Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Impact Summary
- Impact: Biodiversity
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. (1792)
Preferred Common Name
- shepherd's purse
Other Scientific Names
- Thlaspi bursa-pastoris L.
International Common Names
- Spanish: bolsa de pastor
- French: bourse-à-pasteur; capselle bourse à pasteur
- Portuguese: bolsa-do-pastor
Local Common Names
- Denmark: almindelig hyrdetaske
- Egypt: kees el-raat
- Finland: lutukka
- Germany: Hirtentäschelkraut
- Italy: borsa pastore
- Japan: nazuna
- Netherlands: herderstasje
- Sweden: lomme
- CAPBP (Capsella bursa-pastoris)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Capparidales
- Family: Brassicaceae
- Genus: Capsella
- Species: Capsella bursa-pastoris
DescriptionTop of page
The height is variable, ranging from 5 to 80 cm. Stems are erect, solitary or branched from the base, striate, glabrous or sparsely haired (hairs simple or branched) and pale green. The root is a thin taproot which is sometimes branched. The basal leaves are petioled, oblanceolate with a blunt tip and are commonly deeply lobed. They are 15 cm long, 4 cm wide and spread in a rosette form (Holm et al., 1977). The upper stem leaves are smaller (8 cm long, 1.5 cm wide), alternate, sessile and clasping the stem with ear-like projections.
The flowers are white in long terminal racemes with a pinkish or green calyx, a white corolla and four obovate petals of 2 mm length. The pod (silique) is flattened, triangular, notched at the apex and stalked. Each pod contains about 20 seeds attached to a thin membranous septa. The seed is about 1 mm long, oblong, orange-yellow with a dull and punctured surface.
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
C. bursa-pastoris invades almost all kinds of crops in ample regions. The information available is not enough to complete a detailed and precise statement for which countries (and eventually regions or provinces) is invasive/not invasive.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|-Madhya Pradesh||Present||Introduced||Original citation: Rashmi Singh et al., 1999|
|Iraq||Present||Introduced||Original citation: Husain and Al Zarari (1977)|
|Belgium||Present||Native||Original citation: van Himme et al., 1985|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Present||Native|
|Greece||Present||Native||Original citation: Kontsiotou (1982)|
|Lithuania||Present||Native||Original citation: Monsyavchyus-Virg, 1989|
|Poland||Present||Native||Original citation: Hoffmann-Kakol, 1989|
|-Quebec||Present||Introduced||Original citation: Emond and Ferron (1972)|
|United States||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-North Dakota||Present, Widespread||Introduced|
|-South Dakota||Present, Widespread||Introduced|
|Chile||Present||Introduced||Original citation: Ramirez-de-Vallejo and Meneses (1977)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
C. bursa-pastoris is present on arable land in nearly all temperate parts of the world in practically all crops, gardens, lawns, non-cultivated areas, roadsides and waste grounds. It grows on all soils and has very flexible ecological requirements (Holm et al., 1977).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Present, no further details|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Riverbanks||Present, no further details|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Wetlands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Cold lands / tundra||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Deserts||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Coastal areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Allium cepa (onion)||Liliaceae||Main|
|Avena sativa (oats)||Poaceae||Main|
|Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet)||Chenopodiaceae||Main|
|Hordeum vulgare (barley)||Poaceae||Main|
|Linum usitatissimum (flax)||Main|
|Medicago sativa (lucerne)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Pisum sativum (pea)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Secale cereale (rye)||Poaceae||Main|
|Solanum tuberosum (potato)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Triticum aestivum (wheat)||Poaceae||Main|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Flowering ecotypes of C. bursa-pastoris analysed by a cosegregation of phenotypic characters (QTL) and molecular markers have identified by Linde et al., (2001).
The frequencies of the genes of low-molecular-weight alanine-rich cold shock proteins and variation of their primary structure in C. bursa-pastoris among other temperate species, have been determined by Gimalov et al., (2001).
Physiology, phenology and reproductive biology
A brief description on the biology, morphology, distribution, habitat, history and uses of Capsella bursa-pastoris have been recently published by Defelice (2001).
C. bursa-pastoris is an annual or biennial herb which grows up to 80 cm tall. It is a partially self-pollinating, autogamous plant and behaves as a quantitative long-day plant (Hurka et al., 1976). The ovule and seed morphogenesis has been studied in detail by Shamrov (2002).
C. bursa-pastoris propagates by seed, producing 5000-90,000 seeds per plant (Hurka and Haase, 1982). Norris et al. (1996) reported the production of 30,000 to 150,000 seeds by C. bursa-pastoris in the absence of competition. C. bursa-pastoris shows a high production of small and nutritive (oily) seeds of great longevity (Holzner and Numata, 1982).
