Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Abutilon grandifolium
(hairy Indian mallow)

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Datasheet

Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Abutilon grandifolium
  • Preferred Common Name
  • hairy Indian mallow
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Native to South America, A. grandifolium is widely cultivated as a fibre plant and ornamental in the tropics where it has become naturalized. This garden escape is a relatively common weed of waste areas, dis...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); flowers and leaves, Radar hill field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionAbutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); flowers and leaves, Radar hill field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); flowers and leaves, Radar hill field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008
Flowers and leavesAbutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); flowers and leaves, Radar hill field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); flowers and leaves. Waihee, Hawaii, USA. February, 2007.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionAbutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); flowers and leaves. Waihee, Hawaii, USA. February, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); flowers and leaves. Waihee, Hawaii, USA. February, 2007.
Flowers and leavesAbutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); flowers and leaves. Waihee, Hawaii, USA. February, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); habit as a dense thicket. Old hospital field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionAbutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); habit as a dense thicket. Old hospital field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); habit as a dense thicket. Old hospital field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.
HabitAbutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); habit as a dense thicket. Old hospital field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); habit, as a dense thicket. Note Laysan albatross chick (Phoebastria immutabilis). Enlisted Woods, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionAbutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); habit, as a dense thicket. Note Laysan albatross chick (Phoebastria immutabilis). Enlisted Woods, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); habit, as a dense thicket. Note Laysan albatross chick (Phoebastria immutabilis). Enlisted Woods, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.
HabitAbutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); habit, as a dense thicket. Note Laysan albatross chick (Phoebastria immutabilis). Enlisted Woods, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); flower. Radar hill field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.
TitleFlower
CaptionAbutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); flower. Radar hill field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); flower. Radar hill field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.
FlowerAbutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); flower. Radar hill field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); opening flower, leaves and ripening seed pod. Note hirsute nature of plant. Kula Botanical Garden, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.
TitleFlower
CaptionAbutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); opening flower, leaves and ripening seed pod. Note hirsute nature of plant. Kula Botanical Garden, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); opening flower, leaves and ripening seed pod. Note hirsute nature of plant. Kula Botanical Garden, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.
FlowerAbutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); opening flower, leaves and ripening seed pod. Note hirsute nature of plant. Kula Botanical Garden, Hawaii, USA. March, 2011.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); leaves and seed capsules. Enlisted Woods, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.
TitleSeed capsules
CaptionAbutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); leaves and seed capsules. Enlisted Woods, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); leaves and seed capsules. Enlisted Woods, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.
Seed capsulesAbutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow); leaves and seed capsules. Enlisted Woods, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June, 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Abutilon grandifolium (Willd.) Sweet

Preferred Common Name

  • hairy Indian mallow

Other Scientific Names

  • Abutilon arnottianum (Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.) Walp.
  • Abutilon kauaiense Hochr.
  • Abutilon molle Sweet
  • Abutilon molle var. grandifolium (Willd.) Sweet
  • Abutilon mollicomum (Willd.) Sweet
  • Abutilon mollissimum var. sandwicense Hochr.
  • Abutilon sordidum K.Schum.
  • Abutilon tortuosum Guill. & Perr.
  • Sida grandifolia Willd.
  • Sida mollicoma Willd.
  • Sida mollis Rich.
  • Sida sericea Mill.

International Common Names

  • English: abutilon; flowering maple; hairy abutilon; tall abutilon
  • Spanish: abutilo; malva del monte
  • French: abutilon à grandes feuilles

Local Common Names

  • Uganda: kifura
  • USA/Hawaii: ma‘o

Spanish acronym

  • malva del monte

Summary of Invasiveness

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Native to South America, A. grandifolium is widely cultivated as a fibre plant and ornamental in the tropics where it has become naturalized. This garden escape is a relatively common weed of waste areas, disturbed sites, roadsides and drains, but is also an occasional weed of disturbed and undisturbed natural ecosystems (e.g. tall shrublands, grasslands and riparian areas). Given this species’ prolific seed production A. grandifolium has become a problematic weed in some of the regions where it occurs. There is little information available on the impacts of this species. However in Hawaii, along with other invasive species, it is reported as having a detrimental effect on Spermolepis hawaiiensis and Scaevola coriacea, two endangered and threatened species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Malvales
  •                         Family: Malvaceae
  •                             Genus: Abutilon
  •                                 Species: Abutilon grandifolium

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Abutilon Mill. is a genus of shrubs of the Malvaceae. It comprises between 220 and 290 species distributed in the tropics and subtropics.The name grandifolium comes from the Latin grandis (large or big) and folius (foliage), alluding to this species’ leaves, which are larger than those of other species of this genus.

