Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Hemibarbus maculatus
(spotted steed)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Hemibarbus maculatus (spotted steed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hemibarbus maculatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spotted steed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • H. maculatus is native to China, Korea, Japan and the Amur River basin (Kottelat, 2001a). It was accidentally intr...

  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hemibarbus maculatus Bleeker, 1871

Preferred Common Name

  • spotted steed

Other Scientific Names

  • Acanthogobio maculatus Kreyenberg & Pappenheim, 1908
  • Acanthogobio paltschevskii Nikolskii, 1903
  • Barbus schlegeli Fowler, 1924
  • Barbus semibarbus Günther, 1889
  • Gobiobarbus labeo maculatus Bleeker, 1871
  • Hemibarbus barbus Abbott, 1901
  • Hemibarbus joiteni Jordan & Starks, 1904
  • Hemibarbus labeo maculatus Bleeker, 1871
  • Hemibarbus longibarbis Fang, 1938

International Common Names

  • English: spotted barbel

Local Common Names

  • China: hua huá
  • Czech Republic: hrouz skvrnitý
  • Finland: Amurinbarbi
  • Germany: Gefleckte Amurbarbe

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

H. maculatus is native to China, Korea, Japan and the Amur River basin (Kottelat, 2001a). It was accidentally introduced together with Chinese carp fry from the Yangtze River, China to the USSR, and has partially displaced local species (Welcomme, 1988). H. maculatus shows more rapid growth and higher fecundity under introduced compared to native conditions (Rosenthal, 1976). Its occurrence in the Mekong tributaries in northern Laos apparently results from intentional introductions upriver in China (Kottelat, 2001b). This introduction has created a potential serious competitor and threat for the native benthic fishes (Kottelat, 2001b).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Cypriniformes
  •                         Family: Cyprinidae
  •                             Genus: Hemibarbus
  •                                 Species: Hemibarbus maculatus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Hemibarbus maculatus Bleeker, 1871: type locality: China: Yangtze River; junior secondary homonym of Barbus maculates Valenciennes, in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1842: 195, when placed in Barbus by Gunther, 1889: 224; these taxa are no longer considered congeneric and the substitute name [Barbussemibarbus Gunther, 1889: 224] is not in use, so Hemibarbus maculatus is not rejected (Kottelat, 2006).

Barbus semibarbus Günther, 1889: replacement name for Hemibarbus maculatus Bleeker, 1871 (Kottelat, 2006).

Acanthogobio paltschevskii Nikolskii, 1903:type locality: Russia: Lake Chanka at mouth of River Santacheza (Kottelat, 2006).

Hemibarbus joiteni Jordan & Starks, 1904: type locality: China: Pei Ho at Tientsin (Kottelat, 2006).

Hemibarbus longibarbis Fang, 1938: type locality: China: Kiangsi: Sau-hsui (Kottelat, 2006).

The genus Hemibarbus has been revised by Yue (1995). The species previously identified as H.maculatus is in fact an assemblage of several species and the fishes from the Xijiang basin previously referred to this species are a distinct species, H.macracanthus. Although not very detailed, the account of H. maculatus in Mai (1978) suggests that at least part of his material belong to this species. This is suggested by the information on the dorsal spine being longer than the head, which is a character distinguishing H. macracanthus from all other species of the genus. Locality data are not provided for Mai's material. The presence of the species in Vietnam in the Xijiang basin in expected, but its presence in the Hong River basin needs confirmation. Chen and Li (in Chu and Chen, 1989) record H. maculatus from several localities in Yunnan, in the Yangtze, Pearl, Hong River and Mekong basins. Their figure apparently shows a real H. maculatus but the origin of the specimen used as model is not stated; it is likely a specimen from the Yangtze basin. The identity of their material from the Hong River and Mekong basins is not known. The possibility of the presence in Vietnam of H. maculatus however should not be neglected as this species could be mixed with fry of cultivated fishes imported in the country. This is how the presence of the species is explained in the Mekong basin in Laos.