A description of the complexity of germination in C. bursella-pastoris were made by Popay and Roberts (1970a, b). Most of the seeds are dormant after shedding and the dormancy is normally broken by low temperatures during the first winter. For optimal germination seeds need humidity, temperatures of about 10°C and full-spectrum sunlight. Light filtered by a plant canopy inhibits germination, as well as high carbon dioxide concentrations and darkness. Dormancy regulation ensures that some seeds are always ready to germinate if conditions become favourable and a high percentage of the seed bank stay dormant as a reserve (Holzner and Numata, 1982). This results in germination occurring throughout the year (Markov, 1976). Tillage of the soil under humid conditions exposes more seeds to light, which may lead to germination of buried seeds.
Muniz (2000) studied the influence of temperature and photoperiod on seed germination of C. bursa-pastoris and other common weeds of Spain. The author found that the optimum emergence of C. bursa-pastoris was obtained when seeds were previously subjected to -10°C for three days and then maintained in a climatic chamber under a 12-h photoperiod and constant 25°C.
The annual rate of decrease of the soil seed bank is low. Barralis et al. (1988) measured about 40% per year. Lawson et al. (1993) reported that a 99% decline of the seed bank takes between 4.3 and 6.5 years for the species C. bursa-pastoris, Poa annua, Chenopodium album and Polygonum aviculare.
The influence of germination temperature, pre-cooling, light, nitrate and water stress on the germination of 10 undesirable weeds and grasses was investigated in Germany by Ziron and Opitz von Boberfeld (2001). Among other species, C. bursa-pastoris, light and nitrate were the most important variables, except for B. hordeaceus which germinated mainly in vegetation gaps.
The morphological characteristics of seeds and the effects of environmental factors on seed emergence was investigated in C. bursa-pastoris in Japan by Shibayama and Ogawa (2000). The number of seeds per fruit varied with the ripening or harvesting period, but not with the position of the fruits. The highest germination percentage of seeds was obtained at 25°C (day)-10°C (night). The emergence pattern of seeds stored under low temperature conditions did not vary with the seed harvesting period. The germination percentage seeds was slightly higher under conditions of soil disturbance, compared to control conditions, authors report.
The lipid composition of the aerial part of C. bursa-pastoris, collected during flowering in Uzbekistan, was studied by Bekker et al., (2002). The benzene extract comprised 34.7% polar lipids, pheophytins a and b and monoacylglycerols, 12.4% diacylglycerols, sterols and chlorophylls a and b, 25.8% free fatty acids and triterpenols, 6.7% triacylglycerols, 12.8% waxy esters, 3.5% hydrocarbons, and 4.1% unidentified compounds. The CHCl3 extract was also separated by PTLC and comprised 65% polar lipids (73% glycolipids and 27% phospholipids).
C. bursa-pastoris is frost tolerant (Bonfils et al., 1991) and it shows a high phenotypic plasticity and is split up into several races (Korsmo, 1954; Holzner and Numata, 1982).
According the Milberg and Andersson (1997), the seeds of C. bursa-pastoris germinate mainly in the autumn. Light is a requirement for germination and in many cases a short light exposure (1050 µmol/m²) was enough to fulfill this requirement. Changes in seasonal dormancy were detected using this short light treatment indicating that light is not a simple, dichotomous factor in its effect on germination.
Kim Young Jin et al. (1998) studied the effect of soil chemical properties on weed development and plant coverage in pasture at 567 sites in the Korea Republic. Coverage of C. bursa-pastoris increased with rising soil pH (maximum coverage at pH >6.0) and as the exchangeable cation (Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+) content increased in the soil.
Grundy and Mead (2000) have consistently advanced in the modelling weed emergence as a function of meteorological records. Results indicated that temperature was the dominant factor in predicting emergence in five weed species among them C. bursa-pastoris. Soil moisture, while also important, was a secondary factor only becoming important once the species-specific temperature requirement had been satisfied
Significant differences in some reproductive parameters of biotypes of Bemisia tabaci with regard to four species of winter weeds were determined by Muniz (2000): the highest fecundity (eggs) and fertility (pupae and adults) were obtained with Malva parviflora L. as host, followed by Capsella bursa-pastoris. Results suggest that it is important to suppress the growth of weeds such as shepherd's purse to avoid increased populations of the pest.
Please also see section on Natural Enemies.
