Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Hemiculter leucisculus
(common sawbelly)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Hemiculter leucisculus (common sawbelly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 December 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hemiculter leucisculus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common sawbelly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Outside of its native area, H. leucisculus was first reported from Central Asia in the Amu Darya Basin in 1958, and in the Syr Darya Basin in 1961. In Iran, it was first found in the Anzali Lagoon (...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult female. L = 124 mm. W = 15.7 g. Abs. fecundity = 4600 eggs. Muynak Canal, Low Amu Darya, Uzbekistan, 20th March 2003.
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult female. L = 124 mm. W = 15.7 g. Abs. fecundity = 4600 eggs. Muynak Canal, Low Amu Darya, Uzbekistan, 20th March 2003.
CopyrightErnest Khurshut
Adult female. L = 124 mm. W = 15.7 g. Abs. fecundity = 4600 eggs. Muynak Canal, Low Amu Darya, Uzbekistan, 20th March 2003.
AdultAdult female. L = 124 mm. W = 15.7 g. Abs. fecundity = 4600 eggs. Muynak Canal, Low Amu Darya, Uzbekistan, 20th March 2003.Ernest Khurshut

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky, 1855)

Preferred Common Name

  • common sawbelly

Other Scientific Names

  • Chanodichthys leucisculus (Basilewsky, 1855)
  • Culter leucisculus Basilewsky, 1855
  • Cultriculus akoensis Oshima, 1920
  • Hemiculter clupeoides Nichols, 1925
  • Hemiculter eigenmanni (Jordan & Metz, 1913)
  • Hemiculter kneri Warpachowski, 1887
  • Hemiculter schrencki Warpachowski, 1888
  • Hemiculterella eigenmanni Jordan & Mertz, 1913
  • Kendallia goldsboroughi Evermann & Shaw, 1927
  • Parapelecus eigenmanni Jordan & Metz, 1913
  • Squaliobarbus annamiticus Tirant, 1883

International Common Names

  • English: kili fish; knifefish; Korean sawbelly; minnow; sharpbelly
  • Chinese: bai tiao; huahua

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Beilbauch-Weißfish
  • Iran: kuli-e mordab; shakam tiz; tizeh kuli
  • Kazakhstan: bileu balyq
  • Korea, DPR: chili; chiri
  • Russian Federation/Russian Far East: koreyskaya vostrobryushka; obyknovennaya vostrobryushka
  • Uzbekistan: oddiy qirraqorin balig'i

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Outside of its native area, H. leucisculus was first reported from Central Asia in the Amu Darya Basin in 1958, and in the Syr Darya Basin in 1961. In Iran, it was first found in the Anzali Lagoon (Holcík and Razavi, 1992) where it was probably introduced with Asian carp in 1967.

H. leucisculus is considered as a pest in fish farms where it competes with juveniles of commercial species. It also harms the local fish fauna, and displaces the small, native species, most probably by predation.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Cypriniformes
  •                         Family: Cyprinidae
  •                             Genus: Hemiculter
  •                                 Species: Hemiculter leucisculus

Description

Top of page

The dorsal fin of H. leucisculus has a strong spine. Dorsal spines: 2-3; dorsal soft rays: 7; anal spines: 2-3; anal soft rays: 10-14 (mostly 11-12). Moderate-sized scales that easily fall off. Scale number in the lateral line: 40-59 (mostly 46-52). The gill raker count of the first arch 15-21 (mostly 16-18). Pharyngeal teeth are hooked at the tip: 2,4,4-5,4,2; 2,4,5-4,4,2; 2,3,5-4,3,2. Has a sharp scale-less keel from the throat to the anus. The lateral line goes downward behind the head and then parallels the lower body margin, at the anal fin it curves upward and extends along the middle part of the caudal peduncle. Dark above, green grey and silvery on the back, white on the belly. There is a dark stripe along the upper flank.