Description

Top of page

Vertebrae: 42-44. Both sides of the body with 7-11 large and blackish spots. Deep body with clearly convex dorsal profile. Head length shorter than body depth. Snout length shorter or equal to postorbital head length. Lips not developed, lateral lobes of lower lip narrow, without folds, the median process large and marked. Barbel length slightly thick, 1/2-2/3 of eye diameter. Dorsal spine strong, equal to head length. Origin of dorsal fin nearer the tip of snout than the caudal base (Yue, 1995). Anal fin with 6 1/2 branched anal rays; last simple dorsal ray ossified, spine-like (Kottelat, 2001a, b).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

CambodiaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Wildlife Conservation Society, 2006Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve
ChinaPresentNativeWelcomme, 1988; He, 2010
-ChongqingPresentChu, 1955
-GuangxiWidespreadSohn et al., 2009
-GuizhouPresentWu et al., 2011Chishui River: a protected tributary of the Yangtze River
-HebeiPresentYue, 1998
-HeilongjiangPresentYue, 1998
-HenanPresentYue, 1998
-HubeiPresentChu, 1955
-HunanPresentChu, 1955
-JiangsuPresentChu, 1955
-JiangxiPresentChu, 1955
-Nei MengguPresentYue, 1998
-ShanghaiPresentChu, 1955
-SichuanPresentChu, 1955
-YunnanWidespreadChu and Chen, 1989
-ZhejiangPresentYue, 1998
JapanPresentNativeWelcomme, 1988
Korea, DPRPresentBerg, 1964
LaosWidespreadIntroducedMekong River Commission, 2009It is suspected that they have been accidentally introduced with fry of other species (most likely carp) from Vietnam
MongoliaPresentNativeKottelat, 2006
TaiwanPresentNative Not invasive Kottelat, 2006This record may be doubt as no record in local official database http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw/
UzbekistanLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Khurshut, 2010Unintentional release from a fish farm
VietnamLocalisedKottelat, 2001a; Phu et al., 2006

Europe

Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russian Far EastPresentFroufe et al., 2003Amur River basin

Habitat

Top of page

H. maculatus is usually found in streams and creeks with moderate flow and sandy bottoms (Kottelat, 2001a, b).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Lakes Present, no further details Natural
Reservoirs Present, no further details
Rivers / streams Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number of H. maculatus is 2n=50; the DNA content is half of the published value for diploid nuclei (DNA/2n: 2.30 ± 0.11 pg) (Cui et al., 1991). The DNA barcode of this species is published in Tang et al. (2011).

Reproductive Biology

Reproductive Mode: dioecism, fertilization: external, reproductive guild: non-guarders open water/substratum egg scatterers. Description of life cycle and mating behaviour: Mature at 3 years of age. Spawns from May to June, with water temperatures from 19-25°C. Eggs are pasted on to underwater plants. Egg diameter is about 2 mm. Development time is about 4 days. Larvae live in the pelagic zone for the first 6 days (Baensch and Riehl, 1991).

Nutrition

H. maculatus mainly feeds on aquatic insects but also snails, clams (Corbicula) and small fish.

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Water Tolerances

Top of page
ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) Optimum 2.0-5.0 tolerated
Water pH (pH) 7.5 8.5 Optimum 6.5-9.0 tolerated
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 20 24 Optimum

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal

This has taken place in Asia: China, Korea, Japan and the Amur River basin (Kottelat, 2001a, b).

Accidental Introduction

H. maculatus has been accidentally introduced together with Chinese carp fry from the Yangtze River, China to USSR (Welcomme, 1988). It has partially displaced local species. It shows more rapid growth and higher fecundity than under native conditions (Rosenthal, 1976).