Rainfall RegimeTop of page
Soil TolerancesTop of page
- very acid
Special soil tolerances
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
It is a winter host to Aphis gossypii (Hosoda et al., 1993) and Thrips palmi (Nagai and Tsumuki, 1990) in Japan. Overwintering of Myzus ascalonicus is reported by Karl (1983) in Germany. It is also host to Brevicoryne brassicae (Gabrys et al., 1999), Lygus sp. (Khamraev, 1999) and Ceutorhynchus albosuturalis (Hong KiJeong et al., 2000).
C. bursa-pastoris is a host to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Hance and Holly, 1990), Peronospora parasitica (Tewari, 1993) and Albuga candida (Sansome and Sansome, 1974).
The following viruses were found on C. bursa-pastoris: Beet yellows virus (BYV), Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) (Paczuski and Blachowska, 1992) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) (Conti et al., 1979). Holm et al. (1977) lists the following viruses: anemone mosaic virus [Turnip mosaic virus], Aster yellows virus, Beet curly top virus, Beet mosaic virus, beet ringspot virus [Tomato black ring virus], cabbage black ringspot virus [Turnip mosaic virus], cabbage ring necrosis virus [Turnip mosaic virus], Cauliflower mosaic virus, Tobacco broad ringspot virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, Turnip crinkle virus, clover big vein virus [Clover wound tumor virus], potato yellow dwarf virus [Potato yellow dwarf virus], Radish mosaic comovirus and Turnip yellow mosaic virus.
C. bursa-pastoris is also reported to be a host for the sugarbeet nematode Heterodera schachtii (Gleissl and Bachthaler, 1988; Gleissl et al., 1989) and the soyabean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines (Ramarao Venkatesh et al., 2000).
Capsella bursapastoris among other weeds were found to be highly susceptible to Verticillum dahliae in Greece (Ligoxigakis et al., 2002) reports.
Capsella bursa-pastoris among other weeds have been found to host Alfalfa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Potato virus Y, Soybean dwarf virus, and Tomato spotted wilt virus in New Zealand, Fletcher (2001) reports.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
Impact SummaryTop of page
ImpactTop of page
Studies carried out in a wheat field in China by Yu-JinFeng et al., (2002) determined that the eco-economic threshold period (ETP) was of 180-200 plants/m2 of broad-leaved weeds such as C. bursa-pastoris, Descurainia sophia and Silene conoidea.
Suspected nitrite poisoning in pigs caused by Capsella bursa-pastoris has been suggested by Wiese and Joubert (2001).
C. bursa-pastoris may be important as an alternative host of many plant pathogens causing crop damage. See Natural Enemies for further details.
Impact: BiodiversityTop of page
The crop rotation and tillage system effects on weed seedbanks are part of a long-term trial by Cardina et al., (2002). Authors found that seed densities of three broadleaves, i.e. shepherd's-purse (C. bursa-pastoris), Pennsylvania smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum), and corn speedwell (Veronica arvensis) were more abundant in maize-oats-lucerne hay than in maize-soyabean or continuous maize rotations, regardless of the tillage system. The data show how species composition and abundance change in response to crop and soil management. The results can help to determine how complex plant communities are "assembled" from a pool of species by specific constraints or filters.
The floristic diversity have been estudied by Bohner (2003)in Austria. He found two dominating but controversial trends: intensification of favourable and abandoning of less favourable grasslands, both having a negative impact on floral diversity. Arable weeds indicating high nutrient levels are C. bursa-pastoris, Stellaria media and Poa annua.
Social ImpactTop of page
Dog et al., (2001), under an integrative approach studied the effects of herbal remedies for menstrual flooding and irregularities during menopause, which include chastetree fruits and shepherd's purse (C. bursa-pastoris).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Pest and disease transmission
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
UsesTop of page
Uses ListTop of page
- Host of pest
Human food and beverage
- Poisonous to mammals
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
C. bursa-pastoris is extremely variable in size, fruit and leaf form. It can be distinguished by its long terminal racemes and triangular pods, its white flowers and by the deeply lobed basal leaves which form a rosette.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
The addition of Brassica hirta to air-dried soil (20g/400 g soil) reduced the emergence of C. bursa-pastoris by 97% (Al Khatib et al., 1997).
C. bursa-pastoris in apple orchards was suppressed by the dominance of water foxtail (Alopecurus aequalis var. amurensis) in the Korea Republic (Jung et al., 1998).