Distribution

Top of page

The native range of H. leucisculus is East Asia: from Far East Russia and Mongolia in the north, through to China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan) and West Korea, to North Vietnam in the south.

Exotic distribution

H. leucisculus was unintentionally introduced into the Aral Sea Basin, Central Asia. It is currently widespread in the plains of the region up to foothills, and in the drainages of the Amu Darya, Syr Darya, Zarafshan, Qashqadarya, and Tedzhen rivers. In Iran it was reported from the Caspian Sea (Safid River, Aras River, Golestan Province) and Tigris basins. It is thought to be widespread in Iran, although this may be the native fish the Danube bleak (Chalcalburnus chalcoides), which is very similar.  H. leucisculus was probably introduced from Central Asia again with Asian carp (Holcík and Razavi, 1992).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroducedCoad, 1981Amu Darya Basin (Qonduz province)
ChinaWidespreadNative Not invasive Berg, 1949; Banarescu, 1991; Nie et al., 2000Yangtze Basin (Jinsha River Basin, Chuanjiang, Minjiang River Basin, Tuojiang River Basin, Jialing River Basin, Wujiang River Basin, Daning River, Xiangxi River), streams draining to Gulf of Chihli (/Bo Hai)
-AnhuiPresentNative Not invasive Banarescu, 1991
-BeijingPresentNative Not invasive Banarescu, 1991
-FujianPresentNative Not invasive Berg, 1949
-GuangdongPresentNative Not invasive Banarescu, 1991
-GuangxiPresentNative Not invasive Banarescu, 1991
-GuizhouPresentNative Not invasive Banarescu, 1991
-HebeiPresentNative Not invasive Banarescu, 1991
-HeilongjiangPresentNative Not invasive Berg, 1949; Banarescu, 1991Heilong (/Amur) and Songhua (/Sungari) rivers, Xingkai (/Khanka) Lake
-HenanPresentNative Not invasive Banarescu, 1991
-Hong KongPresentNative Not invasive Berg, 1949; Banarescu, 1991
-HubeiPresentNative Not invasive Xie et al., 2001Liangzi Lake
-HunanPresentNative Not invasive Banarescu, 1991
-JiangxiPresentNative Not invasive Banarescu, 1991
-JilinPresentNative Not invasive Banarescu, 1991
-LiaoningPresentNative Not invasive Berg, 1949; Banarescu, 1991Streams draining to Gulf of Chihli (/Bo Hai)
-ShandongPresentNative Not invasive Banarescu, 1991
-ShanghaiPresentNative Not invasive Berg, 1949; Banarescu, 1991
-YunnanWidespreadIntroduced1963-1965 Invasive Junxing, 1996Most lakes and rivers
-ZhejiangPresentNative Not invasive Kottelat, 2006
IranWidespreadIntroduced1967 Invasive Holcík and Razavi, 1992; Coad, 1995; Abbasi, 2005; Patimar and Kiabi, 2005; Patimar et al., 2008; Esmaeili et al., 2011Southeastern Caspian Sea Basin, Safid River, Aras River, Golestan Province, Tigris Drainage
IraqPresentIntroducedGarstecki and Amr, 2011Tigris Drainage
KazakhstanWidespreadIntroduced1958 Invasive Mitrofanov, 1967; Mitrofanov et al., 1992; Savvaitova and Petr, 1999; Mamilov Sh, 2011First introduced into Almaty Fish farm. Syr Darya, Chu, Ili, and Talas drainages, Balkhash Lake
Korea, DPRPresentNative Not invasive Nikolski, 1956West Korea
Korea, Republic ofWidespreadNative Not invasive Nah, 1989; Jang et al., 2002; Jang et al., 2003; Junkil et al., 2006West Korea, Hwajinpo and Youngsan lakes, Hoedong Reservoir, Kum River
MongoliaLocalisedNative Not invasive Berg, 1949; Dulmaa, 1999Buyr [Nuur] Lake, low Khalkhyn Gol (/Khalkha River)
TaiwanPresentNative Not invasive Berg, 1949; Banarescu, 1991
TurkmenistanWidespreadIntroduced1958-1961 Invasive Aliev et al., 1963; Shakirova and Nikolaev, 1991; Sal'nikov, 1998First introduced into Karametniyaz fish farm (55 km W from Kerki, Amu Darya River) and the Karakum (/Qaraqum/Garagum) Canal, Murghab River
UzbekistanWidespreadIntroduced1961 Invasive Kamilov and Borisova, 1966; Borisova, 1971; Borisova, 1972; Kamilov and Urchinov, 1995; Khurshut, 2002; Khurshut and Rakhmatullaeva, 2005First introduced into Balykchi fish farm, Tashkent Region (60 km SW From Tashkent. Syr Darya and Chirchik rivers junction). Amu Darya, Syr Darya, Zarafshan, Qashqa Darya drainages. Most water bodies in plains of the Aral Sea Basin
VietnamPresentNative Not invasive [Ho] Tay Lake, Red River (/Song Koi), Hué River

