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Abbottina rivularis
(Chinese false gudgeon)

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Datasheet

Abbottina rivularis (Chinese false gudgeon)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Abbottina rivularis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Chinese false gudgeon
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. rivularis is considered as a pest in fish farms in central Asia and the plateau areas in China where it competes with juveniles of commercial species. In the wild it harms the local fish fauna, displacing sm...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Abbottina rivularis (Chinese false gudgeon); adult from Damachi fish farm, Tashkent region, Uzbekistan. 10/03/1997.
TitleAdult
CaptionAbbottina rivularis (Chinese false gudgeon); adult from Damachi fish farm, Tashkent region, Uzbekistan. 10/03/1997.
Copyright©Ernest Khurshut-1997 - All Rights Reserved
Abbottina rivularis (Chinese false gudgeon); adult from Damachi fish farm, Tashkent region, Uzbekistan. 10/03/1997.
AdultAbbottina rivularis (Chinese false gudgeon); adult from Damachi fish farm, Tashkent region, Uzbekistan. 10/03/1997.©Ernest Khurshut-1997 - All Rights Reserved

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Abbottina rivularis (Basilewsky, 1855)

Preferred Common Name

  • Chinese false gudgeon

Other Scientific Names

  • Abbottina psegma Jordan & Fowler, 1903
  • Abbottina rivularis Mori, 1934
  • Abbottina sinensis Nichols, 1943
  • Gobio rivularis Basilewsky, 1855
  • Pseudogobio rivularis Bleeker, 1871
  • Pseudogobio sinensis Günther, 1968
  • Tylognathus sinensis Kner, 1867

International Common Names

  • English: Amur false gudgeon

Local Common Names

  • Japan: tsuchifuki
  • Russian Federation: Amurskiy lzhepeskar; kitaiskiy lzhepeskar; rechnaya abbottina

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. rivularis is considered as a pest in fish farms in central Asia and the plateau areas in China where it competes with juveniles of commercial species. In the wild it harms the local fish fauna, displacing small size native fish species such as the Turkestan gudgeon, with which it may also probably hybridize (Mitrofanov et al., 1988; Yan and Chen, 2007).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Cypriniformes
  •                         Family: Cyprinidae
  •                             Genus: Abbottina
  •                                 Species: Abbottina rivularis

Description

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A. rivularis is a small fish (11.5 cm in total length; Dolganova et al., 2008) with terete body. Mouth is sub-terminal. Lower lip continuous, with two median lobes along its posterior margin, separated by a median furrow. One pair of short maxillary barbels. Anus closer to ventral-fin base than to anal-fin base. Body with 6-8 rounded dusky blotches along the lateral line (Berg, 1949).

Lateral line 35-38. The gill raker count of the first arch 9-13. D III 8, A II-III 5-7 (measurements from specimens from Uzbekistan) (Khurshut et al., 1996).

Distribution

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The native range of A. rivularis is East Asia: from Far East Russia (Amur=Heilong, Ussuri and Sungari=Songhua rivers, Khanka=Xingkai Lake) in the north, through China, West Korea and Japan to North Vietnam (Red River Basin) in the south (Berg, 1949; Banarescu, 1991; Vidthayanon and Kottelat, 1995).