The effects of grazing intensity on weed populations in annual and perennial pasture systems has been studied by Harker et al., (2000) in the USA. In perennial pastures, each unit increase in grazing intensity led to 51 more C. bursa-pastoris per m². At lower levels of grazing intensity, C. bursa-pastoris and other species were most abundant in the annual pastures. The response of the weed population to grazing pressure in annual pasture systems is restricted because of annual tillage and MCPA. Therefore, pasture managers may subject annual pastures to heavy grazing pressure with less negative weed population consequences than perennial pastures where herbicides are not applied.
Tillage for seedbed preparation in the annual system supports a proliferation of annual weeds in the spring.
Manual and Mechanical Control
C. bursa-pastoris can be readily controlled by conventional manual and mechanical weeding. The influence of four tillage systems, varying from intensive to zero tillage, on weed populations and the vertical distribution of weed seeds in the soil was determined by O´Donovan and Mc Andrew in Canada (2000). The winter annuals such as shepherd's-purse (C. bursa-pastoris) increased in the soil seedbank as tillage was reduced, however, higher populations in the soil seedbank did not always result in higher spring seedling populations under zero tillage.
Many products are available for control of C. bursa-pastoris. It is susceptible to the action of auxin-type growth-regulators and to most contact and residual herbicides (Ivens, 1971). Good control is achieved using sulfonylureas (Eberlein et al., 1994), amidosulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl (D'Sousa et al., 1993), thifensulfuron (Müller, 1992), chlorsulfuron (Rudfeldt, 1983), substituted ureas (Baumann, 1994), acetanilides (Penner et al., 1993), imidazolinones (Miller, 1986; D'Sousa et al., 1993) and triazines. These herbicides are often used in mixtures and sequences with other herbicides to achieve optimum control of the weed.
Post-emergence application of imazethapyr during establishment following pre-plant application of trifluralin consistently provided 80% control of Avena fatua and C. bursa-pastoris without any injury to the crop (Darwent et al., 1997). According to Lueschen et al. (1997), only post-emergence aplications of imazamox gave good control of C. bursa-pastoris. Pre- and post-emergence applications of rimsulfuron gave good control of C. bursa-pastoris in tomato (Mullen et al., 1999). Isoxaflutole provided effective control of annual broad-leaved weeds including C. bursa-pastoris in maize (Dorontic and Loubiere, 1999). Isoproturon + amidosulfuron effectively controlled important weeds of winter cereals including C. bursa-pastoris (Cimerman and Babnik, 1999).
In experiments conducted in wheat fields from 1993-1997 a range of sulfonylurea herbicides controlled broad-leaved weeds including C. bursa-pastoris by more than 90%. However, continued use of sulfonylureas year after year caused a shift in the weed community (Jiang DeFeng et al., 1999).
Sulfosulfuron may be used in potatoes, providing more than 90% control of C. bursa-pastoris (Gough and Calstrom, 1999). Clomazone may also be used in this crop (Genot et al., 2000).
A chemical weed control trial conducted by Montemurro et al., (2000) in a 10-year-old olive orchard (Italy) demonstrated that all rates of azafenidin at single application showed high and lasting levels of efficacy in controlling Anthemis arvensis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Conyza canadensis, Diplotaxis erucoides, Sonchus oleraceus, Lolium spp. and Poa spp. The herbicide treatments tested did not have significant effect on crop yield when compared with tilled control.
Montemurro and Facchiolla (2000) report that azafenidin gave consistent control of C. bursa-pastoris among other weeds without any damage to olives.
A comparative survey of weeds surviving in triazine-tolerant (TT) and conventional (C) canola crops in south-eastern Australia have been recently made by Lemerle et al., (2001).They found that some weeds were more prevalent in (C) canola (e.g. Fumaria spp., Arctotheca calendula, Capsella bursa-pastoris and Papaver somniferum) while others were more common in TT canola (e.g. Anagallis arvensis, Raphanus raphanistrum, Lepidium africanum and Conringia orientalis). Results suggest that widespread adoption of TT canola will affect weed population dynamics, thereby leading to new weed problems.
Fennimore and Jackson (2003) have evaluated the effects of minimum tillage vs. conventional tillage and the effects of organic amendments (cover crops and compost) vs. no organic amendments in vegetable fields in USA. Reduced tillage increased the density of shepherd's-purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) in the upper soil layer (0 to 15 cm) of the soil seed bank compared with conventional tillage. Also shepherd's-purse emergence and seed bank densities were lower in the organic amendment plots, authors report.
ReferencesTop of page
Bonfils AC; Gleddie S; Webb J; Keller W, 1991. Capsella bursa-pastoris cell suspension and protoplast cultures. Physiologia Plantarum, 82(1):A10; [also ^italic~Eighth international protoplast symposium^roman~.].