According to The Plant List (2013) a total of 12 of synonyms for A. grandifolium exist.

Description

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A. grandifolium is a perennial herb or shrub that grows up to 3 m tall. Its branches are covered with long and slender hairs. The leaves are simple and alternate and are borne by a 5-20 cm long petiole. Awl-shaped, caducous stipules are found at the base of the petiole. The leaf’s blade is ovate, up to 20 by 15 cm, its base is cordate and its apex acute or subacuminate. Leaves have a toothed margin, 6-7-nerved. Both surfaces of the leaf are covered with stellate hairs. Inflorescences bearing one or two flowers are located in the leaf axils. The peduncles (main stalk of the inflorescence) are shorter than the petioles (4 to 5 cm long and up to 12 cm in mature fruits). Flowers are bisexual and lack the epicalyx. They have five yellow petals, which are united at the base of the staminal colum and enclosed by a 5-lobed calyx, 1 to 1.5 cm long. The staminal column is very short (5-8 mm long) with many stamens. The style branches are yellow, stigmas maroon and the ovary superior. The fruit is subglobose and splits into single-seeded parts when dry. Each fruit contains two to five blackish, kidney-shaped and sparsely pubescent seeds. 

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Woody

Distribution

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A. grandifolium is native to South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay). This species is widely cultivated in the tropics where it has been recorded as naturalized outside of its native range in New Zealand, some Pacific Ocean islands, tropical Africa and eastern and western Australia.

In parts of Australia (particularly southeastern Queensland and eastern New South Wales), it is regarded as a minor environmental weed or potential environmental weed (Queensland Government, 2012). In Portugal, it is considered invasive or potentially invasive (Domingues de Almeida and Freitas, 2012), in Micronesia, it is considered an invasive weed (Josekutty et al., 2002) and in Hawaii, it is included in the annotated list of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants (Staples et al., 2000).

The species is considered native to South Africa by some authors (e.g. Bredenkamp and Leistner, 2003), however the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas considers this species as a weed. Thus the native status of this species is uncertain in South Africa (Jaca et al., 2015). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroducedGBIF (2015)
Burkina FasoPresentIntroducedGBIF (2015)
Cabo VerdePresentIntroducedGBIF (2015)
CameroonPresentIntroducedGBIF (2015)
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedGBIF (2015)
GabonPresentIntroducedSosef et al. (2006)
MozambiquePresentIntroducedInvasiveBalsinhas (1983)
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasiveTassin et al. (2006)
São Tomé and PríncipePresentIntroducedExell (1973)
SenegalPresentIntroducedGBIF (2015)
South AfricaPresentGBIF (2015)Uncertain as to whether introduced or native

Asia

IraqPresentIntroducedGBIF (2015)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedGBIF (2015)

Europe

PortugalPresentIntroducedInvasiveDomingues Almeida and Freitas (2012); GBIF (2015)
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Silva Vieria RM da (2002)
SpainPresentIntroducedInvasiveGBIF (2015)
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveKunkel (1972)Common in roadsides in the Northern part of Gran Canaria

North America

United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedGBIF (2015)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasiveGBIF (2015)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveGBIF (2015)
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedQueensland Government (2012)
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedQueensland Government (2012)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveJosekutty et al. (2002)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced1906GBIF (2015)
New ZealandPresentIntroducedNew Zealand Plant Conservation Network (2015)
NiuePresentIntroducedGBIF (2015)
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedGBIF (2015)

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeGBIF (2015)
BoliviaPresentNativeGBIF (2015)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeGBIF (2015)
ChilePresentNativeGBIF (2015)
ParaguayPresentNativeGBIF (2015)
PeruPresentNativeGBIF (2015)
UruguayPresentNativeMartius et al. (1840)Nueva Palmira

History of Introduction and Spread

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Although A. grandifolium was first reported outside of its native range in the nineteenth century, there are no records of its introduction and subsequent spread.