Intentional Introduction

Occurrence in the Mekong tributaries in northern Laos apparently results from introductions upriver in China (Kottelat, 2001). H. maculatus is a potential serious competitor and threat for the native benthic fishes (Kottelat, 2001a, b).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
StockingExtensive stocking Yes Ma et al., 2003

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Impact on Biodiversity

H. maculatus has been recorded to be a serious competitor to and threat for the native benthic fishes, where it is introduced (Kottelat, 2001b). When it was, for example, introduced from the Yangtze River, China in the USSR, it has partially displaced local species (Welcomme, 1988). One of the characteristics of this species that make it a successful invader is the fact that it shows more rapid growth and higher fecundity under introduced compared to native conditions (Rosenthal, 1976).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition

Uses

Top of page

Economic Value  

H. maculatus is a nutritious fish high in protein. In recent years, it has sold well in the east China (Lu et al., 2004). It is also an economically important fish in Thua Hue Orovince, Vietnam (Vo et al., 2006).

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Bait/attractant
  • Fishmeal
  • Meat and bonemeal

Environmental

  • Wildlife habitat

General

  • Draught animal

Human food and beverage

  • Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)

Materials

  • Cosmetics
  • Fertilizer
  • Lipids
  • Manure
  • Wax

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

H. maculatus  is especially similarity to Hemibarbus labeo. The main differences between these two species are as follows:

H. maculatus: Snout length shorter or equal to postorbital head length.
H. labeo: Snout length much longer than postorbital head length (Chen, 1998).

References

Top of page

Baensch HA; Riehl R, 1991. Aquarian atlas. Bd. 3. Melle, Germany: Mergus, Verlag für Natur- und Heimtierkunde, 1104 pp.

Berg LS, 1964. Freshwater fishes of the USSR and adjacent countries. Jerusalem, : Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd.

Bleeker P, 1871. [English title not available]. (Mémoire sur les cyprino des de Chine.) Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam), 12:1-91.

Chen Yi-yu, 1998. Cypriniformes. In: Fauna Sinica (Osteichthyes). Beijing, China: Science Press,, 236-249.

Chu XL, 1955. Fishes in Yichang and its distribution in the Upper and Middle Yangtze. Acta Hydrobiologia Sinica, 2:81-96.

Chu XL; Chen Y, 1989. Part I Cyprinidae. The fishes of Yunnan, China. Beijing, China: Science Press, 102 pp.

Cui J; Ren X; Yu Q, 1991. Nuclear DNA content variation in fishes. Cytologia, 56(3):425-429.

Fang PW, 1938. [English title not available]. (Description d'un Cyprinidé nouveau de Chine appartenant au genre Hemibarbus.) Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2), 10(3):269-270.

Froufe E; Alekseyev S; Knizhin I; Alexandrino P; Weiss S, 2003. Comparative phylogeography of salmonid fishes (Salmonidae) reveals late to post-Pleistocene exchange between three now-disjunct river basins in Siberia. Divers Distribut, 9:269-282.

Günther A, 1889. Third contribution to our knowledge of reptiles and fishes from the upper Yangtsze-Kiang. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6), 4(21):218-229.

He Y, 2010. Structure of endemic fish assemblages in the upper Yangtze River basin and population differentiation of an endangered endemic fish (Gobiocypris rarus). Wuhan, China: Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Jordan DS; Starks EC, 1904. Description of a new cyprinoid fish, Hemibarbus joiteni, from the Pei Ho. Tientsin, China. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 45(1448):241-242.

Khurshut E, 2010. Invasive fishes in the Aral Sea basin, arid Central Asia. In: 17th International Conference on Aquatic invasive Species (ICAIS 2010), 29 August-2 September 2010, SanDiego, USA. http://www.icais.org/pdf/2010abstracts/Ernest_Khurshut.pdf

Kottelat M, 2001. Fishes of Laos. Colombo: WHT Publications Ltd.

Kottelat M, 2001. Freshwater fishes of northern Vietnam. A preliminary check-list of the fishes known or expected to occur in northern Vietnam with comments on systematics and nomenclature. Environment and Social Development Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region. The World Bank. Freshwater Fish, Vietnam, 123 pp.

Kottelat M, 2006. Fishes of Mongolia. A check-list of the fishes known to occur in Mongolia with comments on systematics and nomenclature. Washington DC, USA: El Banc Mundial, 103 pp.