California Invasive Plants Council, 2004. Cal IPC list. California, USA. World Wide Web page at http://groups.ucanr.org/ceppc/Pest_Plant_List.
Cimerman M; Babnik M, 1999. Grodyl Plus - new herbicide in winter cereals in Slovenia. Zbornik predavanj in referatov 4. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin v Portoroz^hacek~u od 3. do 4. Marca 1999., 91-93.
D'Souza DSM; Black IA; Hewson RT, 1993. Amidosulfuron - a new sulfonylurea for the control of Galium aparine and other broad-leaved weeds in cereals. Brighton crop protection conference, weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 22-25 November, 1993. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council (BCPC), Vol. 2:567-572
Frankton C; Mulligan GA, 1970. Weeds of Canada. Canadian Department of Agriculture Publication 948. Ottawa, Canada: The Queen's Printer.
Gabrys B; Pawluk M, Simpson SJ ed. , Mordue AJ ed., Hardie J, 1999. Aceptability of different species of Brassicaceae as hosts for the cabbage aphid. Proceedings, Tenth International Symposium on Insect-Plant Relationships, Oxford, UK, 4-10 July 1998, 105-109.
Galvez VM; Criollo E H, 1981. Competition between beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) var. Diacol Andino and weeds. Resumenes XIII Seminario de la Sociedad Colombiana de Control de Malezas y Fisiologia Vegetal y VIII Reunion Asociacion Latinoamericana de Fisologia Vegetal, Cali, 1981., 14
Genot B; Massmann KW, Haas HU ed. , Hurle K, 2000. Centium 36 CS: a new clomazone based pre-emergence herbicide for the control of broad-leafed weeds in potatoes. Proceedings 20th German conference on weed biology and weed control, Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Germany, 14-16 March, 2000. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, Sonderh, 17:539-544.
Gleiss W; Bachthaler G, 1988. The significance of weeds as host plants of the sugar-beet nematode Heterodera schachtii Schmitt in weed control according to thresholds. Angewandte Botanik, 62(3-4):193-201
Gleissl W; Bachthaler G; Hoffmann GM, 1989. Investigations on the suitability of weeds of various geographic origins as hosts of the sugar-beet nematode Heterodera schachtii Schmidt. Weed Research, UK, 29(3):221-228
Hallgren E, 1992. Influence of different factors on the effect of chemical weed control in autumn-sown oilseed crops. Swedish crop protection conference. Weeds and Weed Control, 33:33-37.
Hoffman-Kakol I, 1985. Influence of irrigation on weed phenology in root crops. Part II. Phenological changes of weeds in sugarbeet. Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej w Szczecinie, Rolnictwo, No.36:85-93; 4 ref.
Holzner W; Numata M, 1982. Biology and Ecology of Weeds. The Haag, Boston, London: Dr. W. Junk Publishers.
Hong KiJeong; Egorov AB; Woo KunSuk, 2000. Taxonomic review of Korean Ceutorhynchinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) II. Subtribes Coeliodina, Ceutorhynchina, Hypurina, Mecysmoderina, and tribe Orobitini. Insecta Koreana, 16(2):163-195; 31 ref.
Hosoda A; Hama H; Suzuki K; Ando Y, 1993. Insecticide resistance of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. III. Host preference and organophosphorus susceptibility. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 37(2):83-90
ISSG, 2004. Invasive Species Specialists Group. World Wide Web at http:///issg.appfa.auckland.ac.nz/database/species/Species List.
Ivens GW, 1971. East African weeds and their control. Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press, 145-146.
Kawana Y, 1997. Occurrence of weeds in winter wheat and barley grown on drained off-season paddy fields in northern Kyushu. Report of the Kyushu Branch of the Crop Science Society of Japan, No. 63, 43-45.
Khamraev A Sh, 1999. The seasonal distribution of field bug in agrobiocoenoses. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No. 9, 31.
Kim YoungJin; Park GeunJe; Choi SeonSik; Lee HyukHo; Hwang SukJoong, 1998. Ecological studies on weeds in cultivated pasture. III. Effect of chemical properties of soil on weed development in pasture. RDA Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 40(1):89-98; 21 ref.
Kissmann K; Groth D, 1993. Plantas infestantes e Nocivas. Sao Paulo, Brazil: BASF Brasileira Tomo II.
Korsmo E, 1954. Anatomy of weeds. Oslo, Norway: Grohndal & Sons, 172-175.