Exotic distribution

A. rivularis is widely distributed outside of the native range from Europe (Neely et al., 2008) to South-East Asia.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentNativeBerg, 1949; Banarescu, 1991; Nie et al., 2000Yangtze Drainage
-AnhuiPresentNative Not invasive GBIF, 2011
-BeijingPresentNative Not invasive GBIF, 2011
-GuangxiPresentNative Not invasive GBIF, 2011
-HebeiPresentNative Not invasive GBIF, 2011
-HeilongjiangPresentNative Not invasive GBIF, 2011Heilong (/Amur) and Songhua (/Sungari) rivers, Xingkai (/Khanka) Lake
-HubeiPresentNative Not invasive Xie et al., 2001bLiangzi Lake
-HunanPresentNative Not invasive GBIF, 2011
-JilinPresentNative Not invasive GBIF, 2011
-LiaoningPresentNative Not invasive GBIF, 2011Streams draining to Gulf of Chihli (/Bo Hai)
-Nei MengguPresentNative Not invasive GBIF, 2011
-ShandongPresentNative Not invasive GBIF, 2011
-TibetLocalisedIntroduced Invasive YF Chen, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, personal communication, 2012Lasa River
-YunnanWidespreadIntroduced1963-1965 Invasive Yang, 1996Most lakes and rivers
-ZhejiangPresentNative Not invasive GBIF, 2011
JapanPresentNative Not invasive Masuda, 1992
KazakhstanWidespreadIntroduced1958 Invasive Mitrofanov, 1967; Mitrofanov et al., 1992; Savvaitova and Petr, 1999; Mamilov NSh, 2011First introduced into Almaty Fish Farm. Syr Darya, Chu, Ili and Talas drainages, Balkhash Lake
Korea, DPRPresentNative Not invasive GBIF, 2011West Korea
Korea, Republic ofPresentNative Not invasive GBIF, 2011West Korea
KyrgyzstanPresentIntroduced Invasive Savvaitova and Petr, 1999Chu Basin
LaosPresentIntroducedKottelat, 2001; Welcomme and Vidthayanon, 2003Mekong River
MongoliaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Neely et al., 2008Buyr (Nuur) Lake Basin
MyanmarWidespreadIntroducedNeely et al., 2008Salween Drainage
ThailandPresentVidthayanon and Kottelat, 1995Upper and middle Mekong River
TurkmenistanWidespreadIntroduced1958-1961 Invasive Aliyev et al., 1988; Sal'nikov and Reshetnikov, 1991; Shakirova and Sukhanova, 1994; Sal'nikov, 1995; Sal'nikov, 1998First introduced into Karametniyaz Fish Farm (55 km W from Kerki, Amu Darya River) and the Kara-Kum (/Qaraqum/Garagum) Canal. Amu Darya and Murghab rivers. Probably Tedjen River
UzbekistanWidespreadIntroduced1961 Invasive Kamilov and Borisova, 1966; Borisova, 1972; Kamilov and Urchinov, 1995; Khurshut et al., 1996; Khurshut, 2002First introduced into Baliqchi Fish Farm, Tashkent Region (60 km SW from Tashkent, Syr Darya and Chirchik rivers junction). Amu Darya, Syr Darya, Zarafshan, Qashqadarya drainages. Most water bodies in plains of the Aral Sea Basin
VietnamPresentNative Not invasive Vidthayanon and Kottelat, 1995Red River Basin

Europe

Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedNeely et al., 2008
PolandPresentIntroducedNeely et al., 2008
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russian Far EastPresentNative Invasive Reshetnikov, 1998; Shed'ko, 2001; Kolpakov et al., 2010Native in Amur drainage and Khanka Lake; introduced and invasive in the Artemovka River (Ussuri Bay, Sea of Japan / East Sea) and Razdolnaya River (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan/East Sea)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Outside of its native area, A. rivularis was first reported from Central Asia where it was unintentionally introduced in 1958 from the Yangtze River to the Karametniyaz fish farm and the Kara-Kum Canal, Turkmenistan (Sal'nikov, 1998) and from the Amur drainage to the Almaty fish farm, Kazakhstan (Mitrofanov et al., 1992). In 1961, it was introduced (with the larvae of Asian carp) into the Akkurgan (later Baliqchi) fish farm, Tashkent, Uzbekistan. It was transferred with fish seed to other fish farms of the region. A. rivularis has escaped from fish farms and via the extensive network of irrigation canals has spread to the plains of the Aral Sea Basin (drainages of the rivers Amu Darya, Syr Darya, Zarafshan and Qashqadarya).

A. rivularis was unintentionally introduced from Khanka Lake and probably from China as a result of aquaculture activity into the Razdolnaya River (Far East Russia) (Kolpakov et al., 2008).

It was probably unintentionally introduced with common carp into the Mekong River; however, it could be indigenous to the upper part of the river (Vidthayanon and Kottelat, 1995).

