestock.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Poisoning
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses

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In Mexico, A. ochroleuca is used in traditional medicine to treat eye infections, spots, warts, to combat insomnia, soughs and dermatological disorders (Reyes et al., 2011). It is also reported to have some limited value as an ornamental.

Uses List

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General

  • Ornamental

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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A. ochroleuca is very similar to the closely related and invasive species A. mexicana.Ownbey (1997) differentiates it from A. mexicana on the basis of differences in flower bud shape and petal colour. The flowers of A. ochroleuca are cream or pale yellow with oblong flower buds whereas those of A. mexicana are bright yellow and rounded (Queensland Government, 2015).

A. ochroleuca may also be easily confused with A. subfusiformis subsp. subfusiformis. This species also has pale yellow flowers and similar leaves, but the capsules are spindle-shaped (fusiform) to narrowly oval (ellipsoid) in comparison to the capsules of A. ochroleuca which are oblong, oval or egg-shaped (Queensland Government, 2015).

Other Argemone species also look similar but have distinguishing characteristics: A. albiflora has white flowers, 10-15 cm in diameter (Brown, 1972); A. intermedia has white or pinkish flowers, 5-8 cm in diameter, densely covered with short yellowish hairs (Parker, 1972); A. polyanthemos has white or lavender flowers and prickles on the lower surface of the leaves (Davis, 1993); A. squarrosa is a perennial with prickles on both sides of the leaves (Davis, 1993).

Prevention and Control

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Control

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

In South Africa, A. ochroleuca has been declared a noxious weed and therefore must be controlled.

In Northern Territory, Australia, A. ochroleuca is classified as a Class B and C species. This means that the growth and spread must be controlled and that the species must not to be introduced into the state (Queensland Government, 2015). It is also declared under legislation in Western Australia (Queensland Government, 2015).

Mechanical/Physical Control

Control of young plants of A. ochroleuca can be achieved by hand pulling and repeated slashing prior to seed set. However, due to thorns, hand pulling may be painful. Plants can be grubbed or cut before fruits ripen. Seedlings can mowed. Mowing and slashing however is often unsuccessful due to regrowth (Herbiguide, 2015).

Chemical Control

Hormone herbicides provide good control of young plants, such as 2,4-D amide and 2,4-D ester. Glyphosate provides good control in non-selective situations.

Biological Control

A biological control programme for A. ochroleuca and A. mexicana was initiated for control in Australia. However, despite surveys for natural enemies taking place in Mexico this programme was put on hold as there were doubts over the impacts of these species in Australia (Julien, 2002; Julien et al., 2012). More recently however, South Africa has initiated a biocontrol programme for this weed and has imported a number of insects into their quarantine facilities for host range testing (van der Westhuizen and Mpedi, 2011).

References

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Auld BA; Medd RW, 1987. Weeds. An illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia; Inkata Press, 255 pp.

Babu NMG; Sankar RV; Ravikumar K; Ved DK, 2006. Notes on some interesting and noteworthy plants from Southern India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany, 30(2):390-393.

BioNet-EAFRINET, 2011. Keys and Fact sheets - Argemone ochroleuca (Mexican poppy). http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/Argemone_ochroleuca_(Mexican_Poppy)

Bir SS; Sidhu M, 1980. Cyto-palynological studies on weed flora of cultivable lands of Patiala district (Punjab). Journal of Palynology, 16:85-105.

Boulos L; El-Hadidi MN, 1984. The weed flora of Egypt. Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press, 178 pp.

Brown CA, 1972. Wildflowers in Louisiana and Adjoining States. Baton Rouge, USA: Louisianna State University Press.

Chaturvedi M; Datta K; Pal M, 1999. Pollen anomaly - a clue to natural hybridity in Argemone (Papaveraceae). Grana, 38:339-342.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015. Australia's virtual herbarium. Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.ala.org.au/#tab_simpleSearch

Davis LW, 1993. Weed seeds of the Great Plains: a handbook for identification. Lawrence, Kansas, USA: University Press of Kansas, vi + 145 pp.

Diwakar PG; Dinesh Shirodkar; Pradhan SG; Moorthy S, 2002. Argemone ochroleuca Sweet: a new record for Maharashtra. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany, 26(1):117-118.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of North America North of Mexico. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Flora of Pakistan, 2015. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. USA: St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

GBIF, 2015. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

HEAR, 2015. Alien species in Hawaii. Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/AlienSpeciesInHawaii/index.html

Henderson L, 2001. Alien weeds and invasive plants: a complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa. Plant Protection Research Institute, Handbook 12.

Henderson L, 2002. Problem plants in Ngorongoro Conservation Area. Final Report to the NCAA. Pretoria, South Africa: Agricultural Research Council - Plant Protection Research Institute.

Herbiguide, 2015. Herbiguide., Australia. http://www.herbiguide.com.au/

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Holm LG; Plucknett DL; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1977. The World's Worst Weeds. Distribution and Biology. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii.

Jarosík V; Pysek P; Foxcroft LC; Richardson DM; Rouget M; MacFadyen S, 2011. Predicting incursion of plant invaders into Kruger National Park, South Africa: the interplay of general drivers and species-specific factors. PLoS ONE, No.December:e28711. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0028711

Julien M, 2002. Biological control of tropical weeds with Central and South American origin: current activities by CSIRO Entomology. 13th Australian Weeds Conference: weeds "threats now and forever?", Sheraton Perth Hotel, Perth, Western Australia, 8-13 September 2002: papers and proceedings, 361-365.

Julien M; McFadyen R; Cullen J, 2012. Biological control of weeds in Australia [ed. by Julien, M.\McFadyen, R.\Cullen, J.]. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 620 pp.

Karihaloo JL; Wakhlu AK; Irshad A, 1981. Argemone ochroleuca Sweet a New Record for Jammu and Kashmir State. Indian Forester, 107(7):459-460.

Karlsson LM; Tamado T; Milberg P, 2003. Seed dormancy pattern of the annuals Argemone ochroleuca and A. mexicana (Papaveraceae). Flora (Jena), 198(4):329-339.

Krause E, 1989. The works of Charles Darwin volume 29. New York, USA: New York University Press.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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19/01/2015 Original text by;

Dr PK. Patel, Sheth P.T. Arts and Science College, Gujarat, India

RS. Suthar, P.S. Science College, Gujarat, India

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