Latheef MA; Caddel JL; Berberet RC; Stritzke JF, 1988. Alfalfa forage yield, stand persistence, and weed colonization as influenced by variable first harvest in Oklahoma. Journal of Production Agriculture, 1(2):155-159
Lawson HM; Wright GM; Wilson BJ; Wright KJ, 1993. Seedbank persistence of five arable weed species in autumn-sown crops. In: Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Weeds, Brighton, UK. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council (BCPC), 1:305-310.
Lueschen WE; Oelke EA; Levorson EJ; LeGare DG, 1997. Weed control in herbicide resistant canola. Proceedings North Central Weed Science Society, Louisville, Kentucky, USA, 9-11 December, 1997: volume 52., 7-10.
Markov MV, 1976. The plasticity and composition of Capsella bursa-pastoris populations in different field crops. Byulleten' Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody, Otdel Biologicheskii, 81(4):118-123
Mullen RJ; Caprile J; Viss TC; Whiteley RW; Rivara CJ; Bieche BJ, 1999. Recent research developments in tomato weed management. Proceedings of the Sixth International ISHS Symposium on the Processing Tomato and the Workshop on Irrigation and Fertigation of Processing Tomato, Pamplona, Spain, 25-29 May 1998. Acta Horticulturae, No. 487, 165-170.
Norris RF, Brown H ed. , Cussans GW ed., Devine MD ed., Duke SO ed., Fernandez-Quintanilla C ed., Helweg A ed., Labrada RE ed., Landes M ed., Kudsk P ed., Streibig JC, 1996. Weed population dynamics: seed production. Proceedings of the second international weed control congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25-28 June 1996, Volumes 1-4, 15-20.
Popay A; Roberts EH, 1970. Ecology of Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. and Senecio vulgaris L. in relation to germination behaviour. Journal of Ecology, 58:123-138.
Popay A; Roberts EH, 1970. Factors involved in the dormancy and germination of Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. and Senicio vulgaris L. Journal of Ecology, 58:103-121.
Pozuelo JM; Fernandez-Pascual M; Lucas MM; Felipe MRde, 1989. Effect of eight herbicides from five different chemical groups on nitrogen fixation and grain yield in Lupinus albus L. grown in semi-arid zones. Weed Research (Oxford), 29(6):419-425
Ramirez de Vallejo A; Meneses S L, 1977. Performance of herbicides applied at 3 growth stages of rape. Control de Malezas: Resultados de la Investigacion y Nuevos, Herbicidas, 1976-77. Sociedad Chilena de Control de Malezas. Santiago Chile, 62-64
Rudfeldt P, 1983. Chlorsulfuron (Glean (R) 20 DF), a herbicide for weed control in spring cereals. Weeds and weed control. 24th Swedish Weed Conference, Uppsala 26-27 January 1983. Vol.1. Reports Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet Uppsala Sweden, 20-29
Sansome E; Sansome FW, 1974. Cytology and life history of Peronospora parasitica on Capsella bursa pastoris and of Albugo candida on C. bursa pastoris and on Lunaria annua. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 62:323-332.
Slonovschi V; Pînzariu D; Ulinici A, 1987. The effect of some herbicides on weeds infesting sunflower and soyabean crops on the Moldavian Plain. Cercetari Agronomice în Moldova, 20(2(78)):124-128; 4 ref.
Sola S, 1982. Relevamiento de malezas en la implantaci=n de pasturas cultivadas. Actas IX reuni=n argentina sobre la maleza y su control. Vol 11, No. 1, 142-155.
Takabayashi M, 1989. Contribution of weeds to the occurrence of soil-borne diseases. Weed hosts of Verticillium spp. damaging vegetables. Proceedings, 12th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference Taipei, Taiwan; Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society, No. 2:461-464
USA; University of Illinois; College of Agriculture, 1981. Weeds of the North Central states; North Central Regional Research Publication No.281. Bulletin, College of Agriculture, University of Illinois, No.772:303pp.
USDA, 2004. Federal Noxious Weed List. USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Riverdale, Maryland, USA. World Wide Web at:http:// www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/permits/fnwsbycat-e.PDF.
USDA, 2004. Plants Database. World Wide Web at: http://plants.usda.gov/index.html.
Weiss E; Stettmer C, 1991. Weeds in agricultural ecosystems attract flower visiting beneficial insects. Agrar"kologie, 1:104.