A. rivularis was unintentionally introduced from the lower reach of the Yangtze River to most plateau lakes in Yunnan and some plateau rivers in Xizang, China, as a result of aquaculture activities into these plateau lakes and rivers (Yan and Chen, 2007).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Kazakhstan China 1958-59 Aquaculture (pathway cause) Yes Mitrofanov et al. (1992) Introduced from the Amur drainage to the Almaty Fish Farm
Mongolia China   Aquaculture (pathway cause) Yes Neely et al. (2008) Released with Asian carp on the Chinese side of the Buyr Lake
Turkmenistan China 1958-61 Aquaculture (pathway cause) Yes Sal'nikov (1998); Sal'nikov and Reshetnikov (1991) Karemetniyaz Fish Farm (55 km W from Kerki, Amu Darya River)
Uzbekistan China 1961 Aquaculture (pathway cause) Yes Borisova (1972); Kamilov and Borisova (1966); Khurshut (2002) Baliqchi Fish Farm, Tashkent region (60 km SW from Tashkent. Syr Darya and Chirchik rivers junction)

Risk of Introduction

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The main pathway is the transfer of fish seed between fish farms. A. rivularis escapes from fishponds and spreads in wild via irrigation canals. To prevent spread all transported fish seed should be properly checked for the presence of A. rivularis before release into ponds.

Habitat

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A. rivularis is found in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, canals, and marshes. It keeps to the water surface in stagnant waters and inhabits the shallow zones of lentic rivers, lakes and ponds with sandy or muddy bottoms.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Estuaries Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Natural
Lakes Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Principal habitat Natural
Ponds Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Ponds Principal habitat Natural
Reservoirs Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Principal habitat Natural
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number of A. rivularis is 2n=50, n=25 (Vasil'ev, 1980; Arai, 2011). It is probable that it may hybridize with the native Turkestan gudgeon (Gobio gobio lepidolaemus) (Mitrofanov et al., 1988). The DNA barcode from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene of A. rivularis is described by Tang et al. (2011).

Reproductive Biology

The male builds a nest 12-43 cm in diameter on the river bottom, at a depth of 8-34 cm, which it protects. In the Amur River 1711 eggs were found in a single nest (Berg, 1949).

In the Amur River sexual maturity is attained at the age of 1 year and a length of 4-5 cm. Spawning is fractional and takes place from June to July. Egg diameter is 2-2.5 mm. Absolute fecundity is 1198-1980 eggs (Nikolski, 1956).

In Kazakhstan A. rivularis spawns in April-August. Here absolute fecundity is 1550-7550 eggs (Mitrofanov et al., 1988).

Longevity

The longevity of A. rivularis is 4 years (Nikolski, 1956).

Activity Patterns

In spring A. rivularis comes closer to shore in backwaters and bays. In autumn it moves to deeper parts (Nikolski, 1956).

Nutrition

A. rivularis is a benthophagous species. In the Amur River it feeds on larvae of chironomids, Heleidae, oligochaetes and plant seeds. In the middle reach of the Yangtze River it feeds on copepods, macrophytes, plant detritus, cladocerans, aquatic insects, and decapods (Xie et al., 2001a).

The data on feeding of A. rivularis in the estuaries of Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan/East Sea) are represented in Dolganova et al. (2008).

In Kazakhstan it feeds on larvae of chironomids and dipterans, crustaceans, remains of macrophytes, seeds of terrestrial plants, and algae (Mamilova, 1975).

 

Natural Food Sources

Life stage

Contribution to total food intake (%)

Kapchagay reservoir, Kazakhstan

 

 

Mysida

adult

3.0

Insects

adult

3.0

Chironomids

adult

2.4

Cladocera

adult

1.0

Copepoda

adult

0.5

Macrophytes

adult

0.3

Algae

adult

0.2

Mineral particles

adult

89.6

Balkhash Lake, Kazakhstan

 

 

Zooplankton

fry

72

Phytoplankton

fry

27

 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Depth (m b.s.l.) 0 10 Optimum
Velocity (cm/h) 0 Optimum
Water pH (pH) 7 Optimum (Baensch and Fischer, 1998)
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 18 23 Optimum (Baensch and Fischer, 1998)

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Accidental Introduction

The main pathway for A. rivularis is the fish seed transfer between farms.