Europe

Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russian Far EastLocalisedNative Invasive Berg, 1949; Nikolski, 1956; Reshetnikov, 1998; Barabanshchikov and Magomedov, 2002; Kolpakov et al., 2010Native in Amur drainage and Khanka Lake; introduced and invasive in the Artemovka River (Ussuri Bay, Sea of Japan / East Sea) and Razdolnaya River (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan/East Sea)

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

In 1958, H. leucisculus was unintentionally introduced in Turkmenistan to the Karametniyaz fish farm and the Karakum Canal from the Yangtze River. Then in 1961 it was introduced (again with larvae of Asian carp) in Uzbekistan to the Akkurgan (later Balykchi) fish farm in the Tashkent region. It was transferred, with fish seed, to other fish farms of the region. H. leucisculus has escaped from fish farms and via the extensive network of irrigation canals has spread to the plains of the Aral Sea Basin to the drainages of the Amu Darya, Syr Darya, Zarafshan, Qashqa Darya, and Tedzhen rivers.

In Iran, H. leucisculus was first reported from the Anzali Lagoon by Holcík and Razavi (1992) where it was probably introduced by accident along with Asian carp from Central Asia in 1967 (Holcík and Razavi, 1992). Esmaeili and Gholamifard (2011) reported a significant range extension and the presence in two new drainage basis in Iran, over 370 km southwest of the nearest previous records from the Caspian Sea basin. They also warn that the presence of the species in the Tedzhen River of Turkmenistan may eventually lead to H. leucisculus being found throughout the entire Tedzhen (=Hari) River basin of Iran.

In the Razdolnaya River (Far East Russia) H. leucisculus was unintentionally introduced from Khanka Lake and probably from China as a result of aquaculture activity (Kolpakov et al., 2010). In the Artemovka River (Far East Russia) H. leucisculus was unintentionally introduced from Khanka Lake as a result of aquaculture activity.

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Iran Former USSR 1967 Stocking (pathway cause) Yes No Holcík and Olah (1992)
Kazakhstan China 1958-1959 Stocking (pathway cause) Yes No Mitrofanov et al. (1992) To Almaty fish farm from the Amur Drainage
Turkmenistan China 1958-1961 Stocking (pathway cause) Yes No Sal'nikov (1998) Karametniyaz fish farm (55 km W from Kerki, Amu Darya River)
Uzbekistan China 1961 Stocking (pathway cause) Yes No Borisova (1972); Kamilov and Borisova (1966); Khurshut (2002) Balykchi fish farm, Tashkent region (60 km SW from Tashkent. Syr Darya and Chirchik rivers junction)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The main pathway of introduction is the transfer of fish seed between fish farms. H. leucisculus then escapes from fishponds and spreads to the wild via irrigation canals. To help prevent spread of this species all transported fish seed should be properly checked for the presence of H. leucisculus before release into ponds.