Wheeler AG Jr; Hoebeke ER, 1988. Biology and seasonal history of Rhopalus (Brachycarenus) tigrinus, with descriptions of immature stages (Heteroptera: Rhopalidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 96(4):381-389
Williamson M; Preston C; Telfer M, 2003. On the rates of spread of alien plants in Britain. In: Child LE, Brock JH, Brundu G, Prach K, Pysek P, Wade PM, Williamson M, eds. Plant Invasions: Ecological Threats and Management Solutions. Backhuys, Leiden, 63-74.
Alberico S, Simpson R G, 1978. Field behavior of Bathyplectes curculionis in Colorado. In: Proceedings of the North Central Branch of the Entomological Society of America [Howitt, A. J. (Chairman): Fifty-seventh annual conference of the North Central States Entomologists.], 33 59.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Chatzivassiliou E K, Boubourakas I, Drossos E, Eleftherohorinos I, Jenser G, Peters D, Katis N I, 2001. Weeds in greenhouses and tobacco fields are differentially infected by Tomato spotted wilt virus and infested by its vector species. Plant Disease. 85 (1), 40-46. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.1.40
Dąbkowska T, Sygulska P, 2013. Variations in weed flora and the degree of its transformation in ecological and extensive conventional cereal crops in selected habitats of the Beskid Wyspowy Mountains. Acta Agrobotanica. 66 (2), 123-136. DOI:10.5586/aa.2013.029
Fazal Hadi, Muhammad Ibrar, 2015. Ecology of weeds in wheat crops of Kalash valley, district Chitral, Hindukush Range, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 21 (3), 425-433. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-21-3-2015/11.%20PJWSR-06-2015.pdf
Frankton C, Mulligan GA, 1970. Weeds of Canada. In: Canadian Department of Agriculture Publication 948, Ottawa, Canada: The Queen's Printer.
Galvez V M, Criollo E H, 1981. Competition between beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) var. Diacol Andino and weeds. (Competencia entre el frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris) var. Diacol Andino y las malezas.). In: Resumenes XIII Seminario de la Sociedad Colombiana de Control de Malezas y Fisiologia Vegetal y VIII Reunion Asociacion Latinoamericana de Fisologia Vegetal, Cali, 1981. [Resumenes XIII Seminario de la Sociedad Colombiana de Control de Malezas y Fisiologia Vegetal y VIII Reunion Asociacion Latinoamericana de Fisologia Vegetal, Cali, 1981.], 14.
Goerke K, Schönhammer A, Schulte M, Gerowitt B, 2007. Weeds in oilseed rape in Germany - status and assessment of changes. In: European Weed Research Society, 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17-21 June 2007 [European Weed Research Society, 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17-21 June 2007.], [ed. by Fløistad E]. Doorwerth, Netherlands: European Weed Research Society. 198. http://www.ewrs-symposium2007.com
Grande J A, Steinke J, 1976. Herbicide efficacy in spring and fall planted spinach. In: Proceedings of the Northeastern Weed Science Society, Boston. [Proceedings of the Northeastern Weed Science Society, Boston.], 200.
Hadžić A, 1987. Importance of sowing density of spring wheat and rye for the numbers and dynamics of weed plants. (Uticaj gustine sjetve jare pšenice i raži na brojnost i razvoj korovskih biljaka.). In: Fragmenta Herbologica Jugoslavica, 16 (1-2) 155-161.
Hallgren E, 1992. Influence of different factors on the effect of chemical weed control in autumn-sown oilseed crops. In: Swedish crop protection conference. Weeds and weed control. [Swedish crop protection conference. Weeds and weed control.], Uppsala, Sweden: Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences). 33-37.
Hazini F, Zamani A A, Sasakawa M, Rakhshani E, Torabi M, 2013. A contribution to the agromyzid leaf miners (Diptera: Agromyzidae) of Kermanshah, Iran. Journal of the Entomological Research Society. 15 (3), 101-107. http://www.entomol.org
Hwang KiSeon, Eom MinYong, Park SuHyuk, Won OkJae, Lee InYong, Park KeeWoong, 2015. Occurrence and distribution of weed species on horticulture fields in Chungnam province of Korea. Journal of Ecology and Environment. 38 (3), 353-360. DOI:10.5141/ecoenv.2015.036
Ivens GW, 1971. East African weeds and their control., Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press. 145-146.
Kämpf I, Hölzel N, Kühling I, Kiehl K, 2016. Arable weed flora in the Western Siberian grain belt. In: Julius-Kühn-Archiv. [ed. by Nordmeyer H, Ulber L]. Quedlinburg, Germany: Julius Kühn Institut, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Kulturpflanzen. 76-83. http://pub.jki.bund.de/index.php/JKA/article/view/6209/5913
Latheef M A, Caddel J L, Berberet R C, Stritzke J F, 1988. Alfalfa forage yield, stand persistence, and weed colonization as influenced by variable first harvest in Oklahoma. Journal of Production Agriculture. 1 (2), 155-159.