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture stockFry and fingerlings contaminated in seedlings of Asian carps Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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A. rivularis is considered as a pest in fish farms where it competes with commercial species for food.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Biodiversity

A. rivularis competes with native species, and has displaced native species in Central Asia. It probably hybridizes with the native Turkestan gudgeon (Gobio gobio lepidolaemus) (Mitrofanov et al., 1988).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition
  • Hybridization
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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In Central Asia A. rivularis may be confused with the native species the Turkestan gudgeon (Gobio gobio lepidolaemus). A. rivularis is easy to recognize by concave area in front of nares; dorsal fin with convex distal margin; caudal fin with several vertical rows of black dots.

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

SPS measures

To prevent spread all transported fish seed should be properly checked for the presence of A. rivularis before release into ponds.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Data on environmental requirements of A. rivularis and its interactions with native species are insufficient.

References

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Aliyev DS; Sukhanova AI; Shakirov FM, 1988. Fishes of inland waters of Turkmenistan. Ashgabat, Turkmenistan: Ylym, 156 pp.

Arai R, 2011. Fish Karyotypes: A Check List. Springer, 348 pp.

Baensch HA; Fischer GW, 1998. Aquarien Atlas., Germany: Mergus.

Banarescu P, 1991. Zoogeography of fresh waters. Volume 2: distribution and dispersal of freshwater animals in North America and Eurasia. Wiesbaden, Germany: AULA-Verlag, 519-1091.

Barabanshchikov EI; Magomedov RA, 2002. Species composition and some features of biology of fishes in the estuaries of Southern Primorye's rivers. Izv. TINRO, 131:179-200.

Berg LS, 1949. Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. Moscow, Russia: USSR Academy of Sciences.

Borisova AT, 1972. Accidental invaders in water bodies of Uzbekistan. Journal of Ichthyology, 12(1):49-53.

Dolganova NT; Kolpakov NV; Chuchukalo VI, 2008. Feeding interactions and foraging of juvenile fish and shrimp in the Estuaries of Peter the Great Bay in the summer-fall period. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 34(7):482-489.

GBIF, 2011. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://data.gbif.org/species/

Kamilov GC; Borisova AT, 1966. Low-value and pest fish species in "Kalgan-Chirchik" fish farm. In: Vertebrates of Central Asia. Tashkent, Tashkent 31-32.

Kamilov GK; Urchinov ZU, 1995. Fish and fisheries in Uzbekistan under the impact of irrigated agriculture. In: Inland fisheries under the impact of irrigated agriculture: Central Asia. Rome, Italy: FAO, 10-41.

Khurshut EE, 2002. Invasive fish species in the Charvak reservoir. In: Biodiversity of the West Tien Shan: protection and efficient use. Tashkent, Uzbekistan: Chinor ENK, 253-257.

Khurshut EE; Kamilov B; Salikhov TV, 1996. Morphology of Common Sawbelly and Amur False Gudgeon from Water bodies in Uzbekistan. Doklady Akad. Nauk Uzbek SSR, 1-2:61-63.

Kolpakov NV; Barabanshchikov EI; Chepurnoi AYu, 2010. Species composition, distribution, and biological conditions of nonindigenous fishes in the estuary of the Razdol'naya River (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Biological Invasions, 1(2):87-94. http://www.maik.ru/abstract/bioinv/10/bioinv0087_abstract.pdf

Kottelat M, 2001. Fishes of Laos. Colombo: WHT Publications Ltd.

Mamilov NSh, 2011. Modern diversity of alien fish species in Chu and Talas river basins. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions, 4(1):65-76.

Mamilova RH, 1975. The nature of the diet of certain minor commercial and rough fish species in Kapchagai reservoir. Biologicheskie nauki, 9:135-141.

Masuda H, 1992. The Fishes of the Japanese archipelago. Tokyo, Japan: Tokai University Press.

Mitrofanov VP, 1967. Characteristics of fish fauna of water bodies of the inundation area of Kapchagai reservoir. In: Biological Basis of Fisheries in Central Asian republics and Kazakhstan. Balkhash, Kazakhstan 193-195.

Mitrofanov VP; Dukravets GM; Mel'nikov VA; Baimbetov AA, 1988. Fishes of Kazakhstan. Vol. 3. Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan: Nauka, 304 pp.

Mitrofanov VP; Dukravets GM; Sidorova AF, 1992. Fishes of Kazakhstan. Vol. 5. Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan: Gylym, 464 pp.