Habitat

Top of page

H. leucisculus is found in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, canals, and marshes. It keeps to the water surface in stagnant waters.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Irrigation channels Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Lakes Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Principal habitat Natural
Reservoirs Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Principal habitat Natural
Rivers / streams Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Ponds Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Ponds Principal habitat Natural
Brackish
Estuaries Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Lagoons Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lagoons Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

Molecular studies have been carried out on European cyprinids (Zardoya and Doadrio, 1999) and Asian cyprinids (Liu and Chen, 2003); both papers make reference to H. leucisculus.

The complete mitogenome of H. leucisculus was determined to be 16.62 kbp (Dong, et al., 2015; Xiang et al., 2016).

Reproductive Biology

In Uzbekistan sexual maturity is attained at the age of 2-3 years and at a length of 7-10 cm. Spawning is fractional and takes place from May to July. The average absolute fecundity is 19.9±2.2 thousand eggs and relative fecundity is 583±42 eggs per gram of total body weight (Khurshut, 2013). The average egg diameter is 0.58±0.01 mm. In Kazakhstan the absolute fecundity is 6000-13400 eggs (Mamilov, 2011).

In Erhai Lake, Yunnan Province, China the average batch fecundity is 11934±5921 eggs, while relative batch fecundity is 560±137 eggs g−1 wet weight (Wang et al., 2014).

Physiology and Phenology

Longevity - 7 years.

Nutrition

H. leucisculus is an omnivorous species with a broad feeding plasticity.

In the native area, e.g. in the Amur drainage, H. leucisculus mainly feeds on macrophytes, zooplankton, algae and insects (Markovtsev, 1980). Nikolski (1956) indicated that the basis of diet for this species in Lake Khanka was zooplankton and in particular cladocerans.

The diet of introduced H. leucisculus in Peter the Great Bay (Far East Russia) is discussed in Dolganova et al. (2008).

In water bodies of Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan the diet of this fish consists mostly of vegetative food both by the frequency of encounters and volume. Of the animal food, a significant part consists of crustaceans, insects and their larvae. Cases of predation have also been reported (Borisova, 1971; Shakirova and Nikolaev, 1991; Mitrofanov et al., 1992).

The intestines of H. leucisculus from Uzbekistan mainly contained detritus, and remnants of higher plants and algae (Khurshut and Rakhmatullaeva, 2005). Of the animals, the most frequently recorded were different stages of insects and crustaceans. Of the insects H. leucisculus prefers the larvae of dragonflies, chironomids and the larvae of other dipterans; of crustaceans, cladocerans are reported most frequently.

Natural Food Sources

(reported for adults)

Contribution to total food intake (%)

Khanka Lake, Russia

Macrophytes

35.2

Terrestrial insects

6.6

Melosira

8.8

Algae

1.7

Chironomids

6.2

Cladocera

40.7

Detritus

0.6

Crustaceans

0.2

Kapchagay reservoir, Kazakhstan

Macrophytes

28.7

Terrestrial insects

24.1

Mysida

17.2

Algae

11.4

Chironomids

9.0

Cladocera

4.8

Copepoda

4.3

Amphipods

0.8

Fish

0.6

Syr Darya River, Uzbekistan

Filamentous algae

27.2

Chironomids

53.2

Hemipterans

3.0

Crustaceans

0.6

Dragonfly larvae

16.0

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
53-20

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -40
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 12 30
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -25 14

Water Tolerances

Top of page
ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Depth (m b.s.l.) 0-10 Optimum
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 15 Optimum (Mitrofanov et al., 1992)
Salinity (part per thousand) Optimum 9 tolerated (Kolpakov et al., 2010)
Velocity (cm/h) 0 Optimum 360,000 tolerated
Water pH (pH) 7 Optimum (Baensch and Fischer, 1998)
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 18-22 Optimum (Baensch and Fischer, 1998)