Risk of Introduction

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A. grandifolium produces a large number of seeds (Wagner et al., 1999). It is possible that these may be spread unintentionally or, to a much lesser extent, through accidental introduction (e.g. as a produce contaminant). 

Habitat

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A. grandifolium is a common weed of waste areas, disturbed sites, roadsides and drains. However, it is also an occasional weed of disturbed and undisturbed natural ecosystems such as tall shrublands, grasslands and riparian areas (CISEH, 2010).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Arid regions Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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In spite of the reported damage caused by its congenic species A. theophrasti, there is no indication that A. grandifolium can reduce crop yields or increase costs (CGAPS, 2014)

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

A. grandifolium is hexaploid and has been found to have n = 21 (Afaq-Husain et al., 1988).

Reproductive Biology

The species is pollinated by bees (Jaca et al., 2015) and has been reported to attract butterflies and birds (CGAPS, 2014). A. grandifolium reproduces by producing a large number of seeds with between 510-1020 seeds produced per plant (Wagner et al., 1999). There is however disagreement as to whether it can also be propagated from cuttings (Haselwood et al., 1983; Staples and Herbst, 2005).

Physiology and Phenology

As a perennial herb, A. grandifolium flowers in the first year at 4-6 months. It matures after 12-18 months (CGAPS, 2014). This species blossoms most part of the year (Spach, 1834). In Australia, it flowers from late winter to spring (Stanley and Ross, 1983). Leading shoots can be pruned in late winter for a compact form, although some cultivars display their flowers best on long arching branches (Jaca et al., 2015).

Environmental Requirements

A. grandifolium can tolerate a considerable range of conditions. It grows on dry between watering to constantly moist soils. Moreover, it develops without difficulty both on ordinary and enriched soil, as well as on mildly acidic to mildly alkaline soils (Plant This, 2015). This species can be exposed to both light shade and bright sun. In cool climates seedlings must be kept indoors (Huxley et al., 1999; Jaca et al., 2015). A. grandifolium occurs between 0 and 2000 m.a.s.l. (Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, 2015) where it thrives along rivers, in wasteland and in cultivated land (PROTA, 2013).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -9.4 4.4

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Oryctolagus cuniculus Herbivore Leaves/Stems not specific VanderWerf et al., 2007
Puccinia heterospora Pathogen Leaves not specific Nelson, 2013
Puccinia malvacearum Pathogen Leaves not specific Nelson, 2013

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Evidence from Hawaii indicates that A. grandifolium can be a victim of herbivory by feral rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) (VanderWerf et al., 2007). Moreover, the pathogens Puccinia heterospora and Puccinia malvacearum infect and attack the leaves of A. grandifolium, causing spots, curling, chlorosis, blights and defoliation (Nelson, 2013).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

The Coordinating Group on Alien Pest Species of Hawaii noted that the distribution of A. grandifolium along rivers suggests possible dispersal by water (CGAPS, 2014). This is also believed to be the case in Australia (Queensland Government, 2014).

Vector Transmission

It is possible that the seeds of A. grandifolium, like other species in this genus, are dispersed by ants (Singh et al., 2007).

Accidental Introduction

The risk of propagule dispersal of A. grandifolium through produce contamination is low (CGAPS, 2014). There is however a possibility that this species is further dispersed by man, who will dump garden refuse.

Intentional Introduction

A. grandifolium has been intentionally introduced to areas outside of its native range for cultivation as a fibre crop.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Garden waste disposal Yes Coordinating Group Alien Pest Species, CGAPS

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plantsRisk of propagule dispersal through produce contamination is low Yes Yes Coordinating Group Alien Pest Species, CGAPS
WaterNo direct evidence of dispersal by water, its occurrence along riparian zones suggests this Yes Coordinating Group Alien Pest Species, CGAPS

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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A. grandifolium may act as a reservoir for a number of pests which can spread to neighbouring plants. For example it is one of the several host plants of the sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and its parasitoids (Eretmocerus mundus and Encarsia lutea) (Gerling, 1984). Sweetpotato whiteflies are also pests of cucurbits and tomatoes (Cohen et al., 1974).A. grandifolium is also a host of the Kona coffee root knot nematode (Meloidogyne konaensis), which is a parasite of coffee trees (Nelson et al., 2002). This species therefore has an indirect economic impact.