Neely DA; Perez MHS; Mendsaikhan B, 2008. First records of Rhinogobius lindbergi (Teleostei: Gobiidae) and Abbottina rivularis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in the Lake Buyr Drainage, Mongolia. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 34(2):334-341.

Nie P; Wang GT; Yao WJ; Zhang YA; Gao Q, 2000. Occurrence of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in cyprinid fish from three lakes in the flood plain of the Yangtze River, China. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 41(1):81-82.

Nikolski GV, 1956. Fishes of the River Amur basin. Results of the 1945-1949 Amur ichthyological expedition., Russia: Izdatelstvo Akad. Nauk SSSR, 551 pp.

Reshetnikov YuS, 1998. Annotated catalog of cyclostomes and fishes of continental waters of Russia. Moscow, Russia: Nauka, 220 pp.

Sal'nikov VB, 1995. Possible changes in the composition of the ichthyofauna after completion of the Karakum Canal in Turkmenistan. Journal of Ichthyology, 35(7):108-121.

Sal'nikov VB, 1998. Anthropogenic Migration of Fish in Turkmenistan. Journal of Ichthyology, 38(8):591-602.

Sal'nikov VB; Reshetnikov YuS, 1991. Formation of fish community of manmaid reservoirs in Turkmenistan. Journal of Ichthyology, 31(4):565-575.

Savvaitova KA; Petr T, 1999. Fish and fisheries in Lake Issyk-Kul (Tien Shan), River Chu and Pamir lakes. In: Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes: Asia [ed. by Petr, T.]. Rome, Italy: FAO, 279-304. [FAO Fisheries Technical Paper.]

Shakirova FM; Sukhanova AI, 1994. The ichthyofauna of Turkmenistan (composition and distribution). Izv. AN Turkmenistana. Ser. Biologicheskie nauki, 3:35-45.

Shed'ko NE, 2001. List of cyclostomes and fishes of fresh waters of Primorye coast,. In: Chteniya pamyati Vladimira Yakovlevicha Levanidova. 220-249.

Tang KL; Agnew MK; Chen WJ; Vincent Hirt M; Raley ME; Sado T; Schneider LM; Yang L; Bart HL; He S; Liu H; Miya M; Saitoh K; Simons AM; Wood RM; Mayden RL, 2011. Phylogeny of the gudgeons (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Gobioninae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol, 61(1):103-124.

Vasil'ev VP, 1980. Chromosome numbers in fish-like vertebrates and fish. J. Ichthyol, 20(3):1-38.

Vidthayanon C; Kottelat M, 1995. First record of Abbottina rivularis (Cyprinidae: Gobioninae) from the Mekong Basin. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology, 41(4):463-465.

Welcomme RL; Vidthayanon C, 2003. Impacts of Introductions and Stocking of Exotic Species in the Mekong Basin & Policies for Control. Impacts of Introductions and Stocking of Exotic Species in the Mekong Basin & Policies for Control. Mekong River Commission (MRC), unpaginated. http://www.mrcmekong.org/pdf/Technical_paper9.pdf

Xie S; Cui Y; Li Z, 2001. Dietary-morphological relationships of fishes in Liangzi Lake, China. Journal of Fish Biology, 58(6):1714-1729.

Xie S; Cui Y; Li Z, 2001. Small fish communities in two regions of the Liangzi Lake, China, with or without submersed macrophytes. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 17(2):89-92.

Yan YZ; Chen YF, 2007. Changes in the life history of Abbottina rivularis in Lake Fuxian. Journal of Fish Biology, 70:959-964.

Yang JX, 1996. The Alien and Indigenous Fishes of Yunnan: A Study on Impact Ways, Degrees and Relevant Issues. In: Conserving China's Biodiversity (II) [ed. by Schei, P. J. \Sung, W. \Yan, X.]. Beijing, China: China Environmental Science Press, 157-168.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
FAO Fisheries Departmenthttp://www.fao.org/fi/default.asp
Fishes of Uzbekistanhttp://uznix.narod.ru/sci/fkey/uzfishlst.html
Freshwater Fishes of Iranhttp://www.briancoad.com/Species%20Accounts/Contents%20new.htm
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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01/08/11 Original text by:

Ernest Khurshut, Institute of Zoology, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, 1 Niyazov St., Tashkent 100095, Uzbekistan

Reviewers' names are available on request.

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