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Ancyrocephalus perplexus Parasite not specific
Aspius aspius Predator not specific
Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Parasite not specific
Bothriocephalus opsariichthydis Parasite not specific
Camallanus cotti Parasite not specific
Carassotrema koreanum Parasite not specific
Carassotrema lamellorchis Parasite not specific
Carassotrema megapharyngus Parasite not specific
Carassotrema schistorchis Parasite not specific
Carassotrema wui Parasite not specific
Channa argus argus Predator not specific
Channa micropeltes Predator not specific
Cleidodiscus brachus Parasite not specific
Clonorchis sinensis Parasite not specific
Cucullanus cyprini Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus alatoideus Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus anchoratus Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus brachius Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus chenminjungae Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus chini Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus clavaeformis Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus eigenmanni Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus flagellicirrus Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus foliicirrus Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus hemiculteris Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus latituba Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus leucisculus Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus liangshiyani Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus magnihamatus Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus montschadskyi Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus nikolskyi Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus ornithopodus Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus pannosus Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus parabramis Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus paracurvituboides Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus peculiaris Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus proprius Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus pusillus Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus tridigitatus Parasite not specific
Dendronucleata petruschewskii Parasite not specific
Diplostomum hupehensis Parasite not specific
Diplostomum niedashui Parasite not specific
Diplozoon hemiculteri Parasite not specific
Dollfustrema vaneyi Parasite not specific
Echinochasmus beleocephalus Parasite not specific
Echinochasmus japonicus Parasite not specific
Echinostoma robustum Parasite not specific
Gyrodactylus hemiculteris Parasite not specific
Haplorchis pumilio Parasite not specific
Hebesoma violenteum Parasite not specific
Metagonimus yokogawai Parasite not specific
Micracanthorhynchina motomurai Parasite not specific
Paradiplozoon doi Parasite not specific
Paradiplozoon hemiculteri Parasite not specific
Parambassis siamensis Predator not specific
Procamallanus fulvidraconis Parasite not specific
Pseudocapillaria tomentosa Parasite not specific
Raphidascaris acus Parasite not specific
Rhabdochona hakyi Parasite not specific
Rhabdochona jiangxiensis Parasite not specific
Rhabdochona longispicula Parasite not specific
Sander lucioperca Predator not specific
Silurus glanis Predator not specific
Triaenophorus amurensis Parasite not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

In Central Asia, H. leucisculus is predated upon by Sander lucioperca, Silurus glanis and Aspius aspius. However, it is more resistant to predators than similar native species such as Alburnoides oblongus. The last strong spine of the dorsal fin serves as a deterrent to predators.

In Taiwan, H. leucisculus is eaten by the invasive fish species Parambassis siamensis and Channa micropeltes.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Accidental Introduction

H. leucisculus has been accidentally transferred with juveniles of Asian carp.

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

H. leucisculus is considered as a pest on fish farms and competitor of juveniles of commercial species. It has also been reported to feed on farmed fish eggs and fry.

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Impact on Biodiversity

H. leucisculus may compete with the native species and might also feed on their eggs and fry. It has displaced native species in the Aral Sea Basin due to its higher resistance to predators, the high fecundity and its ability to eat a wide range of food.

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Alburnoides oblongus (Tashkent riffle bleak)National list(s) National list(s)Kazakhstan; UzbekistanCompetition; Rapid growthUzbek Academy of Sciences, 2006
Capoetobrama kuschakewitschiNational list(s) National list(s)Kazakhstan; UzbekistanCompetition; Rapid growthUzbek Academy of Sciences, 2006
Leuciscus idus (ide)No DetailsCompetition; Rapid growthUzbek Academy of Sciences, 2006

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition
  • Predation
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Top of page

Economic Value

In the native range has a minor commercial importance as a food fish (because it is very bony) and as bait.