Miller S D, 1986. Weed control in alfalfa with AC-263,499. In: Proceedings, North Central Weed Control Conference. [Proceedings, North Central Weed Control Conference.], Milwaee, Wisconsin, USA, uk: 104.
Mirzaee M R, Sajedi S, 2015. First confirmed report of white blister rust disease caused by Albugo candida on Capsella bursa-pastoris in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology. 97 (Supplement), S71. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3556/2223
Piekarczyk M, Wenda-Piesik A, Gałęzewski L, Kotwica K, 2019. Weed infestation and yielding of field pea and yellow lupine depending on various doses of herbicide mixtures. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum - Agricultura. 18 (1), 21-27. http://www.agricultura.acta.utp.edu.pl/index.php/agricultura/article/view/129/84
Pozuelo J M, Fernandez-Pascual M, Lucas M M, Felipe M R de, 1989. Effect of eight herbicides from five different chemical groups on nitrogen fixation and grain yield in Lupinus albus L. grown in semi-arid zones. Weed Research (Oxford). 29 (6), 419-425. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3180.1989.tb01313.x
Queirós M, 1986. Alphabetical index of taxa referred to in the series 'Chromosome numbers for the flora of Portugal'. 1-103. (Índice alfabético dos taxa referidos na série 'Números cromossómicos para a flora portuguesa'. 1-103.). Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana. 59 (2), 273-276.
Ren L, Fang X P, Sun C C, Chen K R, Liu F, Li M, Xu L, 2014. First report of clubroot on Capsella bursa-pastoris caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae in Sichuan Province of China. Plant Disease. 98 (5), 687. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-13-0395-PDN
Rowarth J S, Rolston M P, Johnson A A, 1990. Weedseed occurrence in ryegrass seedlots. In: Proceedings of the Forty-Third New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference. [Proceedings of the Forty-Third New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference.], 125-129.
Shapland E B, Daane K M, Yokota G Y, Wistrom C, Connell J H, Duncan R A, Viveros M A, 2006. Ground vegetation survey for Xylella fastidiosa in California almond orchards. Plant Disease. 90 (7), 905-909. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-0905
Slonovschi V, Pînzariu D, Ulinici A, 1987. The effect of some herbicides on weeds infesting sunflower and soyabean crops on the Moldavian Plain. (Efectul unor erbicide asupra buruienilor ce infestează culturile de floarea-soarelui și soia în Cîmpia Moldovei.). Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova. 20 (2(78)), 124-128.
Sola S, 1982. (Relevamiento de malezas en la implantacion de pasturas cultivadas). In: Actas IX reunion argentina sobre la maleza y su control, 11 (1) 142-155.
Stobbs L W, Greig N, Weaver S, Shipp L, Ferguson G, 2009. The potential role of native weed species and bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) on the epidemiology of Pepino mosaic virus. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 31 (2), 254-261. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07060660909507599
Tahira J J, Khan S N, 2017. Diversity of weed flora in onion fields of Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 23 (2), 245-253. http://www.wssp.org.pk/resources/images/paper/955QW1498306408.pdf
Takabayashi M, 1989. Contribution of weeds to the occurrence of soil-borne diseases. Weed hosts of Verticillium spp. damaging vegetables. In: Proceedings, 12th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. [Proceedings, 12th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference.], Taipei, Taiwan: Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society. 461-464.
Takada H, 2002. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae; Aphelinidae) of four principal pest aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on greenhouse vegetable crops in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 37 (2), 237-249. DOI:10.1303/aez.2002.237
Weiss E, Stettmer C, 1991. Weeds in agricultural ecosystems attract flower-visiting beneficial insects. (Unkräuter in der Agrarlandschaft locken blütenbesuchende Nutzinsekten an.). Agrarokologie. 104 pp.
Woźniak A, 2020. Effect of cereal monoculture and tillage systems on grain yield and weed infestation of winter durum wheat. International Journal of Plant Production. 14 (1), 1-8. DOI:10.1007/s42106-019-00062-8
Zemánek J, Zimčik P, Kovář J, 1988. The effectiveness of triasulfuron and its combinations on weeds in cereal crops. (Účinek triasulfuronu a jeho kombinací na plevely v obilninách.). Agrochémia. 28 (4), 109-112.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/