Environmental Impact

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According to the U.S. National Assessments of Non-Native Plants, there are no indications that A. grandifolium affects abiotic ecosystem processes (Maybury, 2005). However because of its occurrence in fire prone areas, the Coordinating Group on Alien Pest Species of Hawaii considers that A. grandifolium may contribute some biomass to wildland fires (CGAPS, 2014). it has been suggested that hybridization of A. grandifolium with other species is not possible (CGAPS, 2014).

It has been reported that the endangered species Spermolepis hawaiiensis and Scaevola coriacea on the island of Kauai and Hawaii respectively are threatened by A. grandifolium and a number of other invasive species (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010a; 2010b).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Scaevola coriacea (dwarf naupaka)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetitionUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010a
Spermolepis hawaiiensis (Hawaii scaleseed)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetitionUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010b

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition (unspecified)
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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Economic Value

A. grandifolium is cultivated in the tropics both for its fibre and as an ornamental. For instance, in Mozambique it has been grown as a potential fibre crop however the exact value of such crops is unknown (PROTA, 2013).

Social Benefit

In Burkina Faso decoctions of leafy or fruiting stems are applied as enema for the treatment of measles and the leaves and stems are used internally and externally for the treatment of insect bites (PROTA, 2013). In Tanzania, the leaves and root bark are administered as a tea for treating malaria, infectious venereal diseases and mental disorders (a common local synonym for severe forms of malaria) (Sikorska and Matlawska, 2008). In Brazil, the leaves are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer and myoma (Gomes de Melo et al., 2011).

Environmental Services

A. grandifolium has been recorded as a nesting plant for red-footed boobies, Sula sula, in Hawaii (VanderWerf et al., 2007). Although these are fairly common in the tropics of the world, in Hawaii, they seem to be competing for nesting sites with cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis).

Uses List

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General

  • Sociocultural value

Materials

  • Fibre

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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A. grandifolium can be easily confused with two species from the genus Abutilon. These include A. grandiflorum [Abutilon indicum] and A. theophrasti (Jaca et al., 2015). A. grandifolium differs from both these species in its number of mericarps, which varies from 8-10 as opposed to 12-16 in A. theophrastii and 18-25 in A. grandiflorum. A. grandifolium also differs from the other two species by its height as it may grow up to 3 m tall compared to 0.75–2.00 m in the other species (Meeuse, 1961; Naqshi et al., 1988; PROTA, 2013). However, it is often impossible to use height to identify species, particularly for young plants and the mericarp characteristics remain the most important factor in distinguishing between species of Abutilon

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Although physical removal of invasive species is a recommended method to control weeds, woodier specimens of A. grandifolium will resprout after repeated cutting without the application of herbicide to the stump or foliage (CGAPS, 2014).

Chemical Control

A. grandifolium is controllable with herbicides. For example, foliar application of glyphosate to resprouting foliage has proven to effectively control woody A. grandifolium (CGAPS, 2014). Moreover, tebuthiuron applied on the soil also offers adequate weed control (Motooka, 2000). 

References

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Afaq-Husain S, Saeed VA, Shahid-Husain S, 1988. Cytological investigations in Abutilon Mill., from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 20(2):191-199.

Balsinhas AA, 1983. The weeds of abandoned cotton fields in Mozambique. In: Bothalia, 14(3/4). 971-975.

Bredenkamp CL, Leistner OA, 2003. Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist. In: Strelitzia, 14 [ed. by Germishuizen, G. \Meyer, N. L.]. 619-628.