In Central Asia and Iran H. leucisculus may be confused with the valuable commercial native species Chalcalburnus chalcoides.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page

H. leucisculus is easily distinguishable from the native species by the strong spine in the dorsal fin, the elongate anal fin and the curved lateral line, which goes downward behind the head and then parallels the lower body margin, at the anal fin it curves upward and extends along the middle part of the caudal peduncle.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

H. leucisculus may be confused with the native species Alburnoides oblongus, Chalcalburnus chalcoides, and fingerlings of Aspius aspius. However, it is easy to recognize with its strong dorsal spine, an elongate anal fin and lateral line, which goes downward behind the head and then parallels the lower body margin, at the anal fin it curves upward and extends along the middle part of the caudal peduncle.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

To prevent spread all transported fish seed should be properly checked for the presence of H. leucisculus before release in ponds.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Top of page

Data on environmental requirements and interactions with native species are insufficient.

References

Top of page

Abbasi K, 2005. Studying alien fishes and macrocrustaceans distribution and their effects on rivers and wetlands of the Iranian basin of Caspian Sea. In: II International Symposium "Invasion of Alien species in Holarctic (Borok-2)", 27 September-1 October 2005, Borok, Russia. 194-195

Aliev DS, Verigina IA, Svetovidova AA, 1963. The species composition of fish imported along with grass carp and silver carp from China. In: Problems of fishing of herbivorous fish in the reservoirs of the USSR. Ashgabat, Turkmenistan 178-180

Baensch HA, Fischer GW, 1998. Aquarien Atlas., Germany: Mergus

Banarescu, P., 1991. Zoogeography of fresh waters. Volume 2: distribution and dispersal of freshwater animals in North America and Eurasia, Wiesbaden, Germany: AULA-Verlag.519-1091.

Barabanshchikov EI, Magomedov RA, 2002. Species composition and some features of biology of fishes in the estuaries of Southern Primorye's rivers. Izv. TINRO, 131:179-200

Berg LS, 1949. Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. Moscow, Russia: USSR Academy of Sciences

Borisova AT, 1971. Materials on distribution and biology of sawbelly (Hemiculter bleeker) in water bodies of Kalgan-Chirchik fish farm. In: The biological basics of fishery in Uzbekistan [ed. by The biological basics of fishery in Uzbekista]. Fan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan 281-289

Borisova AT, 1972. Accidental invaders in water bodies of Uzbekistan. Journal of Ichthyology, 12(1):49-53

Coad BW, 1981. Fishes of Afghanistan, an Annotated Checklist. National Museum of Natural Sciences (Ottawa) Publications in Zoology, 14:1-26

Coad BW, 1995. Freshwater fishes of Iran. Acta Sci. Nat. Acad. Sci. Brno. 29(1):1-64

Dolganova NT, Kolpakov NV, Chuchukalo VI, 2008. Feeding interactions and foraging of juvenile fish and shrimp in the Estuaries of Peter the Great Bay in the summer-fall period. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 34(7):482-489

Dong F, Tong GX, Kuang YY, Zheng XH, Sun XW, 1015. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Hemiculter leucisculus. Mitochondrial DNA, 26(5), 747-748.

Dulmaa A, 1999. Fish and fisheries in Mongolia. Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes: Asia. [ed. by Petr T]. Rome, Italy: FAO, 187-236. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 385. http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x2614e/x2614e00.htm

Esmaeili HR, Gholamifard A, 2011. Range extension and translocation for Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky, 1855) (Cyprinidae) in western and northwestern Iran. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 27(6), 1394-1395.

Esmaeili HR, Gholamifard A, Freyhof J, 2011. Ichthyofauna of Zarivar Lake (Iran) with the first records of Hemiculter leucisculus and Alburnus hohenackeri in the Tigris drainage. Electronic Journal of Ichthyology, 7(1):1-6

Garstecki T, Amr Z, 2011. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Management in the Iraqi Marshlands - Screening Study on Potential World Heritage Nomination. Amman, Jordan: IUCN, 189 pp

Holcík J, Olah J, 1992. Fish, fisheries and water quality in Anzali Lagoon and its watershed. Fish, fisheries and water quality in Anzali Lagoon and its watershed. Rome, Italy: FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/AD192E/AD192E00.htm

