Hemibarbus maculatus (spotted steed)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Water Tolerances
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Environmental Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Hemibarbus maculatus Bleeker, 1871
Preferred Common Name
- spotted steed
Other Scientific Names
- Acanthogobio maculatus Kreyenberg & Pappenheim, 1908
- Acanthogobio paltschevskii Nikolskii, 1903
- Barbus schlegeli Fowler, 1924
- Barbus semibarbus Günther, 1889
- Gobiobarbus labeo maculatus Bleeker, 1871
- Hemibarbus barbus Abbott, 1901
- Hemibarbus joiteni Jordan & Starks, 1904
- Hemibarbus labeo maculatus Bleeker, 1871
- Hemibarbus longibarbis Fang, 1938
International Common Names
- English: spotted barbel
Local Common Names
- China: hua huá
- Czech Republic: hrouz skvrnitý
- Finland: Amurinbarbi
- Germany: Gefleckte Amurbarbe
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
H. maculatus is native to China, Korea, Japan and the Amur River basin (Kottelat, 2001a). It was accidentally introduced together with Chinese carp fry from the Yangtze River, China to the USSR, and has partially displaced local species (Welcomme, 1988). H. maculatus shows more rapid growth and higher fecundity under introduced compared to native conditions (Rosenthal, 1976). Its occurrence in the Mekong tributaries in northern Laos apparently results from intentional introductions upriver in China (Kottelat, 2001b). This introduction has created a potential serious competitor and threat for the native benthic fishes (Kottelat, 2001b).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Chordata
- Subphylum: Vertebrata
- Class: Actinopterygii
- Order: Cypriniformes
- Family: Cyprinidae
- Genus: Hemibarbus
- Species: Hemibarbus maculatus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Hemibarbus maculatus Bleeker, 1871: type locality: China: Yangtze River; junior secondary homonym of Barbus maculates Valenciennes, in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1842: 195, when placed in Barbus by Gunther, 1889: 224; these taxa are no longer considered congeneric and the substitute name [Barbussemibarbus Gunther, 1889: 224] is not in use, so Hemibarbus maculatus is not rejected (Kottelat, 2006).
Barbus semibarbus Günther, 1889: replacement name for Hemibarbus maculatus Bleeker, 1871 (Kottelat, 2006).
Acanthogobio paltschevskii Nikolskii, 1903:type locality: Russia: Lake Chanka at mouth of River Santacheza (Kottelat, 2006).
Hemibarbus joiteni Jordan & Starks, 1904: type locality: China: Pei Ho at Tientsin (Kottelat, 2006).
Hemibarbus longibarbis Fang, 1938: type locality: China: Kiangsi: Sau-hsui (Kottelat, 2006).
The genus Hemibarbus has been revised by Yue (1995). The species previously identified as H.maculatus is in fact an assemblage of several species and the fishes from the Xijiang basin previously referred to this species are a distinct species, H.macracanthus. Although not very detailed, the account of H. maculatus in Mai (1978) suggests that at least part of his material belong to this species. This is suggested by the information on the dorsal spine being longer than the head, which is a character distinguishing H. macracanthus from all other species of the genus. Locality data are not provided for Mai's material. The presence of the species in Vietnam in the Xijiang basin in expected, but its presence in the Hong River basin needs confirmation. Chen and Li (in Chu and Chen, 1989) record H. maculatus from several localities in Yunnan, in the Yangtze, Pearl, Hong River and Mekong basins. Their figure apparently shows a real H. maculatus but the origin of the specimen used as model is not stated; it is likely a specimen from the Yangtze basin. The identity of their material from the Hong River and Mekong basins is not known. The possibility of the presence in Vietnam of H. maculatus however should not be neglected as this species could be mixed with fry of cultivated fishes imported in the country. This is how the presence of the species is explained in the Mekong basin in Laos.
DescriptionTop of page
Vertebrae: 42-44. Both sides of the body with 7-11 large and blackish spots. Deep body with clearly convex dorsal profile. Head length shorter than body depth. Snout length shorter or equal to postorbital head length. Lips not developed, lateral lobes of lower lip narrow, without folds, the median process large and marked. Barbel length slightly thick, 1/2-2/3 of eye diameter. Dorsal spine strong, equal to head length. Origin of dorsal fin nearer the tip of snout than the caudal base (Yue, 1995). Anal fin with 6 1/2 branched anal rays; last simple dorsal ray ossified, spine-like (Kottelat, 2001a, b).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Cambodia||Localised||Introduced||Invasive||Wildlife Conservation Society, 2006||Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve|
|China||Present||Native||Welcomme, 1988; He, 2010|
|-Guangxi||Widespread||Sohn et al., 2009|
|-Guizhou||Present||Wu et al., 2011||Chishui River: a protected tributary of the Yangtze River|
|-Nei Menggu||Present||Yue, 1998|
|-Yunnan||Widespread||Chu and Chen, 1989|
|Korea, DPR||Present||Berg, 1964|
|Laos||Widespread||Introduced||Mekong River Commission, 2009||It is suspected that they have been accidentally introduced with fry of other species (most likely carp) from Vietnam|
|Taiwan||Present||Native||Not invasive||Kottelat, 2006||This record may be doubt as no record in local official database http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw/|
|Uzbekistan||Localised||Introduced||Invasive||Khurshut, 2010||Unintentional release from a fish farm|
|Vietnam||Localised||Kottelat, 2001a; Phu et al., 2006|
|Russian Federation||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Russian Far East||Present||Froufe et al., 2003||Amur River basin|
HabitatTop of page
H. maculatus is usually found in streams and creeks with moderate flow and sandy bottoms (Kottelat, 2001a, b).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Lakes||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Reservoirs||Present, no further details|
|Rivers / streams||Present, no further details||Natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The chromosome number of H. maculatus is 2n=50; the DNA content is half of the published value for diploid nuclei (DNA/2n: 2.30 ± 0.11 pg) (Cui et al., 1991). The DNA barcode of this species is published in Tang et al. (2011).