Lu Hong-Fa; Li Zhi-Qiang; Fang Mei-Juan, 2004. A primary Study on the Biological Characteristics and Artificial Breeding of Hemibarbus maculatus Bleeker in Pond. Journal of Zhejiang Ocean University (Natural Science), 23(3):211-213.

Ma X; Bangxi X; Yindong W; Mingxue W, 2003. Intentionally Introduced and Transferred Fishes in China's Inland Waters. Asian Fisheries Science, 16:279-290.

Mai DY, 1978. Identification of freshwater fishes of northern Viet Nam. Ha Noi, Vietnam: Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Va Ky Thuat, 339 pp.

Mekong River Commission, 2009. Number of species found rises to 166 in Sekong drainage, 84 in Nam Ou drainage. Catch and Culture, 15(3):unpaginated. http://www.mrcmekong.org/Catch-Culture/vol15_3Dec09/number-of-species-found.htm

Nikolskii A, 1903. New species of fishes fromm eastern Asia. Ezhegodnik Zoologicheskogo Muzeya Akademii Nauk SSSR, 8:356-363.

Phu Vo Van; Tran Thuy Cam Ha; Ho Thi Hong, 2006. An Assessment of the Fish Fauna of the Green Corridor Forest Landscape, Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam. An Assessment of the Fish Fauna of the Green Corridor Forest Landscape, Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam. FPD ThuaThien Hue Province, Vietnam: Green Corridor Project, WWF Greater Mekong, Vietnam Country Programme. [Report No 5.] http://www.huegreencorridor.org/toolkit/English/documents/GCP/GCP_Report5_Fish_EN.pdf

Robins CR; Bailey RM; Bond CE; Brooker JR; Lachner EA; Lea RN; Scott WB, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ, 21. 243 pp.

Rosenthal H, 1976. Implications of transplantations to aquaculture and ecosystems. In: FAO Technical Conference on Aquaculture, Kyoto, Japan, 26 May-2 June 1975. Rome, Italy: FAO.

Sohn WoonMok; Eom KS; Min DukYoung; Rim HanJong; Hoang EuiHyug; Yang YiChao; Li XueMing, 2009. Fishborne trematode metacercariae in freshwater fish from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Korean Journal of Parasitology, 47(3):249-257. http://society.kisti.re.kr/~kspa/kjp/

Tang KL; Agnew MK; Chen WJ; Vincent Hirt M; Raley ME; Sado T; Schneider LM; Yang L; Bart HL; He S; Liu H; Miya M; Saitoh K; Simons AM; Wood RM; Mayden RL, 2011. Phylogeny of the gudgeons (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Gobioninae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol, 61(1):103-124.

Teng LR; Yao ZQ; Xu JW, 2002. Artificial Propagation and Seed Rearing of Spotted Steed Hemibarbus maculatus. Fisheries Science & Technology Information, 29(5):S964.

Welcomme RL, 1988. International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 294. Rome, Italy: FAO, 318 pp.

Wildlife Conservation Society, 2006. An assessment of exotic species in the Tonle Sap Biosphere reserve, and associate threats to biodiversity, a resource document for the management of invasive alien species. An assessment of exotic species in the Tonle Sap Biosphere reserve, and associate threats to biodiversity, a resource document for the management of invasive alien species. 96 pp.

Wu J; Wang J; He Y; Cao W, 2011. Fish assemblage structure in the Chishui River, a protected tributary of the Yangtze River. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems, No.400:11. http://www.kmae-journal.org/index.php?option=com_article&access=standard&Itemid=129&url=/articles/kmae/abs/2011/01/kmae100058/kmae100058.html

Yue P, 1998. Gobioninae. In: Fauna Sinica. Osteichthyes. Cypriniformes II [ed. by Chen, Y.]. Beijing, China: Science Press, 232-389.

Yue PQ, 1995. A revision of the cyprinid fishes of the genus Hemibarbus in China (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). Acta Zootaxon. Sin, 20(1):116-123.

Contributors

Top of page

30/08/11 Original text by:   

Bin Kang, Asian International Rivers Center, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China

Reviewers' names are available on request.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map