Holcík J, Razavi BA, 1992. On some new or little known freshwater fishes from the Iranian coast of the Caspian Sea. Folia Zoologica, 41(3):271-280

Jang MH, Joo GJ, Choi SS, 2003. The impact of monsoon on the distribution of fish in a small stream, Korea. Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology, 3(1):87-95

Jang MH, Kyong H, Joo GJ, 2002. Interaction between cyanobacterial bloom and fishes in a small reservoir: laboratory and enclosure experiment. In: International Conference on Limnology of Shallow Lakes. Balaton fured, Hungary: Veszprem

Junkil C, Osamu M, Yasushi S, Kaoru F, 2006. Fish fauna of the Hwajinpo Lake, Korea. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 30(6):633-637

Junxing Y, 1996. The Alien and Indigenous Fishes of Yunnan: A Study on Impact Ways, Degrees and Relevant Issues. In: Conserving China's Biodiversity (II) [ed. by Schei, P. J. \Sung, W. \Yan, X.]. Beijing, China: China Environmental Science Press, 157-168

Kamilov G, Urchinov Zh U, 1995. Fish and fisheries in Uzbekistan under the impact of irrigated agriculture. In: Petr T, ed. Inland fisheries under the impact of irrigated agriculture: Central Asia. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 894, 10-41

Kamilov GC, Borisova AT, 1966. Low-value and pest fish species in "Kalgan-Chirchik" fish farm. In: Vertebrates of Central Asia. Tashkent, Uzbekistan 31-32

Khurshut EE, 2002. Invasive fish species in the Charvak reservoir. In: Biodiversity of the West Tien Shan: protection and efficient use. Tashkent, Uzbekistan: Chinor ENK, 253-257

Khurshut EE, Rakhmatullaeva GM, 2005. Korean sawbelly, Hemiculter leucisculus, a competitor of indigenous species in Uzbekistan. In: II International Symposium "Invasion of Alien species in Holarctic (Borok-2)", 27 September-1 October 2005, Borok, Russia. 198-199

Kolpakov NV, Barabanshchikov EI, Chepurnoi AYu, 2010. Species composition, distribution, and biological conditions of nonindigenous fishes in the estuary of the Razdol'naya River (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Biological Invasions, 1(2):87-94. http://www.maik.ru/abstract/bioinv/10/bioinv0087_abstract.pdf

Kottelat M, 2006. Fishes of Mongolia. A check-list of the fishes known to occur in Mongolia with comments on systematics and nomenclature. Washington DC, USA: El Banc Mundial, 103 pp

Kurshut EE, 2013. Reproductive capacity of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky, 1855) in Uzbekistan. Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, 78(4), 207-207.

Liu H, Chen Y, 2003. Phylogeny of the east Asian cyprinids inferred from sequences of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Can. J. Zool, 81(12):1938-1946

Mamilov Sh N, 2011. Modern diversity of alien fish species in Chu and Talas river basins. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions, 4(1):65-76

Markovtsev VG, 1980. Nutrition of the Korean sawbelly Hemiculter eigenmanni (Jordan et Metz) in Lake Khanka. Journal of Ichthyology, 20:168-170

Mitrofanov VP, 1967. Characteristics of fish fauna of water bodies of the inundation area of Kapchagai reservoir. In: Biological Basis of Fisheries in Central Asian republics and Kazakhstan. Balkhash, Kazakhstan 193-195

Mitrofanov VP, Dukravets GM, Sidorova AF, 1992. Fishes of Kazakhstan. Vol. 5. Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan: Gylym

Nah CS, 1989. A Comparative Study on Limno-biological Aspects of the Dammed Lakes in the Youngsan River in Korea - Centering on Fish Fauna. The Korean Journal of Ecology, 12(1):51-65

Nie P, Wang GT, Yao WJ, Zhang YA, Gao Q, 2000. Occurrence of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in cyprinid fish from three lakes in the flood plain of the Yangtze River, China. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 41(1):81-82