Reproductive Mode: dioecism, fertilization: external, reproductive guild: non-guarders open water/substratum egg scatterers. Description of life cycle and mating behaviour: Mature at 3 years of age. Spawns from May to June, with water temperatures from 19-25°C. Eggs are pasted on to underwater plants. Egg diameter is about 2 mm. Development time is about 4 days. Larvae live in the pelagic zone for the first 6 days (Baensch and Riehl, 1991).
H. maculatus mainly feeds on aquatic insects but also snails, clams (Corbicula) and small fish.
ClimateTop of page
|C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate||Preferred||Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Preferred||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
|Dw - Continental climate with dry winter||Preferred||Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)|
Water TolerancesTop of page
|Parameter||Minimum Value||Maximum Value||Typical Value||Status||Life Stage||Notes|
|Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l)||Optimum||2.0-5.0 tolerated|
|Water pH (pH)||7.5||8.5||Optimum||6.5-9.0 tolerated|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||20||24||Optimum|
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
This has taken place in Asia: China, Korea, Japan and the Amur River basin (Kottelat, 2001a, b).
H. maculatus has been accidentally introduced together with Chinese carp fry from the Yangtze River, China to USSR (Welcomme, 1988). It has partially displaced local species. It shows more rapid growth and higher fecundity than under native conditions (Rosenthal, 1976).
Occurrence in the Mekong tributaries in northern Laos apparently results from introductions upriver in China (Kottelat, 2001). H. maculatus is a potential serious competitor and threat for the native benthic fishes (Kottelat, 2001a, b).
Pathway CausesTop of page
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Biodiversity
H. maculatus has been recorded to be a serious competitor to and threat for the native benthic fishes, where it is introduced (Kottelat, 2001b). When it was, for example, introduced from the Yangtze River, China in the USSR, it has partially displaced local species (Welcomme, 1988). One of the characteristics of this species that make it a successful invader is the fact that it shows more rapid growth and higher fecundity under introduced compared to native conditions (Rosenthal, 1976).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Tolerant of shade
- Long lived
- Has high reproductive potential
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of natural benthic communities
- Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of native species
UsesTop of page
H. maculatus is a nutritious fish high in protein. In recent years, it has sold well in the east China (Lu et al., 2004). It is also an economically important fish in Thua Hue Orovince, Vietnam (Vo et al., 2006).
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Meat and bonemeal
- Wildlife habitat
- Draught animal
Human food and beverage
- Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
H. maculatus is especially similarity to Hemibarbus labeo. The main differences between these two species are as follows:
H. maculatus: Snout length shorter or equal to postorbital head length.
H. labeo: Snout length much longer than postorbital head length (Chen, 1998).
ReferencesTop of page
Baensch HA; Riehl R, 1991. Aquarian atlas. Bd. 3. Melle, Germany: Mergus, Verlag für Natur- und Heimtierkunde, 1104 pp.
Bleeker P, 1871. [English title not available]. (Mémoire sur les cyprino des de Chine.) Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam), 12:1-91.
Chen Yi-yu, 1998. Cypriniformes. In: Fauna Sinica (Osteichthyes). Beijing, China: Science Press,, 236-249.
Chu XL, 1955. Fishes in Yichang and its distribution in the Upper and Middle Yangtze. Acta Hydrobiologia Sinica, 2:81-96.
Chu XL; Chen Y, 1989. Part I Cyprinidae. The fishes of Yunnan, China. Beijing, China: Science Press, 102 pp.
Fang PW, 1938. [English title not available]. (Description d'un Cyprinidé nouveau de Chine appartenant au genre Hemibarbus.) Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2), 10(3):269-270.
Froufe E; Alekseyev S; Knizhin I; Alexandrino P; Weiss S, 2003. Comparative phylogeography of salmonid fishes (Salmonidae) reveals late to post-Pleistocene exchange between three now-disjunct river basins in Siberia. Divers Distribut, 9:269-282.
Günther A, 1889. Third contribution to our knowledge of reptiles and fishes from the upper Yangtsze-Kiang. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6), 4(21):218-229.