Burkhill HM, 1985. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. Vol. I. Families A-D. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Center for Invasive Species Ecosystem Health (CISEH), 2010. hairy Indian mallow Abutilon grandifolium (Willd.) Sweet., USA. http://www.invasive.org/browse/subinfo.cfm?sub=13918

Cohen S, Melamed-Madjar V, Hameiri J, 1974. Prevention of the spread of tomato yellow leaf curl virus transmitted by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) in Israel. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 64(2):193-197

Coordinating Group Alien Pest Species (CGAPS), 2014. Abutilon grandifolium. http://www.plantpono.org/files/Abutilon%20grandifolium

Domingues Almeida J de, Freitas H, 2012. Exotic flora of continental Portugal - a new assessment. Bocconea, 24:231-237.

Exell AW, 1973. Angiosperms of the islands of the Gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Principe, S. Tomé, and Annobon). Bulletin of the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) Botany, 4(8):327-411.

GBIF, 2015. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

Gerling D, 1984. The overwintering mode of Bemisia tabaci and its paracitoids in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 12(2):109-118.

Gil-González ML, 2015. Abutilon grandifolium. Flora Vascular de Canarias. http://www.floradecanarias.com/abutilon_grandifolium

Gomes de Melo J, Santos AG, Amorim ELC de, Nascimento SC do, Albuquerque UP de, 2011. Medicinal plants used as antitumor agents in Brazil: an ethnobotanical approach. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011:Article ID 365359. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2011/365359/

Haselwood EL, Motter GG, Hirano RT, 1983. Handbook of Hawaiian Weeds. 2nd edition. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 442-443.

Huxley A, Griffiths M, Levy M, 1999. The new RHS dictionary of gardening. Macmillan, 3336 pp.

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, 2015. Flora del Conosur. San Isidro, Argentina: Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. http://www2.darwin.edu.ar/Proyectos/FloraArgentina/BuscarEspecies.asp

Jaca TP, Phephu N, Condy G, 2015. Abutilon grandifolium. Flowering Plants of Africa, 64:76-83.

Josekutty PC, Wakuk EE, Joseph MJ, 2002. Invasive weedy angiosperms in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. Micronesica Supplement, 6:61-65. [Invasive species and their management.]

Kunkel G, 1972. On some weeds on Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) and their distribution. (Über Einige Unkräuter Auf Gran Canaria (Kanarisches Inseln) Und Deren Verbreitung.) Vegetatio, 24(1-3):177-191.

Martius KFP, Eichler AW, Endlicher IL, Fenzl E, Mary B, Oldenburg R, Urban I, 1840. Flora Brasiliensis. Munich and Leipzig, Germany: R Oldenbourg, 624 pp.

Maybury K, 2005. Abutilon grandifolium. National Assessments of Non-Native Plants. http://www.natureserve.org/library/invasive_species_assessments

Meeuse ADJ, 1961. Abutilon Mill. Flora Zambesiaca, 1(1):484-499.

Motooka A, 2000. Summaries of herbicide trials for pasture, range, and non-cropland weed control - 1999. University of Hawaii Cooperative Extension Service - Weed Control WC-5. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR), Honolulu.

Naqshi AR, Dar GH, Javeid GN, Kachroo P, 1988. Malvaceae of Jammu and Kashmir state, India. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 75:1499-1524.

Nelson S, 2013. Rusts of 'Ilima (Sida fallax). Cooperative Extension Service. Manoa, Hawaii: University of Hawaii, 3 pp.

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Distribution References

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Sosef M, Wieringa JJ, Jongkind CCH, Achoundong G, Azizet Issembk Y, Bedigian D, Berg RG van den, Breteler FJ, Cheek M, Degreef J, Faden RB, Goldblatt P, Maesen LJG van der, Ngok Banak L, Niangadouma R, Nzabi T, Nziengui B, Rogers ZS, Stkvart T, Valkenburg JLCH van, Walters G, Wilde JJFE de, 2006. Checklist of Gabonese vascular plants. (Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon)., Herent, Belgium: National Botanic Garden of Belgium. 438 pp.

Tassin J, Rivière J N, Cazanove M, Bruzzese E, 2006. Ranking of invasive woody plant species for management on Réunion Island. Weed Research (Oxford). 46 (5), 388-403. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=wre DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3180.2006.00522.x

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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04/09/2015 Original text:

Diana Quiroz, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, The Netherlands

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