Nikolski GV, 1956. Fishes of the River Amur basin. Results of the 1945-1949 Amur ichthyological expedition. Izdatelstvo Akad. Nauk SSSR, 551 pp

Patimar R, Abdoli A, Kiabi BH, 2008. Biological characteristics of the introduced sawbelly, Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewski, 1855), in three wetlands of northern Iran: Alma-Gol, Adji-Gol and Ala-Gol. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 24(5):617-620

Patimar R, Kiabi BH, 2005. Alien fish species, implications for conservation and management programes; a case study of wetlands of Golestan Province (north of Iran). In: II International Symposium "Invasion of Alien species in Holarctic (Borok-2)", 27 September-1 October 2005, Borok, Russia. 206

Reshetnikov YuS, 1998. Annotated catalog of cyclostomes and fishes of continental waters of Russia. Moscow, Russia: Nauka, 220 pp

Sal'nikov VB, 1998. Anthropogenic Migration of Fish in Turkmenistan. Journal of Ichthyology, 38(8):591-602

Savvaitova KA, Petr T, 1999. Fish and fisheries in Lake Issyk-kul (Tien Shan), River Chu and Pamir lakes. In: T. Petr (ed.) Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes: Asia. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. No. 385. FAO, Rome, 168-186

Shakirova FM, Nikolaev AA, 1991. Peculiarities of the biology of sawbelly (Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky) in the Murgab basin. Izv. AN TSSR. Biological Sciences Series, 1:24-33

Shed'ko SV, 2001. List of cyclostomes and fishes of fresh waters of Primorye coast. In: Chteniya pamyati Vladimira Yakovlevicha Levanidova Vol. 1., Russia: Dalnauka Publ., 220-249

Uzbek Academy of Sciences, 2006. The Red Data Book of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Volume 2: Animals. Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Wang Teng, Huang Dan, Shen JianZhong, Chen YuShun, Sun GuangWen, Wang HaiSheng, 2014. Batch fecundity and spawning frequency of invasive Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky, 1855) in Erhai Lake, China. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 97(10), 1161-1168. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10641 doi: 10.1007/s10641-013-0205-8

Wang XingLu, Xiang JianGuo, Liu JiaShou, Liu Ming, Wu Lang, Murphy, B. R., Xie SongGuang, 2013. Reduced growth and reproductive investment of Hemiculter leucisculus (Cyprinidae) in a reservoir with introduced icefish Neosalanx taihuensis (Salangidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes, 96(7), 895-903. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10641 doi: 10.1007/s10641-012-0085-3

Xiang D, Ai WM, Peng X, Qiu JB, Chen SB, 2016. Complete mitogenome of Hemiculter leucisculus (Cyprinidae: Cultrinae). Mitochondrial DNA, 27(1), 145-146.

Xie S, Cui Y, Li Z, 2001. Small fish communities in two regions of the Liangzi Lake, China, with or without submersed macrophytes. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 17(2):89-92

Zardoya R, Doadrio I, 1999. Molecular evidence on the evolutionary and biogeographical patterns of European cyprinids. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 49(2):227-237

Zareian H, Esmaeili HR, Rejad RZ, Vatandoust S, 2015. Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky, 1855) and Alburnus caeruleus Heckel, 1843: new data on their distributions in Iran. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 13(1), 11-20.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Fisheries and Aquaculture Department FAOhttp://www.fao.org/fishery/introsp/search/en
Fishes of Uzbekistanhttp://uznix.narod.ru/sci/fkey/uzfishlst.html
Freshwater Fishes of Iranhttp://www.briancoad.com
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

Top of page

16/10/2016 Updated by: 

Ernest Khurshut, Center of Genomics and Bioinformatics, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, 2 Universitet St., Tashkent 111215. Toshkent vil., Qibray tum., Uzbekistan

25/07/11 Original text by:

Ernest Khurshut, Institute of Zoology, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, 1 Niyazov St., Tashkent 100095. Uzbekistan

Reviewers' names are available on request.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map