He Y, 2010. Structure of endemic fish assemblages in the upper Yangtze River basin and population differentiation of an endangered endemic fish (Gobiocypris rarus). Wuhan, China: Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Jordan DS; Starks EC, 1904. Description of a new cyprinoid fish, Hemibarbus joiteni, from the Pei Ho. Tientsin, China. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 45(1448):241-242.
Khurshut E, 2010. Invasive fishes in the Aral Sea basin, arid Central Asia. In: 17th International Conference on Aquatic invasive Species (ICAIS 2010), 29 August-2 September 2010, SanDiego, USA. http://www.icais.org/pdf/2010abstracts/Ernest_Khurshut.pdf
Kottelat M, 2001. Freshwater fishes of northern Vietnam. A preliminary check-list of the fishes known or expected to occur in northern Vietnam with comments on systematics and nomenclature. Environment and Social Development Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region. The World Bank. Freshwater Fish, Vietnam, 123 pp.
Kottelat M, 2006. Fishes of Mongolia. A check-list of the fishes known to occur in Mongolia with comments on systematics and nomenclature. Washington DC, USA: El Banc Mundial, 103 pp.
Lu Hong-Fa; Li Zhi-Qiang; Fang Mei-Juan, 2004. A primary Study on the Biological Characteristics and Artificial Breeding of Hemibarbus maculatus Bleeker in Pond. Journal of Zhejiang Ocean University (Natural Science), 23(3):211-213.
Ma X; Bangxi X; Yindong W; Mingxue W, 2003. Intentionally Introduced and Transferred Fishes in China's Inland Waters. Asian Fisheries Science, 16:279-290.
Mai DY, 1978. Identification of freshwater fishes of northern Viet Nam. Ha Noi, Vietnam: Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Va Ky Thuat, 339 pp.
Mekong River Commission, 2009. Number of species found rises to 166 in Sekong drainage, 84 in Nam Ou drainage. Catch and Culture, 15(3):unpaginated. http://www.mrcmekong.org/Catch-Culture/vol15_3Dec09/number-of-species-found.htm
Nikolskii A, 1903. New species of fishes fromm eastern Asia. Ezhegodnik Zoologicheskogo Muzeya Akademii Nauk SSSR, 8:356-363.
Phu Vo Van; Tran Thuy Cam Ha; Ho Thi Hong, 2006. An Assessment of the Fish Fauna of the Green Corridor Forest Landscape, Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam. An Assessment of the Fish Fauna of the Green Corridor Forest Landscape, Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam. FPD ThuaThien Hue Province, Vietnam: Green Corridor Project, WWF Greater Mekong, Vietnam Country Programme. [Report No 5.] http://www.huegreencorridor.org/toolkit/English/documents/GCP/GCP_Report5_Fish_EN.pdf
Robins CR; Bailey RM; Bond CE; Brooker JR; Lachner EA; Lea RN; Scott WB, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ, 21. 243 pp.
Rosenthal H, 1976. Implications of transplantations to aquaculture and ecosystems. In: FAO Technical Conference on Aquaculture, Kyoto, Japan, 26 May-2 June 1975. Rome, Italy: FAO.
Sohn WoonMok; Eom KS; Min DukYoung; Rim HanJong; Hoang EuiHyug; Yang YiChao; Li XueMing, 2009. Fishborne trematode metacercariae in freshwater fish from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Korean Journal of Parasitology, 47(3):249-257. http://society.kisti.re.kr/~kspa/kjp/
Tang KL; Agnew MK; Chen WJ; Vincent Hirt M; Raley ME; Sado T; Schneider LM; Yang L; Bart HL; He S; Liu H; Miya M; Saitoh K; Simons AM; Wood RM; Mayden RL, 2011. Phylogeny of the gudgeons (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Gobioninae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol, 61(1):103-124.
Teng LR; Yao ZQ; Xu JW, 2002. Artificial Propagation and Seed Rearing of Spotted Steed Hemibarbus maculatus. Fisheries Science & Technology Information, 29(5):S964.
Wildlife Conservation Society, 2006. An assessment of exotic species in the Tonle Sap Biosphere reserve, and associate threats to biodiversity, a resource document for the management of invasive alien species. An assessment of exotic species in the Tonle Sap Biosphere reserve, and associate threats to biodiversity, a resource document for the management of invasive alien species. 96 pp.
Wu J; Wang J; He Y; Cao W, 2011. Fish assemblage structure in the Chishui River, a protected tributary of the Yangtze River. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems, No.400:11. http://www.kmae-journal.org/index.php?option=com_article&access=standard&Itemid=129&url=/articles/kmae/abs/2011/01/kmae100058/kmae100058.html
Yue P, 1998. Gobioninae. In: Fauna Sinica. Osteichthyes. Cypriniformes II [ed. by Chen, Y.]. Beijing, China: Science Press, 232-389.
Yue PQ, 1995. A revision of the cyprinid fishes of the genus Hemibarbus in China (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). Acta Zootaxon. Sin, 20(1):116-123.
ContributorsTop of page
30/08/11 Original text by:
Bin Kang, Asian International Rivers Center, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China
Reviewers' names are available on request.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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